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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343366/motor-learning-in-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-motor-cortex
#1
REVIEW
Tonghui Xu, Shaofang Wang, Rupa R Lalchandani, Jun B Ding
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion causes major changes in the brain, resulting in the typical cardinal motor features of the disease. PD neuropathology has been restricted to postmortem examinations, which are limited to only a single time of PD progression. Models of PD in which dopamine tone in the brain is chemically or physically disrupted are valuable tools in understanding the mechanisms of the disease. The basal ganglia have been well studied in the context of PD, and circuit changes in response to dopamine loss have been linked to the motor dysfunctions in PD...
March 25, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343320/allergic-airway-inflammation-induces-migration-of-mast-cell-populations-into-the-mouse-airway
#2
David Schmit, Duc Dung Le, Sebastian Heck, Markus Bischoff, Thomas Tschernig, Christian Herr, Christoph Beisswenger, Peter Kobelt, Phillipp Moritz Lepper, Kian Fan Chung, Robert Bals, Quoc Thai Dinh
Mast cells (MCs) and airway nerves play an important role in allergic asthma. However, little is known about the MCs and their interaction with airway nerves during allergic airway inflammation. This study aims to investigate the distribution and proliferation of MC populations in different lung compartments, along with the association of mast cells with nerve endings, using a house dust mite (HDM) model for allergic airway inflammation. BALB/c mice were exposed to HDM extract intranasally (25 μg/50 μl) for 5 consecutive days a week over 7 weeks...
March 25, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343308/the-nociceptive-withdrawal-response-of-the-foot-in-the-spinalized-rat-exhibits-limited-dependence-on-stimulus-location
#3
Corey L Cleland, Craig E Esquivel, Heath T Davis
The nociceptive withdrawal response (NWR) of the limb is a protective, multi-joint movement in response to noxious stimulation of the homonymous limb. Previous studies in animal models differed as to the dependence of the response direction and magnitude on stimulus location. The specific aim of our research was to use three-dimensional high-speed video to determine whether movement of the foot in response to heat stimuli delivered to the foot and lower leg depended on the location of the stimulus. In particular, we sought to determine whether the movement strategy was categorical or continuous...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343303/can-real-time-rgbd-enhance-intraoperative-cone-beam-ct
#4
Javad Fotouhi, Bernhard Fuerst, Wolfgang Wein, Nassir Navab
PURPOSE: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is an important 3D imaging technology for orthopedic, trauma, radiotherapy guidance, angiography, and dental applications. The major limitation of CBCT is the poor image quality due to scattered radiation, truncation, and patient movement. In this work, we propose to incorporate information from a co-registered Red-Green-Blue-Depth (RGBD) sensor attached near the detector plane of the C-arm to improve the reconstruction quality, as well as correcting for undesired rigid patient movement...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343296/ibuprofen-protects-from-cypermethrin-induced-changes-in-the-striatal-dendritic-length-and-spine-density
#5
Pratibha Tripathi, Ashish Singh, Lakshmi Bala, Devendra Kumar Patel, Mahendra Pratap Singh
Microgliosis and inflammation are major wrongdoers in cypermethrin-induced Parkinsonism along with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein aggregation. Dopamine depletion could alter dendritic morphology, length and spine number in the striatum. Present study investigated the effect of ibuprofen on the dendritic morphology, length and spine density in cypermethrin PD model. Male pups were treated intraperitoneally with cypermethrin during postnatal days followed by adulthood to induce Parkinsonism using standard procedure along with controls...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343295/identification-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-1-s1p1-as-a-pathogenic-factor-in-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#6
Bhakta Prasad Gaire, Chi-Ho Lee, Arjun Sapkota, Sang Yeul Lee, Jerold Chun, Hee Jun Cho, Tae-Gyu Nam, Ji Woong Choi
Medically relevant roles of receptor-mediated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling have become a successful or promising target for multiple sclerosis or cerebral ischemia. Animal-based proof-of-concept validation for the latter is particularly through the neuroprotective efficacy of FTY720, a non-selective S1P receptor modulator, presumably via activation of S1P1. In spite of a clear link between S1P signaling and cerebral ischemia, it remains unknown whether the role of S1P1 is pathogenic or neuroprotective...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343287/catabolic-effects-of-fgf-1-on-chondrocytes-and-its-possible-role-in-osteoarthritis
#7
Abdellatif El-Seoudi, Tarek Abd El Kader, Takashi Nishida, Takanori Eguchi, Eriko Aoyama, Masaharu Takigawa, Satoshi Kubota
Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is a classical member of the FGF family and is produced by chondrocytes cultured from osteoarthritic patients. Also, this growth factor was shown to bind to CCN family protein 2 (CCN2), which regenerates damaged articular cartilage and counteracts osteoarthritis (OA) in an animal model. However, the pathophysiological role of FGF-1 in cartilage has not been well investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of FGF-1 in vitro and its production in vivo by use of an OA model...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343277/pancreatic-alpha-cell-selective-deletion-of-tcf7l2-impairs-glucagon-secretion-and-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycaemia-in-mice
