keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Animal

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922139/are-low-sun-exposure-and-or-vitamin-d-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#1
K M Miller, P H Hart, N H de Klerk, E A Davis, R M Lucas
The global variation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rates is one of the most significant observed for any non-communicable disease. Geographical patterns in incidence suggest that low sun exposure may contribute to the wide disparity, with incidence rates generally increasing with distance from the Equator. T1D development is associated with hyperactivity of the adaptive immune system leading to autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Both exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D, with their known immunosuppressive effects, have the potential to delay or inhibit the disease...
December 6, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922116/risk-assessment-of-recent-egyptian-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#2
A-S Arafa, S Yamada, M Imai, T Watanabe, S Yamayoshi, K Iwatsuki-Horimoto, M Kiso, Y Sakai-Tagawa, M Ito, T Imamura, N Nakajima, K Takahashi, D Zhao, K Oishi, A Yasuhara, C A Macken, G Zhong, A P Hanson, S Fan, J Ping, M Hatta, T J S Lopes, Y Suzuki, M El-Husseiny, A Selim, N Hagag, M Soliman, G Neumann, H Hasegawa, Y Kawaoka
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are enzootic in poultry populations in different parts of the world, and have caused numerous human infections in recent years, particularly in Egypt. However, no sustained human-to-human transmission of these viruses has yet been reported. We tested nine naturally occurring Egyptian H5N1 viruses (isolated in 2014-2015) in ferrets and found that three of them transmitted via respiratory droplets, causing a fatal infection in one of the exposed animals...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922101/social-determinants-of-eyeblinks-in-adult-male-macaques
#3
Sébastien Ballesta, Clayton P Mosher, Jeno Szep, Kate D Fischl, Katalin M Gothard
Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922063/design-and-mechanistic-insight-into-ultrafast-calcium-indicators-for-monitoring-intracellular-calcium-dynamics
#4
Nordine Helassa, Borbala Podor, Alan Fine, Katalin Török
Calmodulin-based genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicators (GCaMP-s) are powerful tools of imaging calcium dynamics from cells to freely moving animals. High affinity indicators with slow kinetics however distort the temporal profile of calcium transients. Here we report the development of reduced affinity ultrafast variants of GCaMP6s and GCaMP6f. We hypothesized that GCaMP-s have a common kinetic mechanism with a rate-limiting process in the interaction of the RS20 peptide and calcium-calmodulin...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922058/edge-enhancement-improves-disruptive-camouflage-by-emphasising-false-edges-and-creating-pictorial-relief
#5
John Egan, Rebecca J Sharman, Kenneth C Scott-Brown, Paul George Lovell
Disruptive colouration is a visual camouflage composed of false edges and boundaries. Many disruptively camouflaged animals feature enhanced edges; light patches are surrounded by a lighter outline and/or a dark patches are surrounded by a darker outline. This camouflage is particularly common in amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans. We explored the role that this pattern has in creating effective camouflage. In a visual search task utilising an ultra-large display area mimicking search tasks that might be found in nature, edge enhanced disruptive camouflage increases crypsis, even on substrates that do not provide an obvious visual match...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922051/catalysis-and-structure-of-zebrafish-urate-oxidase-provide-insights-into-the-origin-of-hyperuricemia-in-hominoids
#6
Marialaura Marchetti, Anastasia Liuzzi, Beatrice Fermi, Romina Corsini, Claudia Folli, Valentina Speranzini, Francesco Gandolfi, Stefano Bettati, Luca Ronda, Laura Cendron, Rodolfo Berni, Giuseppe Zanotti, Riccardo Percudani
Urate oxidase (Uox) catalyses the first reaction of oxidative uricolysis, a three-step enzymatic pathway that allows some animals to eliminate purine nitrogen through a water-soluble compound. Inactivation of the pathway in hominoids leads to elevated levels of sparingly soluble urate and puts humans at risk of hyperuricemia and gout. The uricolytic activities lost during evolution can be replaced by enzyme therapy. Here we report on the functional and structural characterization of Uox from zebrafish and the effects on the enzyme of the missense mutation (F216S) that preceded Uox pseudogenization in hominoids...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922032/chemically-induced-oxidative-stress-affects-ash-neuronal-function-and-behavior-in-c-elegans
#7
Eleni Gourgou, Nikos Chronis
