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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149704/gold-nanoparticles-as-an-adjuvant-influence-of-size-shape-and-technique-of-combination-with-cpg-on-antibody-production
#1
Lev A Dykman, Sergey A Staroverov, Alexander S Fomin, Vitaly A Khanadeev, Boris N Khlebtsov, Vladimir A Bogatyrev
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are advantageous as an adjuvant in the design of effective vaccines and in the preparation of high-affinity antibodies to haptens and complete antigens. Another method of activating immunocompetent cells with colloidal gold is to conjugate GNPs with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). We examined how the size and shape of GNPs and various combinations of GNPs and CpG ODNs 1826 affect the immune response. When animals were injected with a model antigen (BSA) coupled to gold nanospheres (diameters, 15 and 50nm), nanorods, nanoshells, and nanostars, the titers of the resultant antibodies differed substantially...
November 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149691/the-influence-of-intention-and-outcome-on-evaluations-of-social-interaction
#2
Xiaoying Wu, Rui Hua, Zhangxiang Yang, Jun Yin
Reading and making sense of social interactions between individuals is an important part of our daily social lives. Given that actions tend to be interpreted in terms of intent within the observed outcome, we investigated how intent and outcome interactively influence evaluations of social interactions. Through visual animations, intent was operationalized as an agent's (i.e., actor's) act intentionally or unintentionally having an influence on another agent (i.e., affectee). In Experiment 1, the act was helpful and the consequences brought small or great benefits to the affectee...
November 13, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149648/dried-plum-alleviates-symptoms-of-inflammatory-arthritis-in-tnf-transgenic-mice
#3
Faryal Mirza, Joseph Lorenzo, Hicham Drissi, Francis Y Lee, Do Y Soung
Dried plum (DP), a rich source of polyphenols has been shown to have bone-preserving properties in both animal models of osteoporosis and postmenopausal women. We evaluated if DP alleviated the destruction of joints in transgenic mice (TG) that overexpress human tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a genetic model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A four-week treatment of 20% DP diet in TG slowed the onset of arthritis and reduced bone erosions in the joints compared to TG on a regular diet. This was associated with fewer tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells, suggesting decreased osteoclastogenesis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149630/age-related-vulnerability-of-pattern-separation-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#4
Aurélia Cès, Thibaut Burg, Karine Herbeaux, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Chantal Mathis
Aging is associated with impaired performance in behavioral pattern separation (PS) tasks based on similarities in object features and in object location. These deficits have been attributed to functional alterations in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 region. Animal studies suggested a role of adult-born DG neurons in PS performance. The present study investigated the effect of aging in C57BL/6J mice performing PS tasks based on either object features or object location. At the age of 18 months or more, performance was severely impaired in both tasks...
October 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149629/development-and-application-of-rti-pcr-method-for-common-food-pathogen-presence-and-quantity-in-beef-sheep-and-chicken-meat
#5
Ismail Akyol
Two different RTi-PCR protocol were designed and quantifications were validated by using various amounts of DNA. Multiplex AG(R)1 and AG(R)2 RTi-PCR amplification reactions quantified successfully for Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Using the validated multiplex RTi-PCR reactions, the presence and quantification of pathogens were investigated in 40 beef, 41 sheep and 30 chicken meat samples. Results showed that the existence of C...
November 14, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149625/the-effects-of-pre-and-post-slaughter-spray-application-with-organic-acids-on-microbial-population-reductions-on-beef-carcasses
#6
Hoa Van Ba, Hyun-Woo Seo, Seong Pil-Nam, Yoon-Seok Kim, Beom Young Park, Sung-Sil Moon, Se-Ju Kang, Yong-Min Choi, Jin-Hyoung Kim
As an attempt to control bacterial cross-contamination of beef carcasses, in the present investigation acetic acid and lactic acid (3% v/v) were used for bacterial decontamination. For the decontamination, cows were sprayed with each above acid at two different stages; (i) on live animal's hides, (ii) on carcass surfaces immediately after slaughter. Microbiological samples were taken on different hide areas of animals before spraying and on carcass surfaces at 24h after spraying. Meat quality traits were also analyzed on the sprayed animals...
November 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149614/risky-business-the-circuits-that-impact-stress-induced-decision-making
#7
Amy F T Arnsten, Daeyeol Lee, Christopher Pittenger
How does stress promote risky decision-making? Friedman et al. find that stress disrupts inhibition of striatal circuits by prefrontal cortex, rendering animals insensitive to potential losses. This may help explain how stress contributes to substance abuse and how it can disinhibit automatic behaviors, such as tics in Tourette syndrome.
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149613/tuning-biased-gpcr-signaling-for-physiological-gain
#8
Skylar Spangler, Michael R Bruchas
Effective and safe doses of opiate painkillers, like morphine, can be limited by respiratory depression. Schmid et al. (2017) now present a quantitative method to design ligands and correlate GPCR signaling bias to the dose separation between therapeutic and adverse effects in animals.
