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Prehospital life support

Eleanor L DiBiasio, Mahesh V Jayaraman, Lori Oliver, Gino Paolucci, Michael Clark, Cristina Watkins, Karen DeLisi, Ann Wilks, Shadi Yaghi, Morgan Hemendinger, Grayson L Baird, J Adam Oostema, Ryan A McTaggart
BACKGROUND: Following the results of randomized clinical trials supporting the use of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) with tissue plasminogen activator for emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO), our state Stroke Task Force convened to: update legislation to recognize differences between Primary Stroke Centers (PSCs) and Comprehensive Stroke Centers (CSCs); and update Emergency Medical Services (EMS) protocols to triage direct transport of suspected ELVO patients to CSCs. PURPOSE: We developed a single-session training curriculum for EMS personnel focused on the Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) score, its use to correctly triage patients as CSC-appropriate in the field, and our state-wide EMS stroke protocol...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Michael Ely, Elizabeth A Edgerton, Russell Telford, Kent Page, Craig Hemingway, Donald Vernon, Lenora M Olson
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric patients represent a small proportion of emergency medical services (EMS) calls, challenging providers in maintaining skills in treating children. Having structural capacity to appropriately diagnose and treat pediatric patients is critical. Our study measured the availability of off-line and on-line medical direction and recommended pediatric equipment at EMS agencies. METHODS: A Web-based survey was sent to EMS agencies in 2010 and 2013, and results were analyzed to determine availability of medical direction and equipment...
November 26, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Francisco Martín-Rodríguez, Raúl López-Izquierdo, Miguel A Castro Villamor, Iratxe Moro Mangas, Pablo Del Brío Ibáñez, Juan F Delgado Benito, José L Martín Conty, Jesús Álvarez Manzanares, Agustín Mayo-Iscar, Carlos Del Pozo Vegas
BACKGROUND: Prehospital Emergency Medical Services must attend to patients with complex physiopathological situations with little data and in the shortest possible time. The objective of this work was to study lactic acid values and their usefulness in the prehospital setting to help in clinical decision-making. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a longitudinal prospective, observational study on patients over 18 years of age who, after being evaluated by the Advanced Life Support Unit, were taken to the hospital between April and June 2018...
November 19, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Peter Paal, Hermann Brugger, Giacomo Strapazzon
Accidental hypothermia causes profound changes to the body's physiology. After an initial burst of agitation (e.g., 36-37°C), vital functions will slow down with further cooling, until they vanish (e.g. <20-25°C). Thus, a deeply hypothermic person may appear dead, but may still be able to be resuscitated if treated correctly. The hospital use of minimally invasive rewarming for nonarrested, otherwise healthy patients with primary hypothermia and stable vital signs has the potential to substantially decrease morbidity and mortality for these patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Bruna Dessena, Paul C Mullan
Introduction: Child abuse is a common condition in the emergency centres of South Africa. It is critical for both prehospital emergency care practitioners and emergency centre-based emergency medicine registrars to be competent in screening, diagnosing, treating, and documenting child abuse. Our goal was to assess the knowledge of child abuse management in a sample of prehospital emergency care practitioners and emergency medicine registrars in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: A mixed-methods approach of quantitative and qualitative data was used to survey a sample of 120 participants (30 emergency medicine registrars and 90 prehospital emergency care practitioners: 30 Basic Life Support, 30 Intermediate Life Support, and 30 Advanced Life Support)...
June 2018: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue Africaine de la Médecine D'urgence
Mike Wells, Laurice Barnes, Craig Vincent-Lambert
Introduction: The choice of weight estimation method to use during prehospital paediatric emergency care is important because it needs to be both accurate and easy to use. Accuracy is important to ensure optimum drug dosing while ease-of-use is important to minimise user errors and the cognitive load experienced by healthcare providers. Little is known about which weight estimation systems are used in the prehospital environment anywhere in the world. This knowledge is important because if the use of inappropriate weight estimation practices is identified, it could be remedied through education and institutional policies...