#8
Gabriela da Silva Xavier, Angeles Mondragon, Vishnou Mourougavelou, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Jessica Denom, Pedro Luis Herrera, Christophe Magnan, Guy A Rutter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor and downstream effector of the Wnt signalling pathway. SNPs in the TCF7L2 gene have previously been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. In animal studies, loss of Tcf7l2 function is associated with defective islet beta cell function and survival. Here, we explore the role of TCF7L2 in the control of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia by generating mice with selective deletion of the Tcf7l2 gene in pancreatic alpha cells...
March 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343269/neophobia-is-negatively-related-to-reversal-learning-ability-in-females-of-a-generalist-bird-of-prey-the-chimango-caracara-milvago-chimango
#9
Jorgelina María Guido, Laura Marina Biondi, Aldo Ivan Vasallo, Rubén Nestor Muzio
In an ever-changing environment, the ability to adapt choices to new conditions is essential for daily living and ultimately, for survival. Behavioural flexibility allows animals to maximise survival and reproduction in novel settings by adjusting their behaviour based on specific information and feedback acquired in their current environments. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that an individual's personality type can limit the extent to which the individual might behave flexibly, by influencing the way an individual pays attention to novelty and how much information it collects and stores, which in turn affects the individual's decision-making and learning process...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343263/genotypic-and-pathogenic-characterization-of-genotype-vii-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-from-commercial-farms-in-egypt-and-evaluation-of-heterologous-antibody-responses
#10
A M Saad, Ahmed Samy, M A Soliman, A Arafa, A Zanaty, M K Hassan, A H Sultan, A I Bazid, A H Hussein
Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) represent a major threat to poultry production worldwide. Recently in Egypt NDV circulated extensively, even in vaccinated farms. In the present study samples were collected from sixteen vaccinated broiler farms in animals exhibiting the typical gross lesions of NDV. Virus isolation and pathogenicity studies for positive samples were carried out in accordance to reference procedures and phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on partial sequences of the Fusion gene. Furthermore, in vivo investigation of the ability of heterologous antibody, induced by commercially available lentogenic strain-based vaccines, to efficiently reduce viral shedding was examined...
March 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#11
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343223/sildenafil-enhances-quantity-of-immature-neurons-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-the-developing-ischemic-mouse-brain
#12
Jonas Engels, Natalie Elting, Lisa Braun, Ivo Bendix, Josephine Herz, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Mark Dzietko
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain occurs in 1 out of 1,000 live births and remains a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. A large number of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae including seizures and neurological deficits. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of recovery after HI insult are not clearly understood, and preventive measures or clinical treatments are nonexistent or not sufficiently effective in the clinical setting...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#13
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343195/research-of-the-protection-actions-of-derived-2-oxoindole-in-acute-stress
#14
Ruslan V Lutsenko, Andrei V Vakhnenko, Elena V Vlasova
INTRODUCTION: Correction of pathological anxiety and stress level of frustration leads to the development of new anxiolytics, notably including derivatives of 2-oksoyndolyn- 3-hlyoksylic acid. The aim of work - to study the effect of 2-oksyindolin-3-hlyoksylic acid on emotional and behavioral reactions of rats subjected to behavioral stress tests of different averiability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In experiments on 150 white mature male rats Wistar investigated the effects of 2-oksoindolin (2-hydroxy-N-naphthalene-1-yl-2-(2-hydroxy-1,2- dihydro-indole-3-ylidene)-acetamide) with laboratory codes 18 when intraperitoneally administered to acute immobilization stress on Sel'ye on emotional and behavioral responses of animals to test «open field», «a raised cross maze» and test «conflict behavior» (option Vogel)...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343145/effects-of-tiletamine-on-the-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system
#15
Li-Xue Su, Xing-Xing Shi, Peng Yang, Hao Chen, Xin Li, Hong-Gang Fan, Hong-Bin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The dissociative anesthetic tiletamine, which acts on the central nervous system (CNS), is widely used in veterinary medicine and animal experiments. Recent studies indicate that adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the analgesic action of tiletamine. In the present study, the effects of tiletamine on the AMPK signaling pathway in rats were investigated. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with tiletamine and executed at 10, 20, 40 and 60min post injection...
