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Marco Tulio Mendes Ferreira, Laiane Corsini Rocha, Matheus Braga Zanon Vitoriano, Andréa Mittelmann, Vânia Helena Techio
The grasses of the Lolium-Festuca complex show a prominent role in world agricultural scenario. Several studies have demonstrated that the plasticity of 45S rDNA sites has been recently associated with the possible fragility of the loci. Often, these fragile sites were observed as extended sites and gaps in metaphases. This organization can be evaluated in relation to their transcriptional activity/accessibility through epigenetic changes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship of the 5-methylcytosine and histone H3 lysine-9 dimethylation in different conformations of 45S rDNA sites in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes of L...
August 18, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Chung-Che Wu, Pin-Tse Lee, Tzu-Jen Kao, Szu-Yi Chou, Ruei-Yuan Su, Yi-Chao Lee, Shiu-Hwa Yeh, Jing-Ping Liou, Tsung-I Hsu, Tsung-Ping Su, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Wen-Chang Chang, Jian-Ying Chuang
The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) commonly occurs during normal aging and during some acute/chronic progressive disorders. In order to avoid oxidative damage, scavenging of these radicals is important. Previously, we identified zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) as a neuroprotector that increases antioxidant enzymes against superoxide radicals. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the activation and regulation of Znf179 remain unresolved. Here, by performing sequence alignment, bioinformatics analysis, immunoprecipitation using two specific acetyl-lysine antibodies, and treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor SAHA, we determined the lysine-specific acetylation of Znf179...
August 4, 2018: Redox Biology
Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Zhe Xu, Zongren Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Michael Simons, Wang Min
Regulation of VEGFR2 represents an important mechanism for the control of angiogenesis. VEGFR2 activity can be regulated by post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and acetylation. However, whether VEGFR2 can be regulated by SUMOylation has not been investigated. Here we show that endothelial-specific deletion of the SUMO endopeptidase SENP1 reduces pathological angiogenesis and tissue repair during hindlimb ischemia, and VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the cornea, retina, and ear. SENP1-deficient endothelial cells show increased SUMOylation of VEGFR2 and impaired VEGFR2 signalling...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Friederike Hans, Marita Eckert, Felix von Zweydorf, Christian Johannes Gloeckner, Philipp J Kahle
TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms pathological aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in certain forms of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Pathological modifications of TDP-43 include proteolytic fragmentation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitinylation. A pathognomonic TDP-43 C-terminal fragment (CTF) spanning amino acids 193-414 contains only four lysine residues that could be potentially ubiquitinylated. Here, serial mutagenesis of these four lysines to arginine revealed that not a single residue is responsible for the ubiquitinylation of mCherry-tagged CTF...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chang-Chao Xu, Di Zhang, Dagmar R Hann, Zhi-Ping Xie, Christian Staehelin
Nodulation outer protein M (NopM) is an IpaH family type three (T3) effector secreted by the nitrogen-fixing nodule bacterium Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234. Previous work indicated that NopM is an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for an optimal symbiosis between NGR234 and the host legume Lablab purpureus Here, we continued to analyze the function of NopM. Recombinant NopM was biochemically characterized using an in vitro ubiquitination system with Arabidopsis thaliana proteins. In this assay, NopM forms unanchored polyubiquitin chains and possesses auto-ubiquitination activity...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Abhinav Adhikari, Judith Davie
BACKGROUND: JARID2 is a non-catalytic member of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which is known to regulate developmental target genes in embryonic stem cells. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the modulation of Wnt signaling by JARID2 during murine skeletal muscle differentiation. RESULTS: We show that JARID2 is expressed in proliferating myoblasts, but downregulated upon muscle differentiation. Unexpectedly, depletion of JARID2 or the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, EZH2, inhibited differentiation, suggesting that JARID2 and the PRC2 complex are required to initiate this process...