June 2018: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue Africaine de la Médecine D'urgence
Hilary A Hewes, Michael Ely, Rachel Richards, Manish I Shah, Stephanie Busch, Diane Pilkey, Katherine Dixon Hert, Lenora M Olson
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric patients represent low frequency but potentially high-risk encounters for EMS providers. Scant information is available from EMS agencies on the frequency of pediatric skill evaluation and the presence of pediatric emergency care coordination, both which may help EMS systems optimize care for children. The objective of our study was to assess the frequency and type of methods used to assess psychomotor skills competency using pediatric-specific equipment and pediatric care coordination in EMS ground transport agencies...
October 31, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Mark Froats, Andrew Reed, Richard Dionne, Justin Maloney, Susan Duncan, Rob Burns, Julie Sinclair, Michael Austin
BACKGROUND: Most patients transferred from a non-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) facility for primary PCI do not meet target reperfusion times. Direct transportation of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from the scene by advanced life support (ALS) paramedics has been shown to improve reperfusion times and outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether it is safe to bypass the closest hospital and transport by basic life support (BLS) provider to a PCI facility...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
J G Ten Brinke, S R Groen, M Dehnad, T P Saltzherr, M Hogervorst, J C Goslings
PURPOSE: The practice of prehospital immobilization is coming under increasing scrutiny. Unravelling the historical sequence of prehospital immobilization might shed more light on this matter and help resolve the situation. Main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the development and reasoning behind the implementation of prehospital spine immobilization. METHODS: An extensive search throughout historical literature and recent evidence based studies was conducted...
December 2018: European Spine Journal
Michael Parenteau, Zsolt Stockinger, Stephen Hughes, Brad Hickey, James Mucciarone, Christopher Manganello, Andrew Beeghly
Highly skilled swimmers and aquatically adaptable service members such as U.S. Navy Divers, Sea, Air and Land (SEAL) Teams, and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) technicians, die every year from drowning. Drowning is the cause of over 500,000 deaths annually across the globe. This Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) provides an overview of drowning and associated conditions based on the best available current medical evidence. Unlike basic life support and advanced cardiac life support protocols, rescue breathing should be initiated prior to chest compressions to re-expand water-filled alveoli...
September 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Deborah P Waldrop, Jacqueline M McGinley, Michael W Dailey, Brian Clemency
BACKGROUND: The primary charge of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is to save lives. However, EMS personnel are frequently called to scenes where prolonging life may not be the primary goal. When someone is nearing death, family members may feel compelled to call 9-1-1 because they are feeling uncertain about how to manage symptoms at the end of life. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore prehospital providers' perspectives on how the awareness of dying and documentation of end-of-life wishes influence decision-making on emergency calls near the end of life...
October 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Seyyed Mohammad Reza Hosseini, Mohammadreza Maleki, Hasan Abolghasem Gorji, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh, Masoud Roudbari
Introduction: Prehospital emergency medical service dispatchers should make prompt and appropriate decisions to save the life of victims. The complexity of timely and reasonable decision-making in life-threatening conditions has driven researchers to investigate varying aspects of the emergency medical dispatch (EMD) process. The purpose of this study was to explore the contributors to appropriate and prompt decision-making among dispatchers. Methods: A qualitative study through thematic analysis was designed...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Ithan D Peltan, Kristina H Mitchell, Kristina E Rudd, Blake A Mann, David J Carlbom, Thomas D Rea, Allison M Butler, Catherine L Hough, Samuel M Brown
RATIONALE: Early antibiotics improve outcomes for septic patients. Factors influencing antibiotic timing in emergency department (ED) sepsis remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Determine the relationship between septic patients' prehospital level of care and ED door-to-antibiotic time. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study comprised patients admitted from the community to an academic ED June 2009 to February 2015 with fluid-refractory sepsis or septic shock...
