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Ophthalmology. Glaucoma

Si-An Liu, Zhen-Ni Zhao, Nan-Nan Sun, Ying Han, Jeremy Chen, Zhi-Gang Fan
Objective: In previous decades, glaucoma has been primarily attributed to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), but this has gradually been replaced by the development of optic neuropathy as the central concept of glaucoma in developed countries. However, there still remain strong controversies in the definition of glaucoma in China. In this current review, we are going to discuss these controversies and elaborate on the historical transitions of the definition of glaucoma both in China and developed countries...
December 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Anuradha Raj, Renu Dhasmana, Harsh Bahadur
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and its early diagnosis and management is mandatory to salvage the graft. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for post penetrating keratoplasty glaucoma (PKG). METHODS: Data of 155 eyes of 155 patients were reviewed retrospectively who underwent PK from March 2013 to February 2016. Data were analyzed from recipient records for recipient age, sex, indications, type of PK, lens status, recipient graft size or any additional procedure...
September 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Rafael Guerra, Ricardo Cabeças, Jesus Diaz, Tim Knott, Inês Freitas, Hugo Vilhena, Sofia Duarte
Cataracts are among the most common ocular diseases, and are a leading cause of vision loss in humans and dogs. Jack Russell Terriers (JRT) and Labrador Retrievers (LR) are among the most popular canine breeds in the United Kingdom, and also among the most affected by cataracts. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features and the surgical outcome of cataracts in JRT and LR in an ophthalmologic reference Veterinary Hospital in the United Kingdom. For that purpose, medical records from JRT and LR diagnosed with cataracts between January 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Loka Thangamathesvaran, Elliot Crane, Kunjal Modi, Albert S Khouri
Introduction: Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy with increasing global prevalence, necessitating trainees in ophthalmology to be well-trained in the surgical modalities used to manage glaucoma. It is also important to not compromise patient safety and treatment efficacy for training and education. The purpose of our analysis is to compare postoperative outcomes of resident versus (vs.) attending performed tube shunt surgeries (TS). Materials and methods: A retrospective, chart review was performed of patients who had undergone TS between 2009 and 2015 at Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey, USA...
May 2018: Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice
Ambika Hoguet, Philip P Chen, Anna K Junk, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, Sunita Radhakrishnan, Hana L Takusagawa, Teresa C Chen
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents on immediate and long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and glaucoma. METHODS: Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane databases, last conducted in April 2018, yielded 253 unique citations. Of these, 41 met the inclusion criteria and were rated according to the strength of evidence. Two articles were rated level I, 17 were rated level II, and 15 were rated level III; an additional 7 were excluded owing to poor study design and lack of relevance to the topic under evaluation...
November 22, 2018: Ophthalmology
Xiang-Yuan Song, Zhen Puyang, Ai-Hua Chen, Jin Zhao, Xiao-Jiao Li, Ya-Ying Chen, Wei-Jun Tang, Yu-Yan Zhang
Ocular hypertension (OHT), the common situation in adult patients in the outpatients, occurs ∼5% worldwide. However, there are still some practical problems in differentiation of OHT with early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using current standard methods. Application of high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to the differentiate axonal architecture of visual pathway between POAG and OHT subjects. Among 32 POAG patients recruited (15 OHT and 14 control subjects), 62.5% of glaucoma were in early stage for the current study...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sarah R Dawson, Emma Linton, Kris Beicher, Richard Gale, Praveen Patel, Faruque Ghanchi, Michael W Beresford, Vanessa Poustie, Usha Chakravarthy, Rupert R A Bourne
PURPOSE: To report on the composition and performance of the portfolio of Ophthalmology research studies in the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network (UK CRN). METHODS: Ophthalmology studies open to recruitment between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2018 were classified by: sub-specialty, participant age, gender of Chief Investigator, involvement of genetic investigations, commercial/ non-commercial, interventional/observational design...
November 20, 2018: Eye
A B González Escobar, A Alberte González, A Ibañez García, M Lorenzo Soto, S Gismero Moreno
Sclerochoroidal calcification (SCC) is uncommon and benign. It is usually detected in a routine examination, finding multiple yellow-white lesions in the upper temporal region of the retina in middle-aged and elderly men. A case report is presented of a 79 year-old male patient, who during a routine examination with a pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in the right eye, as well as raised white-yellow subretinal lesions in the upper temporal region in both eyes. After establishing hypotensive treatment and performing autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasound, ocular computed tomography (CT) and complete laboratory analysis, idiopathic SCC was diagnosed...
November 13, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
X M Wang, X H Sun, Y Dai, X M Kong, Y H Chen
Objective: To investigate the characteristics of impairment of the visual field (VF) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the differences of progression pattern of early, middle and late stages of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) , and to analyze the correspondence of structure and function. Methods: Cross-sectional study. POAG patients, NTG patients and healthy volunteers who were enrolled from February 2008 to May 2017 at Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University, underwent basic ophthalmic examination, Humphrey central 24-2 threshold test and optical coherence tomography...
November 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Olga Wawrzyniak, Żaneta Zarębska, Katarzyna Rolle, Anna Gotz-Więckowska
Long non-coding RNAs are 200 nucleotide long RNA molecules which lack or have limited protein-coding potential. They can regulate protein formation through several different mechanisms. Similarly, circular RNAs are reported to play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Changes in the expression pattern of these molecules are established to underline various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and immunological disorders. Recent studies suggest that they are differentially expressed both in healthy ocular tissues as well as in eye pathologies, such as neovascularization, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, glaucoma, cataract, ocular malignancy or even strabismus...
