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Colin Buttimer, Alan Lucid, Horst Neve, Charles M A P Franz, Jim O'Mahony, Dann Turner, Rob Lavigne, Aidan Coffey
Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a phytopathogen of economic importance as it is the causative agent of potato blackleg and soft rot. Here we describe the Pectobacterium phage vB_PatP_CB5 (abbreviated as CB5), which specifically infects the bacterium. The bacteriophage is characterized in detail and TEM micrographs indicate that it belongs to the Podoviridae family . CB5 shares significant pairwise nucleotide identity (≥80%) with P. atrosepticum phages φM1, Peat1, and PP90 and also shares common genome organization...
July 26, 2018: Viruses
Nak-Hyun Kim, Wan Beom Park, Jeong Eun Cho, Yoon Jeong Choi, Su Jin Choi, Soo Youn Jun, Chang Kyung Kang, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Ji-Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Sang Won Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Hong Bin Kim
Phages and its derivatives are increasingly reconsidered for the treatment of bacterial infections, due to rising antibiotic resistance. We assessed the anti-staphylococcal effect of the endolysin SAL200 in combination with standard-of-care (SOC) antibiotics. SAL200 activity combined with SOC antibiotics was assessed in vitro by checkerboard and time-kill assays, and i n vivo with murine bacteremia and Galleria mellonella infection models. SAL200 reduced SOC antibiotic MICs and showed a ≥3-log10 CFU/mL reduction of S...
July 23, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Casey Stamereilers, Christopher P Fajardo, Jamison K Walker, Katterinne N Mendez, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Julianne H Grose, Sandra Hope, Philippos K Tsourkas
The antibiotic-resistant bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), currently the most destructive bacterial disease in honeybees. Phages that infect P. larvae were isolated as early as the 1950s, but it is only in recent years that P. larvae phage genomes have been sequenced and annotated. In this study we analyze the genomes of all 48 currently sequenced P. larvae phage genomes and classify them into four clusters and a singleton. The majority of P. larvae phage genomes are in the 38⁻45 kbp range and use the cohesive ends (cos) DNA-packaging strategy, while a minority have genomes in the 50⁻55 kbp range that use the direct terminal repeat (DTR) DNA-packaging strategy...
July 19, 2018: Viruses
Steven M Swift, Jerel J Waters, D Treva Rowley, Brian B Oakley, David M Donovan
Clostridium perfringens, a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium, causes food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans, and is an agent of necrotizing enteritis in poultry, swine and cattle. Endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases from bacteriophage that degrade the bacterial host cell wall causing lysis and thus harbor antimicrobial therapy potential. The genes for the PlyCP10 and PlyCP41 endolysins were found in prophage regions of the genomes from Clostridium perfringens strains Cp10 and Cp41, respectively. The gene for PlyCP10 encodes a protein of 351 amino acids, while the gene for PlyCP41 encodes a protein of 335 amino acids...
July 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Qin Peng, Yihui Yuan
Bacillus cereus is widely distributed food-borne pathogenic bacterium. Due to the harmness to human hearth and the generation of multidrug-resistant B. cereus, it is urgent to develop novel antimicrobial agents. Phage and phage endolysin were taken as novel antimicrobial substance for their specific lytic activity against pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a Myoviridae family phage, designated as vB_BceM-HSE3, infecting the pathogenic multidrug-resistant B. cereus strain was isolated and characterized along with its endolysin...
July 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jie Zhang, Lu-Lu Xu, Dan Gan, Xingping Zhang
BACKGROUND: The increase in the prevalence of drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a serious public health concern, which is closely linked to the formation of biofilm. It is reported that the bacteriophage and its endolysin have a good ability to degrade biofilms. The goals of this study were to compare the ability of A. baumannii bacteriophage AB3, its endolysin AB3, and three antibiotics to degrade A. baumannii biofilm and biofilm-bound A. baumannii and to understand the antibacterial mechanism of LysAB3...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Mengzhe Li, Yanqiu Jin, Hong Lin, Jingxue Wang, Xiuping Jiang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen that is generally transmitted via raw or undercooked seafood. Endolysins originating from bacteriophages offer a new way to control bacterial pathogens. The objectives of this study were to sequence a novel lytic V. parahaemolyticus phage VPp1 and determine the antibacterial activities of the recombinant endolysin (LysVPp1) derived from this phage. The complete VPp1 genome contained a double-stranded DNA of 50,431 bp with a total G+C content of 41.35%...