August 28, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
G Anthony Fidacaro, Christopher W Jones, Lisa A Drago
OBJECTIVE: There are nearly 1000 annual ambulance crashes within the United States involving pediatric patients. In 2012 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/US Department of Transportation released Best-Practice Recommendations for the Safe Transportation of Children in Emergency Ground Ambulances. The aim of our study was to measure emergency medical services (EMS) providers' knowledge and opinions of how to safely transport pediatric patients. In addition, we aimed to gather information on barriers to safe pediatric transport...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Elizabeth Brown, Teresa A Williams, Hideo Tohira, Paul Bailey, Judith Finn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology of trauma in adult patients attended by ambulance paramedics in Perth, Western Australia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of trauma patients aged ≥16 years attended by St John Ambulance Western Australia (SJA-WA) paramedics in greater metropolitan Perth between 2013 and 2016 using the SJA-WA database and WA death data. Incidence and 30 day mortality rates were calculated. Patients who died prehospital (immediate deaths), on the day of injury (early deaths), within 30 days (late deaths) and those who survived longer than 30 days (survivors) were compared for age, sex, mechanism of injury and acuity level...
July 25, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Changsun Kim, Hyuk Joong Choi, Hyungjun Moon, Giwoon Kim, Choungah Lee, Jin Sung Cho, Seongjung Kim, Kyoungmi Lee, Hanjoo Choi, Wonjung Jeong
OBJECTIVE: To compare the survival to discharge between nursing home (NH) cardiac arrest patients receiving smartphone-based advanced cardiac life support (SALS) and basic life support (BLS). METHODS: The SALS registry includes data on cardiac arrest from 7 urban and suburban areas in Korea between July 2015 and December 2016. We include adult patients (>18) with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of medical causes and EMS attended and dispatched in. SALS is an advanced field resuscitation including drug administration by paramedics with video communication-based direct medical direction...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Maximilian Scharonow, Christian Weilbach
BACKGROUND: In the prehospital situation, the diagnostic armamentarium available to the rescue physician is limited. Emergency ultrasound has proven to be a useful diagnostic tool, providing crucial information for the management of critically ill and injured patients. The proportion of performed ultrasound scans in all patients attended to by the rescue service team, the quality of the findings and the ultrasound-related changes in management approach and patient transport were evaluated...
June 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Janosch Dahmen, Marko Brade, Christian Gerach, Martin Glombitza, Jan Schmitz, Simon Zeitter, Eva Steinhausen
BACKGROUND: The European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation in patients with traumatic cardiac arrest recommend the immediate treatment of all reversible causes, if necessary even prior to continuous chest compression. In the case of cardiac tamponade immediate emergency thoracotomy should also be considered. OBJECTIVE: The authors report the case of a 23-year-old male patient with multiple injuries including blunt thoracic trauma, which caused a witnessed cardiac arrest...
June 5, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Sylvain Bussières, François Bégin, Pierre-Alexandre Leblanc, Alain Tanguay, Jean-Michel Paradis, Denise Hébert, Richard Fleet
CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients transported by ambulance are at risk for adverse events. What did this study ask? What is the impact of transport time on the occurrence of adverse events in the presence of basic life support paramedics? What did this study find? Transport time is not associated with a higher risk of adverse events. Why does this study matter to clinicians? Largest investigation of adverse events in a Canadian cohort of STEMI patients transported by ambulance...
June 5, 2018: CJEM
Maryse C Cnossen, Ruben van der Brande, Hester F Lingsma, Suzanne Polinder, Fiona Lecky, Andrew I R Maas
The first hour following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered crucial to prevent death and disability. It is, however, not established yet how the prehospital care should be organized to optimize recovery during the first hour. The objective of the current study was to examine variation in prehospital trauma care across Europe aiming to inform comparative effectiveness analyses on care for neurotrauma patients. A survey on prehospital trauma care was sent to 68 neurotrauma centers from 20 European countries participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) study...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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