March 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343142/circuit-mechanisms-of-sleepiness-and-cataplexy-in-narcolepsy
#16
REVIEW
Sara Pintwala, John Peever
Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder caused by loss of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy are the major complaints in narcolepsy, and are associated with impaired quality of life. Although it is unclear how orexin loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy, animal models have been instrumental in identifying the neurobiological underpinnings of narcolepsy because they reliably recapitulate disease symptoms. Current evidence indicates that orexin cell loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy by destabilizing the ability of the circuits that initiate and sustain normal levels of arousal and motor activity...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343084/role-of-pterostilbene-in-attenuating-immune-mediated-devastation-of-pancreatic-beta-cells-via-nrf2-signaling-cascade
#17
Dornadula Sireesh, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Umapathy Dhamodharan, Murugesan Sakthivadivel, Srinivasan Sivasubramanian, Palani Gunasekaran, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2) is a transcription factor that regulates oxidative/xenobiotic stress response and also suppress inflammation. Nrf2 signaling is associated with an increased susceptibility to various kinds of stress. Nrf2 has been shown as a promising therapeutic target in various human diseases including diabetes. Our earlier studies showed Pterostilbene (PTS) as a potent Nrf2 activator, and it protects the pancreatic β-cells against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated PTS confer protection against cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis and its role on insulin secretion in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343073/breviscapine-confers-a-neuroprotective-efficacy-against-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-attenuating-neuronal-and-astrocytic-autophagy-in-the-penumbra
#18
Zhang Pengyue, Guo Tao, He Hongyun, Yang Liqiang, Deng Yihao
Breviscapine is a flavonoid derived from a traditional Chinese herb Erigerin breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, and has been extensively used in clinical treatment for cerebral stroke in China, but the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear. In present study, we investigated whether breviscapine could confer a neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury by targeting autophagy mechanisms. A cerebral stroke model in Sprague-Dawley rats was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), rats were then randomly divided into 5 groups: MCAO+Bre group, rats were treated with breviscapine; MCAO+Tat-Beclin-1 group, animals were administrated with specific autophagy inducer Tat-Beclin-1; MCAO+Bre+Tat-Beclin-1 group, rats were treated with both breviscapine and Tat-Beclin-1, MCAO+saline group, rats received the same volume of physiological saline, and Sham surgery group...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343033/quinocetone-induces-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-hepg2-cells-through-ros-dependent-promotion-of-vdac1-oligomerization-and-suppression-of-wnt1-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#19
Xiayun Yang, Shusheng Tang, Chongshan Dai, Daowen Li, Shen Zhang, Sijun Deng, Yan Zhou, Xilong Xiao
Quinocetone (QCT) has been used as an animal feed additive in China since 2003. However, investigations indicate that QCT has potential toxicity due to the fact that it shows cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and immunotoxicity in vitro and animal models. Although QCT-induced mitochondrial apoptosis has been established, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the role of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) oligomerization and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in QCT-induced mitochondrial apoptosis...
March 23, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343020/selenium-speciation-influences-bioaccumulation-in-limnodynastes-peronii-tadpoles
#20
C M Lanctôt, S D Melvin, T Cresswell
Despite being essential for animal health and fitness, Se has a relatively narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and excess Se can cause a variety of adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to contaminants during larval aquatic life stage, because they can accumulate toxic ions through various routes including skin, gills, lungs and digestive tract. Few attempts have been made to understand the tissue-specific accumulation of trace elements, including the impacts of chemical speciation in developing amphibian larvae...
March 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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