July 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Irina Etobayeva, Sara B Linden, Farhang Alem, Laith Harb, Lucas Rizkalla, Philip D Mosier, Allison A Johnson, Louise Temple, Ramin M Hakami, Daniel C Nelson
Three Bacillus bacteriophage-derived endolysins, designated PlyP56, PlyN74, and PlyTB40, were identified, cloned, purified, and characterized for their antimicrobial properties. Sequence alignment reveals these endolysins have an N-terminal enzymatically active domain (EAD) linked to a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). PlyP56 has a Peptidase_M15_4/VanY superfamily EAD with a conserved metal binding motif and displays biological dependence on divalent ions for activity. In contrast, PlyN74 and PlyTB40 have T7 lysozyme-type Amidase_2 and carboxypeptidase T-type Amidase_3 EADs, respectively, which are members of the MurNAc-LAA superfamily, but are not homologs and thus do not have a shared protein fold...
May 21, 2018: Viruses
Nina N Sykilinda, Alena Y Nikolaeva, Mikhail M Shneider, Dmitry V Mishkin, Artem A Patutin, Vladimir O Popov, Konstantin M Boyko, Natalia L Klyachko, Konstantin A Miroshnikov
Proteins that include enzymatic domain degrading the bacterial cell wall and a domain providing transport through the bacterial outer membrane are considered as prospective compounds to combat pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. This paper presents an isolation and study of an enzyme of this class naturally encoded in the prophage region of Acinetobacter baumannii AB 5075 genome. Recombinant protein expressed in E. coli exhibits an antimicrobial activity with respect to live cultures of Gram-negative bacteria reducing the population of viable bacteria by 1...
June 6, 2018: Viruses
Iris Fernández-Ruiz, Felipe H Coutinho, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera
Bacteriophages express endolysins toward the end of their replication cycle to degrade the microbial cell wall from within, allowing viral progeny to be released. Endolysins can also degrade the prokaryotic cell wall from the outside, thus have potential to be used for biotechnological and medical purposes. Multiple endolysins have been identified within the genomes of isolated phages, but their diversity in uncultured phages has been overlooked. We used a bioinformatics pipeline to identify novel endolysins from nearly 200,000 uncultured viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katharina Springer, Sandra Reuter, Mandy Knüpfer, Lukas Schmauder, Philipp-Albert Sänger, Angela Felsl, Thilo M Fuchs
Yersinia enterocolitica is a pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans. Because of its low-temperature-dependent insecticidal activity, it can oscillate between invertebrates and mammals as host organisms. The insecticidal activity of strain W22703 is associated with a pathogenicity island of 19 kb (Tc-PAI Ye ), which carries regulators and genes encoding the toxin complex (Tc). The island also harbors four phage-related and highly conserved genes of unknown functions, which are polycistronically transcribed...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Hugo Oliveira, Carlos São-José, Joana Azeredo
Peptidoglycan degrading enzymes are of increasing interest as antibacterial agents, especially against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Herein we present a review about the biological features of virion-associated lysins and endolysins, phage-derived enzymes that have naturally evolved to compromise the bacterial peptidoglycan from without and from within, respectively. These natural features may determine the adaptability of the enzymes to kill bacteria in different environments. Endolysins are by far the most studied group of peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes, with several studies showing that they can exhibit potent antibacterial activity under specific conditions...
May 29, 2018: Viruses
Bokyung Son, Minsuk Kong, Sangryeol Ryu
In response to increasing concern over antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , the development of novel antimicrobials has been called for, with bacteriophage endolysins having received considerable attention as alternatives to antibiotics. Most staphylococcal phage endolysins have a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidase domain (CHAP), a central amidase domain, and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). Despite extensive studies using truncated staphylococcal endolysins, the precise function of the amidase domain has not been determined...