August 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Yi Dang, Xiuru Ma, Yingxiao Li, Qingqing Hao, Yuetao Xie, Qianhui Zhang, Feifei Zhang, Xiaoyong Qi
The protein SET domain-containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (SETD7) has recently been shown to regulate apoptosis in various cells. However, the role of SETD7 on cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of SETD7 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced apoptosis of rat cardiomyocytes and reveal the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that SETD7 expression was significantly up-regulated in cardiomyocytes in response to H/R injury...
July 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Fan Zhang, Shuang-Qing Chen, Ming-Min Tong, Pei-Jun Wang, Gao-Jun Teng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the migration characteristics of neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with the MRI contrast agent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in the brain of APP/PS1 transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by 7.0 T high resolution MRI. METHODS: C57BL/6 mouse NSCs were cultured, amplified, labeled with Feridex and Poly-l-lysine (FE-PLL) and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using the random number table method, 24 APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice aged 12 months were equally assigned to two groups: animals in group A were transplanted with FE-PLL labeled NSCs and those in group B were transplanted with non-labeled NSCs in the right hippocampus...
August 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Yu-Hui Li, Ming Zhong, Hong-Liang Zang, Xiao-Feng Tian
Ninety percent of all cancer related deaths happen due to metastatic progression. One important protein facilitating metastatic progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the metastasis associated 1 protein (MTA-1). We have earlier shown that in the context of HCC and normal liver cell lines, HuH6 and THLE-2, respectively. MTA-1 protein is actively stabilized in HCC cell lines and actively degraded in normal liver cells. We had also shown that TRIM25 is the E3 ligase that interacts with and degrades MTA-1 protein in normal liver cells...
August 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Kohta Yoshida, Asano Ishikawa, Atsushi Toyoda, Shuji Shigenobu, Asao Fujiyama, Jun Kitano
Intragenomic conflict, the conflict of interest between different genomic regions within an individual, is proposed as a mechanism driving both the rapid evolution of heterochromatin-related proteins and the establishment of intrinsic genomic incompatibility between species. Although molecular studies of laboratory model organisms have demonstrated the link between heterochromatin evolution and hybrid abnormalities, we know little about their link in natural systems. Previously, we showed that F1 hybrids between the Japan Sea stickleback and the Pacific Ocean stickleback show hybrid male sterility and found a region responsible for hybrid male sterility on the X chromosome, but did not identify any candidate genes...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Appu K Singh, Luke L McGoldrick, Edward C Twomey, Alexander I Sobolevsky
Calcium (Ca2+ ) plays a major role in numerous physiological processes. Ca2+ homeostasis is tightly controlled by ion channels, the aberrant regulation of which results in various diseases including cancers. Calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+ -induced inactivation is an ion channel regulatory mechanism that protects cells against the toxic effects of Ca2+ overload. We used cryo-electron microscopy to capture the epithelial calcium channel TRPV6 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 6) inactivated by CaM...
August 2018: Science Advances
Yong Li, Yi Jin Liew, Guoxin Cui, Maha J Cziesielski, Noura Zahran, Craig T Michell, Christian R Voolstra, Manuel Aranda
The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is the cornerstone of coral reef ecosystems. Although research has focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying this symbiosis, the role of epigenetic mechanisms, that is, the study of heritable changes that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence, is unknown. To assess the role of DNA methylation in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, we analyzed genome-wide CpG methylation, histone associations, and transcriptomic states of symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones in the model system Aiptasia...
