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platelet activation,cancer

Siamack Sabrkhany, Marijke J E Kuijpers, Arjan W Griffioen, Mirjam G A Oude Egbrink
We would like to promote the fact that platelets are increasingly emerging as a rich source of potential biomarkers for cancer. Blood platelets contain vast amounts of bioactive proteins, such as growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines. These proteins are either synthesized by the megakaryocytes that produce the platelets or are sequestered by the circulating platelets from the blood, in which case these proteins may originate from the tumor. Recent studies in patients have demonstrated that the presence of cancer influences multiple platelet characteristics (e...
October 20, 2018: Angiogenesis
Hanna Aula, Tanja Skyttä, Suvi Tuohinen, Tiina Luukkaala, Mari Hämäläinen, Vesa Virtanen, Pekka Raatikainen, Eeva Moilanen, Pirkko-Liisa Kellokumpu-Lehtinen
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced heart disease is mainly caused by activation of the fibrotic process. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are pro-fibrotic mediators. The aim of our study was to evaluate the behavior of TGF-β1 and PDGF during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer and the association of these cytokines with echocardiographic changes. METHODS: Our study included 73 women with early-stage breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) receiving post-operative RT but not chemotherapy...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Tong Gao, Yi Yu, Qing Cong, Yisheng Wang, Mingming Sun, Liangqing Yao, Congjian Xu, Wei Jiang
BACKGROUND: The tumour microenvironment conferred by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) plays a key role in tumour development and progression. We previously determined that platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) was overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells (OCCs) and that PAF can promote ovarian cancer progression via PAF/PAFR-mediated inflammatory signalling pathways. Evidence suggests that MSCs can secrete high concentrations of PAF. Here, we investigated the role of PAF/PAFR signalling in the microenvironment mediated by MSCs and OCCs and its effect on cancer progression...
October 19, 2018: BMC Cancer
Tyson W Lager, Jessica J Roetman, Jacob Kunkel, Megan Thacker, Jordan N Sheets, Kristi A Egland, Cecelia M Miles, Mark K Larson, Jennifer A A Gubbels
Platelets play a central role in primary hemostasis affecting tumor survival and metastases. Tumors induce platelets to aggregate and bind to the cancer cells, resulting in protection from immune surveillance and often leading to thrombocytosis. In ovarian cancer (OvCa), one-third of patients present with thrombocytosis, a diagnosis that correlates with shorter survival. SUSD2 (SUShi Domain containing 2), a type I transmembrane protein, shown to inhibit metastatic processes in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), is expressed on endothelial cells and thus may influence platelet reactivity...
October 18, 2018: Platelets
Vani Chandrashekar, Anil Tarigopula
Platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume are markers of platelet activation and have prognostic value in coronary heart diseases, as well as in cancers of solid organs. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using PDW to predict chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms by comparing platelet indices obtained by automated analyzers in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms with those in control specimens. We found that PDW greater than 66.4% has specificity of 99% and likelihood ratio of 19...
October 17, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Ildefonso Alves da Silva Junior, Luciana Nogueira de Sousa Andrade, Sonia Jancar, Roger Chammas
Platelet activating factor is a lipid mediator of inflammation, and in recent decades, it has emerged as an important factor in tumor outcomes. Platelet activating factor acts by specific binding to its receptor, which is present in both tumor cells and cells that infiltrate tumors. Pro-tumorigenic effects of platelet activating factor receptor in tumors includes promotion of tumor cell proliferation, production of survival signals, migration of vascular cells and formation of new vessels and stimulation of dendritic cells and macrophages suppressor phenotype...