Oxidative stress (OS) impact on a single neuron's function in vivo remains obscure. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we report the effect of paraquat (PQ)-induced OS on wild type worms on the function of the ASH polymodal neuron. By calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging, we quantified ASH activation upon stimulus delivery. PQ-treated worms displayed higher maximum depolarization (peak of the Ca(2+) transients) compared to untreated animals. PQ had a similar effect on the ASH neuron response time (rising slope of the Ca(2+) transients), except in very young worms...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922022/fast-and-behavior-selective-exploitation-of-a-marine-fish-targeted-by-anglers
#8
Josep Alós, Miquel Palmer, Rosario Rosselló, Robert Arlinghaus
Harvesting of wild-living animals is often intensive and may selectively target heritable behavioral traits. We studied the exploitation dynamics and the vulnerability consequences of individual heterogeneity in movement-related behaviors in free-ranging pearly razorfish (Xyrichthys novacula). Using underwater-video recording, we firstly document a fast and high exploitation rate of about 60% of the adult population removed in just few days after the opening of the season. Subsequently, we tagged a sample of individuals with acoustic transmitters and studied whether behavioral traits were significant predictors of the vulnerability to angling...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922001/anthropogenic-impacts-on-mosquito-populations-in-north-america-over-the-past-century
#9
Ilia Rochlin, Ary Faraji, Dominick V Ninivaggi, Christopher M Barker, A Marm Kilpatrick
The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921999/lift-calculations-based-on-accepted-wake-models-for-animal-flight-are-inconsistent-and-sensitive-to-vortex-dynamics
#10
Eric Gutierrez, Daniel B Quinn, Diana D Chin, David Lentink
There are three common methods for calculating the lift generated by a flying animal based on the measured airflow in the wake. However, these methods might not be accurate according to computational and robot-based studies of flapping wings. Here we test this hypothesis for the first time for a slowly flying Pacific parrotlet in still air using stereo particle image velocimetry recorded at 1000 Hz. The bird was trained to fly between two perches through a laser sheet wearing laser safety goggles. We found that the wingtip vortices generated during mid-downstroke advected down and broke up quickly, contradicting the frozen turbulence hypothesis typically assumed in animal flight experiments...
December 6, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921995/think-small
#11
Luis A Bezares-Calderón, Gáspár Jékely
The tadpole larva of a sea squirt is only the second animal to have its entire nervous system mapped out, and the results confirm that there is still much to learn from the smallest brains.
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921383/consumption-of-the-total-western-diet-differentially-affects-the-response-to-green-tea-in-rodent-models-of-chronic-disease-compared-to-the-ain93g-diet
#12
Robert E Ward, Abby D Benninghoff, Brett J Healy, Minghao Li, Bharath Vagu, Korry J Hintze
SCOPE: In pre-clinical studies investigating bioactive components, the efficacy of the bioactive is likely influenced by the basal diet provided to rodents. In this study, we hypothesized that a model bioactive, green tea extract (GTE), would have different effects on colon carcinogenesis, body composition, and lipid metabolism in mice fed a basal diet formulated to promote animal health and growth (AIN93G) as compared to a Western diet that emulates typical American intakes of micro- and macronutrients, the total Western diet (TWD)...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921322/the-heterophoria-of-3-5-year-old-children-as-a-function-of-viewing-distance-and-target-type
#13
Mary E Troyer, Vidhyapriya Sreenivasan, T J Peper, T Rowan Candy
PURPOSE: Heterophoria is the misalignment of the eyes in monocular viewing and represents the accuracy of vergence driven by all classical cues except disparity. It is challenging to assess restless children using clinical cover tests, and phoria in early childhood is poorly understood. Here we used eye tracking to assess phoria as a function of viewing distance and target in adults and young children, with comparison to clinical cover tests. METHODS: Purkinje image tracking (MCS PowerRefractor) was used to record eye alignment in adults (19-28 years, N = 24) and typically developing children (3-5 years, N = 24)...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921311/the-neurobiology-of-parenting-a-neural-circuit-perspective
#14
Johannes Kohl, Anita E Autry, Catherine Dulac
Social interactions are essential for animals to reproduce, defend their territory, and raise their young. The conserved nature of social behaviors across animal species suggests that the neural pathways underlying the motivation for, and the execution of, specific social responses are also maintained. Modern tools of neuroscience have offered new opportunities for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms controlling specific social responses. We will review here recent insights into the neural circuits underlying a particularly fascinating and important form of social interaction, that of parental care...