August 2018: Science Advances
Prem Raj B Joseph, Kirti V Sawant, Junji Iwahara, Roberto P Garofalo, Umesh R Desai, Krishna Rajarathnam
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) bind a large array of proteins and mediate fundamental and diverse roles in human physiology. Ion pair interactions between protein lysines/arginines and GAG sulfates/carboxylates mediate binding. Neutrophil-activating chemokines (NAC) are GAG-binding proteins, and their sequences reveal high selectivity for lysines over arginines indicating they are functionally not equivalent. NAC binding to GAGs impacts gradient formation, receptor functions, and endothelial activation, which together regulate different components of neutrophil migration...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Orazio Angelo Arcidiacono, Jana Krejčí, Jana Suchánková, Eva Bártová
Cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes requires activation of differentiation-specific genes and epigenetic factors that contribute to these physiological processes. This study is focused on the in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) induced into cardiomyocytes. The effects of clinically promising inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACi) on mESC cardiomyogenesis and on explanted embryonic hearts were also analyzed. HDAC1 depletion caused early beating of cardiomyocytes compared with those of the wild-type (wt) counterpart...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jiji T Kurup, Benjamin L Kidder
RNA has been shown to interact with various proteins to regulate chromatin dynamics and gene expression. However, it is unknown whether RNAs associate with epigenetic marks such as post-translational modifications of histones, including histone 4 lysine 20 trimethylation (H4K20me3) or trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3), to regulate chromatin and gene expression. Here, we used chromatin-associated RNA immunoprecipitation (CARIP) followed by next-generation sequencing (CARIP-Seq) to survey RNAs associated with H4K20me3 and H3K4me3-marked chromatin on a global-scale in embryonic stem (ES) cells...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hui-I Yu, Hsiu-Chuan Chou, Yi-Ching Su, Li-Hsun Lin, Chieh-Hsiang Lu, Hsiang-Hsun Chuang, Yi-Ting Tsai, En-Chi Liao, Yu-Shan Wei, Yi-Ting Yang, Ying-Ray Lee, Hong-Lin Chan
Evodiamine is a natural product extracted from herbal plants such as Tetradium which has shown to have anti-fat uptake and anti-proliferation properties. However, the effects of evodiamine on the behavior of thyroid cancers are largely unknown. To determine if evodiamine might be useful in the treatment of thyroid cancer and its cytotoxic mechanism, we analyzed the impact of evodiamine treatment on differential protein expression in human thyroid cancer cell line ARO using lysine-labeling two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sarah J Riutta, Olav Larsen, Anthony E Getschman, Mette M Rosenkilde, Sam T Hwang, Brian F Volkman
Chemokine-chemokine receptor (CKR) interactions are traditionally described by a two-step/two-site mechanism that details the major contact points between chemokine ligands and CKRs leading to ligand recognition and receptor activation. Chemokine recognition site 1 (CRS1) encompasses interactions between the CKR N-terminus and the globular chemokine core. Chemokine recognition site 2 (CRS2) includes interactions between the unstructured chemokine N-terminus and the binding pocket of the receptor. The two-step/two-site paradigm has been an adequate framework to study the intricacies of chemokine:CKR interactions, but emerging studies highlight the limitations of this model...
August 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ryo Masuzawa, Ryotaro Konno, Ikumi Ohsawa, Atsuya Watanabe, Fuminori Kawano
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression differs between fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in adult rats, although the precise mechanisms are still unknown. The present study investigates the differences in responses of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and histone acetylation during transcriptional activation in the plantaris and soleus muscles of adult rats after acute treadmill running. We targeted the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) gene to analyze epigenomic changes by chromatin immunoprecipitation...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jennifer K Lue, Jennifer E Amengual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is histone methyltransferase and catalyzes the methylation of histone 3 lysine 27, a mark of transcriptional repression. Various studies have elucidated the complex role of EZH2 in both normal biology and tumorigenesis. Here, we critically review the emerging role of EZH2 in malignancies, the development of small molecule inhibitors of EZH2, and their application in lymphoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Activating mutations and overexpression of EZH2 are found in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)...
August 15, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Rosemary E McDowell, Peter Barabas, Josy Augustine, Olivier Chevallier, Philip McCarron, Mei Chen, J Graham McGeown, Tim M Curtis
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies suggest that abnormal function in Müller glial cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. This is associated with the selective accumulation of the acrolein-derived advanced lipoxidation end-product, Nε -(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine (FDP-lysine), on Müller cell proteins. The aim of the current study was to identify more efficacious acrolein-scavenging drugs and determine the effects of the most potent on Müller cell FDP-lysine accumulation and neuroretinal dysfunction during diabetes...
August 15, 2018: Diabetologia
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