October 11, 2018: Clinics
Christopher S Farrar, Denise C Hocking
Cellular responses to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are altered in a variety of pathological conditions, including cancers, fibroses, and vascular diseases, making PDGF-induced signaling pathways important therapeutic targets. The limited success of therapies designed to impact PDGF pathways may be overcome with a clearer understanding of how cells integrate signals from PDGF and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we assessed the effects of fibronectin matrix assembly on the responsiveness of mesenchymal cells to PDGF...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eric Romer, Anita Thyagarajan, Smita Krishnamurthy, Christine M Rapp, Langni Liu, Katherine Fahy, Azeezat Awoyemi, Ravi P Sahu
Platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R) agonists are pleiotropic lipid factors that influence multiple biological processes, including the induction and resolution of inflammation as well as immunosuppression. PAF-R agonists have been shown to modulate tumorigenesis and/or tumor growth in various skin cancer models by suppressing either cutaneous inflammation and/or anti-tumoral adaptive immunity. We have previously shown that a chronic systemic PAF-R agonist administration of mice enhances the growth of subcutaneously implanted melanoma tumors...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hui Du, Honglin Zhao, Mei Li, Huihui Ji, Fan Ren, Pan Wang, Xin Li, Ming Dong, Rehman Dawar, Gang Chen, Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized complication in lung cancer patients with higher morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of lower extremity venous thrombosis (LEDVT) in lung cancer patients and to reveal the risk factors for LEDVT during admission in our center. METHODS: We first connected 231 patients with lung cancer admitted to the Department of Lung Cancer Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from July 2017 to December 2017...
October 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Martin Schlesinger
The interaction of tumor cells with platelets is a prerequisite for successful hematogenous metastatic dissemination. Upon tumor cell arrival in the blood, tumor cells immediately activate platelets to form a permissive microenvironment. Platelets protect tumor cells from shear forces and assault of NK cells, recruit myeloid cells by secretion of chemokines, and mediate an arrest of the tumor cell platelet embolus at the vascular wall. Subsequently, platelet-derived growth factors confer a mesenchymal-like phenotype to tumor cells and open the capillary endothelium to expedite extravasation in distant organs...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Chrysoula Papageorgiou, Georges Jourdi, Eusebe Adjambri, Amanda Walborn, Priya Patel, Jawed Fareed, Ismail Elalamy, Debra Hoppensteadt, Grigoris T Gerotziafas
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired clinicobiological syndrome characterized by widespread activation of coagulation leading to fibrin deposition in the vasculature, organ dysfunction, consumption of clotting factors and platelets, and life-threatening hemorrhage. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is provoked by several underlying disorders (sepsis, cancer, trauma, and pregnancy complicated with eclampsia or other calamities). Treatment of the underlying disease and elimination of the trigger mechanism are the cornerstone therapeutic approaches...
October 8, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Margherita Leonardi, Eluisa Perna, Serena Tronnolone, David Colecchia, Mario Chiariello
Macroautophagy/autophagy is one of the major responses to stress in eukaryotic cells and is implicated in several pathological conditions such as infections, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Interestingly, cancer cells take full advantage of autophagy both to support tumor growth in adverse microenvironments and to oppose damages induced by anti-neoplastic therapies. Importantly, different human oncogenes are able to modulate this survival mechanism to support the transformation process, ultimately leading to 'autophagy addiction'...
October 5, 2018: Autophagy
Peter J Lawson, Hunter B Moore, Ernest E Moore, Mark E Gerich, Gregory R Stettler, Anirban Banerjee, Richard D Schulick, Trevor L Nydam
BACKGROUND: Elevated clot strength (maximum amplitude [MA]) measured by thrombelastography (TEG) is associated with thrombotic complications. However, it remains unclear how MA translates to thrombotic risks, as this measurement is independent of time, blood flow, and clot degradation. We hypothesize that under flow conditions, increased clot strength correlates to time-dependent measurements of coagulation and resistance to fibrinolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical patients at high risk of thrombotic complications were analyzed with TEG and total thrombus-formation analysis system (T-TAS)...
November 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Mohamed M Salama, Manal M Nomir, Maryan W Fahmi, Amal M El-Gayar, Mamdouh M El-Shishtawy
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. In an attempt to understand some potential mechanisms of persistence and oncogenicity of Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC, microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4), fibrotic indices and oxidative status biomarkers were assessed in the sera of 50 patients with HCV-associated HCC, 25 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis and 15 healthy individuals. Serum oxidized Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and malondialdehyde showed significant elevation in HCC patients compared to the control group ( p < 0...