December 6, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921299/one-dose-per-day-compared-to-multiple-doses-per-day-of-gentamicin-for-treatment-of-suspected-or-proven-sepsis-in-neonates
#15
REVIEW
Shripada C Rao, Ravisha Srinivasjois, Kwi Moon
BACKGROUND: Animal studies and trials in older children and adults suggest that a 'one dose per day' regimen of gentamicin is superior to a 'multiple doses per day' regimen. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of one dose per day compared to multiple doses per day of gentamicin in suspected or proven sepsis in neonates. SEARCH METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library (searched 8 April 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to 8 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 8 April 2016), and CINAHL (December 1982 to 8 April 2016)...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921147/can-the-alendronate-dosage-be-altered-when-combined-with-high-frequency-loading-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#16
C B Correa, G V Camargos, M Chatterjee, M F Mesquita, A A Del Bel Cury, I Naert, J Duyck, K Vandamme
: Alendronate therapy has been associated with serious side effects. Altering the alendronate concentration and combining with high-frequency loading as mechanical intervention was explored in this animal study as a treatment for osteoporosis. The bone anabolic potency of high-frequency loading was overruled by the different alendronate dosages applied in the present study. Further exploration of reduced hormonal therapy associated with mechanical interventions in osteoporosis treatment should be sought...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921136/penicillium-roqueforti-pr-toxin-gene-cluster-characterization
#17
Pedro I Hidalgo, Elisabeth Poirier, Ricardo V Ullán, Justine Piqueras, Laurence Meslet-Cladière, Emmanuel Coton, Monika Coton
PR toxin is a well-known isoprenoid mycotoxin almost solely produced by Penicillium roqueforti after growth on food or animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as the most toxic produced by this species. In this study, an in silico analysis allowed identifying for the first time a 22.4-kb biosynthetic gene cluster involved in PR toxin biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. The pathway contains 11 open reading frames encoding for ten putative proteins including the major fungal terpene cyclase, aristolochene synthase, involved in the first farnesyl-diphosphate cyclization step as well as an oxidoreductase, an oxidase, two P450 monooxygenases, a transferase, and two dehydrogenase enzymes...
December 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921111/rapid-detection-of-hendra-virus-antibodies-an-integrated-device-with-nanoparticle-assay-and-chaotic-micromixing
#18
K Petkovic, G Metcalfe, H Chen, Y Gao, M Best, D Lester, Y Zhu
Current diagnosis of infectious diseases such as Hendra virus (HeV) relies mostly on laboratory-based tests. There is an urgent demand for rapid diagnosis technology to detect and identify these diseases in humans and animals so that disease spread can be controlled. In this study, an integrated lab-on-a-chip device using a magnetic nanoparticle immunoassay is developed. The key features of the device are the chaotic fluid mixing, achieved by magnetically driven motion of nanoparticles with the optimal mixing protocol developed using chaotic transport theory, and the automatic liquid handling system for loading reagents and samples...
December 6, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921095/journey-from-the-center-of-the-cell-the-intra-and-intercellular-transport-of-mrna
#19
Anna Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Wojciech Kwiatkowski, Alicja Starosta, Przemysław Wojtaszek
Transport and localized translation of mRNA is crucial for the proper spatiotemporal organization of proteins within cells. Distribution of RNAs to subcellular domains has recently emerged as a major mechanism for establishing functionally distinct compartments and structures in the cells. There is an emerging evidence that active transport of mRNA involves cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking pathways in fungi, plants and animals, suggesting that it is a common phenomenon among eukaryotes. The important highlights are that the RNA-binding proteins recognize the cargo mRNA and that RNPs are actively transported on the cytoskeletal tracks or co-transported with membranous compartments, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and endosomes...
December 6, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920899/diagnosing-clean-margins-through-raman-spectroscopy-in-human-and-animal-mammary-tumour-surgery-a-short-review
#20
REVIEW
I A Birtoiu, C Rizea, D Togoe, R M Munteanu, C Micsa, M I Rusu, M Tautan, L Braic, L O Scoicaru, A Parau, N D Becherescu-Barbu, M V Udrea, A Tonetto, R Notonier, C E A Grigorescu
Breast cancer frequency in human and other mammal female populations has worryingly increased lately. The acute necessity for taxonomy of the aetiological factors along with seeking for new diagnostic tools and therapy procedures aimed at reducing mortality have yielded in an intense research effort worldwide. Surgery is a regular method to counteract extensive development of breast cancer and prevent metastases provided that negative surgical margins are achieved. This highly technical challenge requires fast, extremely sensitive and selective discrimination between malignant and benign tissues even down to molecular level...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
keyword
keyword
15900
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"