May 25, 2018: Viruses
Jun-Seob Kim, M Angela Daum, Yong-Su Jin, Michael J Miller
Contamination of fuel-ethanol fermentations continues to be a significant problem for the corn and sugarcane-based ethanol industries. In particular, members of the Lactobacillaceae family are the primary bacteria of concern. Currently, antibiotics and acid washing are two major means of controlling contaminants. However, antibiotic use could lead to increased antibiotic resistance, and the acid wash step stresses the fermenting yeast and has limited effectiveness. Bacteriophage endolysins such as LysA2 are lytic enzymes with the potential to contribute as antimicrobials to the fuel ethanol industries...
May 24, 2018: Viruses
Colin Buttimer, Yannick Born, Alan Lucid, Martin J Loessner, Lars Fieseler, Aidan Coffey
To date, a small number of jumbo myoviruses have been reported to possess atypical whisker-like structures along the surface of their contractile tails. Erwinia amylovora phage vB_EamM_Y3 is another example. It possesses a genome of 261,365 kbp with 333 predicted ORFs. Using a combination of BLASTP, Interproscan and HHpred, about 21% of its putative proteins could be assigned functions involved in nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication, virion structure and cell wall degradation. The phage was found to have a signal-arrest-release (SAR) endolysin (Y3_301) possessing a soluble lytic transglycosylase domain...
May 18, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Weilong Zhou, Yu Feng, Zhiyong Zong
Two lytic bacteriophages, WCHABP1 and WCHABP12, were recovered from hospital sewage and were able to infect 9 and 12 out of 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, which belonged to different clones. Electron microscopy scan showed that both bacteriophages had the similar morphology as those of the Myoviridae family. Whole genomic sequencing revealed 45.4- or 45.8-kb genome with a 37.6% GC content for WCHABP1 and WCHABP12, both of which showed significant DNA sequence similarity with bacteriophages of the Ap22virus genus within the Myoviridae family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eunsu Ha, Bokyung Son, Sangryeol Ryu
Clostridium perfringens is one of the most common causes of food-borne illness. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria requires the development of alternatives to typical antimicrobial treatments. Here, we isolated and characterized a C. perfringens -specific virulent bacteriophage CPS2 from chicken feces. The CPS2 phage contains a 17,961 bp double-stranded DNA genome with 25 putative ORFs, and belongs to the Picovirinae , subfamily of Podoviridae . Bioinformatic analysis of the CPS2 genome revealed a putative endolysin, LysCPS2, which is homologous to the endolysin of Clostridium phage phiZP2 and phiCP7R...
May 11, 2018: Viruses
A Nakonieczna, C J Cooper, R Gryko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ursula Kaspar, Jorge A de Haro Sautto, Sonja Molinaro, Georg Peters, Evgeny A Idelevich, Karsten Becker
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates are increasingly migrating from livestock into human and animal health care settings. Alternative substances are needed to overcome the drawbacks of currently available drugs used for MRSA eradication. The recombinant bacteriophage endolysin HY-133 has proved to be an active agent against S. aureus Here, the in vitro activity of HY-133 was studied against a large collection of genetically diverse LA-MRSA isolates revealing its high activity against mecA -, mecB -, and mecC -positive LA-MRSA...
July 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
C M Scholte, D C Nelson, M Garcia, S B Linden, T H Elsasser, S Kahl, Y Qu, K M Moyes
Mastitis is the leading cause of antimicrobial use on dairy farms. The potential for antimicrobial resistance has led to the examination of alternative strategies for controlling mastitis. One such alternative is PlyC, a potent peptidoglycan hydrolase derived from the streptococcal C1 bacteriophage that causes targeted lysis of the cell wall of Streptococcus uberis. At a concentration of 1.0 μg/mL, recombinant PlyC can induce lytic activity, suggesting that a low dose may successfully eliminate infection. We evaluated the dose effect of PlyC (1-50 µg/mL) on cytotoxicity and oxidative response on bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) obtained from 12 healthy, mid-lactation primiparous dairy cows...
July 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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