September 30, 2018: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Thekkuttuparambil A Ajith
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that are expressed in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. They are involved in the cellular adaptations by improving the metabolism of glucose and enhance the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and angiopoietin, thereby they play a pivotal role in the angiogenesis. Hypoxia can increase the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B which promotes the pro-inflammatory status. Abnormally high angiogenesis, inflammation, antiapoptosis and anaerobic glycolysis can augment the progression and metastasis of tumor...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Nurten Bahtiyar, İlhan Onaran, Birsen Aydemir, Onur Baykara, Selmin Toplan, Fulya Yaman Agaoglu, Mehmet Can Akyolcu
Radiotherapy (RT) may result in platelet activation and thrombosis development. To the best of our knowledge, the potential effect of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a novel radiotherapy technique, on platelet function and microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression has not been previously investigated. The present study aimed to determine the effect of VMAT on the alterations in platelet function parameters and miRNA expression levels. A total of 25 patients with prostate cancer and 25 healthy subjects were included in the present study...
October 2018: Oncology Letters
Alberto Herrera, Mercedes Herrera, Natalia Guerra-Perez, Cristina Galindo-Pumariño, María Jesús Larriba, Vanesa García-Barberán, Beatriz Gil, Sara Giménez-Moyano, Reyes Ferreiro-Monteagudo, Pilar Veguillas, Antonio Candia, Raúl Peña, Jesús Pinto, Mª Laura García-Bermejo, Alberto Muñoz, Antonio García de Herreros, Félix Bonilla, Alfredo Carrato, Cristina Peña
Carcinomas, such as colon cancer, initiate their invasion by rescuing the innate plasticity of both epithelial cells and stromal cells. Although Snail is a transcriptional factor involved in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, in recent years, many studies have also identified the major role of Snail in the activation of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast (CAF) cells and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In CAFs, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling is a major functional determinant...
September 24, 2018: Oncogenesis
M F González Delgado, A González Zamora, M E Gonsebatt, E Meza Mata, G G García Vargas, E Y Calleros Rincón, R Pérez Morales
Nitrate pollution has emerged as a problem of great importance because in recent years, the levels of nitrate in soil and groundwater have increased, mainly through anthropogenic activities, such as the use of fertilizers in agriculture, domestic wastewater and septic tanks, industrial waste and deforestation. In animals, nitrate reduction to nitrite (NO2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) promote the formation of methemoglobin in the blood and the generation of highly reactive intermediates that induce oxidative stress in target organs...
September 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Keunyoung Kim, Youn-Kyeong Chang, Yiying Bian, Ok-Nam Bae, Kyung-Min Lim, Jin-Ho Chung
BACKGROUND:  Paclitaxel is one of the most widely used anti-cancer drugs, but numerous case reports of thrombotic events in the cancer patients using paclitaxel raise concern over its pro-thrombotic risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  We investigated whether paclitaxel can elicit pro-thrombotic properties in red blood cells (RBCs) through phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and microvesicle (MV) release. RESULTS:  In freshly isolated human RBCs, paclitaxel induced thrombin generation through PS exposure and MV release, whereas either coagulation factors or platelets were unaffected...
October 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Kseniia Porshneva, Diana Papiernik, Mateusz Psurski, Marcin Nowak, Rafał Matkowski, Marcin Ekiert, Magdalena Milczarek, Joanna Banach, Joanna Jarosz, Joanna Wietrzyk
Vascular endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation play a key role in tumor metastasis, and therefore, both of these processes are considered important therapeutic targets in cancer. The aim of our studies was to analyze antimetastatic activity of combination therapy using nitric oxide donor DETA/NO and antiplatelet drug clopidogrel. Nitric oxide acts as a vasoprotective mediator, while clopidogrel inhibits ADP-mediated platelet aggregation. 4T1-luc2-tdTomato cell line transplanted intravenously (i.v...
October 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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