November 14, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Nilgün Özkan Aksoy, Burçin Çakır, Emine Doğan, Gürsoy Alagöz
Objectives: To evaluate anterior segment parameters measured by dual Scheimpflug corneal topography in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and healthy eyes. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty-three eyes of 86 patients were included in this study. Forty-seven eyes of 38 patients with PEXG, 30 eyes of 15 patients with PACG, and 66 eyes of 33 healthy subjects were evaluated. Patients who underwent previous ophthalmic surgery and contact lens wearers were excluded...
October 2018: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
Johannes Ledolter, Randy H Kardon
Purpose: Clinical decisions on treatment are usually based on short-term records of consecutive measurements of structure and function. Useful models for analyzing average trends and a description of statistical methods for classifying individual subjects on the basis of subject-specific trend progressions are presented. Methods: Random effects trend models allow intercepts and slopes of the trend regression to vary across subjects around group-specific mean intercepts and mean slopes...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Alessio Martucci, Nicola Toschi, Massimo Cesareo, Clarissa Giannini, Giulio Pocobelli, Francesco Garaci, Raffaele Mancino, Carlo Nucci
Introduction: To evaluate the sectorial thickness of single retinal layers and optic nerve using spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and highlight the parameters with the best diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing between normal and glaucoma subjects at different stages of the disease. Material and Methods: For this cross-sectional study, 25 glaucomatous (49 eyes) and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (35 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Majid Moshirfar, Lawsen Parker, Orry C Birdsong, Yasmyne C Ronquillo, Daniel Hofstedt, Tirth J Shah, Aaron T Gomez, Phillip C Sr Hoopes
The use of Rho Kinase (ROCK) inhibitors as therapeutic agents in ophthalmology has been a topic of discussion for several years, particularly in the realm of glaucoma, Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, the authors provide a detailed and comprehensive overview of the published literature on the use of Rho kinase inhibitors for the aforementioned purposes. A thorough search of several databases was conducted to find sufficient literature on ROCK inhibitors. This research found strong evidence demonstrating that inhibition of Rho kinase significantly decreases IOP, increases healing of the corneal endothelium, and decreases progression of diabetic retinopathy...
2018: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
Cassia Senger, Marcelo Jordão Lopes da Silva, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, André Messias, Jayter Silva Paula
BACKGROUND: Visual search is a critical skill for several daily tasks and may be compromised in patients with impaired vision. The objective of this study was to study the relationships between exploratory visual search performance (EVSP) visual field (VF) sensitivity in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Primary open-angle glaucoma patients (POAG; n = 29) and healthy (Control; n = 28) individuals with best corrected visual acuity better than 0.2 logMAR underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including Humphrey VF tests (24-2 SITA-Standard), and a monocular exploratory visual search digit-based task performed using a software that quantifies the time spent to find a targert on a random array of digits distributed on nine sequential screens...
October 27, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Daniel Shu Wei Ting, Louis R Pasquale, Lily Peng, John Peter Campbell, Aaron Y Lee, Rajiv Raman, Gavin Siew Wei Tan, Leopold Schmetterer, Pearse A Keane, Tien Yin Wong
Artificial intelligence (AI) based on deep learning (DL) has sparked tremendous global interest in recent years. DL has been widely adopted in image recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing, but is only beginning to impact on healthcare. In ophthalmology, DL has been applied to fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography and visual fields, achieving robust classification performance in the detection of diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, the glaucoma-like disc, macular oedema and age-related macular degeneration...
October 25, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Lina Krėpštė, Reda Žemaitienė, Arūnas Miliauskas
Background and objectives: Despite established common risk factors, malignant glaucoma (MG) remains a rare condition with challenging management. We aimed to analyze differences in risk factors for MG after different surgeries and outcomes after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included cases of MG treated with PPV between January 2005 and December 2015 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania. Results: A total of 39 cases were analyzed: 23 (59%) after cataract surgery, 13 (33...
September 5, 2018: Medicina
Xueyong Zhang, Qing Wang, Like Wang, Hong Xiao, Daming Zhang, Rongfeng Liao, Yongping Zheng
SIGNIFICANCE: Corneal biomechanics are becoming increasingly important for clinical evaluation and diagnosis, such as in refractive surgery, glaucoma, and keratoconus. We developed and used a new technique to measure the full-field displacement and strain of the cornea under elevated intraocular pressure in vivo. PURPOSE: In this study, we propose a three-dimensional digital image correlation method for the determination of corneal biomechanical properties. METHODS: Corneal deformation change on the rabbit eyeball was investigated under different inflation conditions with intraocular pressure levels of 2...
November 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Ya Xing Wang, Wen Bin Wei, Liang Xu, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To assess associations between the amount of physical activity and the prevalence of ocular diseases. METHODS: The participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and an interview. Physical activity was assessed in a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 3468 study participants, information on their physical activity was available for 3031 (87.4%) individuals (age: 64...
October 18, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Teresa C Chen, Ambika Hoguet, Anna K Junk, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, Sunita Radhakrishnan, Hana L Takusagawa, Philip P Chen
PURPOSE: To review the current published literature on the use of spectral domain (SD) OCT to help detect changes associated with the diagnosis of glaucoma. METHODS: Searches of the peer-reviewed literature were conducted on June 11, 2014, November 7, 2016, August 8, 2017, and April 19, 2018, in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and included only articles published since the last glaucoma imaging Ophthalmic Technology Assessment, which included articles up until February 2006...
November 2018: Ophthalmology
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