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149574/transscleral-passive-and-iontophoretic-transport-theory-and-analysis
#9
S Kevin Li, Jinsong Hao
INTRODUCTION: The sclera is considered the "static barrier," a main barrier for transscleral drug delivery. The characterization of passive and iontophoretic transport across the sclera in vitro is the first step towards our ability to predict transscleral drug delivery. Although previous studies have investigated this topic, the quantitative structure permeation relationships (QSPR) for passive and iontophoretic transscleral transport are not available. AREAS COVERED: This review evaluated previous passive permeation and iontophoresis results of transscleral transport in vitro and examined QSPR for transscleral permeation of small permeants and macromolecules...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149433/predictive-values-of-pulse-pressure-variation-and-stroke-volume-variation-for-fluid-responsiveness-in-patients-with-pneumoperitoneum
#10
Marko Zlicar, Vesna Novak-Jankovic, Rok Blagus, Maurizio Cecconi
Animal studies suggest that dynamic predictors remain useful in patients with pneumoperitoneum, but human data is conflicting. Our aim was to determine predictive values of pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) in patients with pneumoperitoneum using LiDCORapid™ haemodynamic monitor. Standardised fluid challenges of colloid were administered to patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures, one fluid challenge per patient. Intra-abdominal pressure was automatically held at 12 mmHg...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149409/translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-tctp-hrf-in-animal-venoms
#11
Andrea Senff-Ribeiro
Proteins from TCTP/HRF family were identified as venom toxins of spiders from different genus. We have found a TCTP toxin in the venom gland of Loxosceles intermedia, a venomous spider very common in South Brazil. TCTP from L. intermedia, named LiTCTP, was cloned, produced in a heterologous prokaryotic system, and the recombinant toxin was biochemically characterized. Our results point that LiTCTP is involved in the inflammatory events of Loxocelism, the clinical signs triggered after Loxosceles sp. bite, which include intense inflammatory reaction at the bite site followed by local necrosis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149408/function-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-in-organ-growth-lessons-from-drosophila-studies
#12
Kwang-Wook Choi, Sung-Tae Hong, Thao Phuong Le
Regulation of cell growth and proliferation is crucial for development and function of organs in all animals. Genetic defects in growth control can lead to developmental disorders and cancers. Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in cancer. Recent studies have revealed multiple roles of TCTP in diverse cellular events, but TCTP functions in vivo are poorly understood in vertebrate systems. We have used Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, as a model organism for genetic dissection of Tctp function...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149407/roles-of-the-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-tctp-in-plant-development
#13
Léo Betsch, Julie Savarin, Mohammed Bendahmane, Judit Szecsi
The Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is a conserved protein which expression was associated with several biochemical and cellular functions. Loss-of-function mutants are lethal both in animals and in plants, making the identification of its exact role difficult. Recent data using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana provided the first viable adult knockout for TCTP and helped addressing the biological role of TCTP during organ development and the functional conservation between plants and animals...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#14
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149403/structure-function-relationship-of-tctp
#15
Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares, Roberto Ruiz-Medrano
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a small, multifunctional protein found in most, if not all, eukaryotic lineages, involved in a myriad of key regulatory processes. Among these, the control of proliferation and inhibition of cell death, as well as differentiation, are the most important, and it is probable that other responses are derived from the ability of TCTP to influence them in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In the latter, an additional function for TCTP stems from its capacity to be secreted via a nonclassical pathway and function in a non-cell autonomous (paracrine) manner, thus affecting the responses of neighboring or distant cells to developmental or environmental stimuli (as in the case of serum TCTP/histamine-releasing factor in mammals and phloem TCTP in Arabidopsis)...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149385/pre-clinical-models-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-challenges-and-lessons-learned
#16
REVIEW
Patrick M Kochanek, Jessica S Wallisch, Hülya Bayır, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE: Despite the enormity of the problem and the lack of new therapies, research in the pre-clinical arena specifically using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) models is limited. In this review, some of the key models addressing both the age spectrum of pediatric TBI and its unique injury mechanisms will be highlighted. Four topics will be addressed, namely, (1) unique facets of the developing brain important to TBI model development, (2) a description of some of the most commonly used pre-clinical models of severe pediatric TBI including work in both rodents and large animals, (3) a description of the pediatric models of mild TBI and repetitive mild TBI that are relatively new, and finally (4) a discussion of challenges, gaps, and potential future directions to further advance work in pediatric TBI models...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149350/a-data-fusion-pipeline-for-generating-and-enriching-adverse-outcome-pathway-descriptions
#17
Penny Nymark, Linda Rieswijk, Friederike Ehrhart, Nina Jeliazkova, Georgia Tsiliki, Haralambos Sarimveis, Chris T Evelo, Vesa Hongisto, Pekka Kohonen, Egon Willighagen, Roland C Grafström
Increasing amounts of systems toxicology data, including omics results, are becoming publically available and accessible in databases. Data-driven and informatics-tool supported pipeline schemas for fitting such data into Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) descriptions could potentially aid the development of non-animal based hazard and risk assessment methods. We devised a six-step workflow that integrated diverse types of toxicology data into a novel AOP scheme for pulmonary fibrosis. Mining of literature references and diverse data sources covering previous pathway descriptions and molecular results were coupled in a stepwise manner with informatics tools applications that enabled gene linkage and pathway identification in molecular interaction maps...
November 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149329/polymyxin-derivatives-nab739-and-nab815-are-more-effective-than-polymyxin-b-in-murine-escherichia-coli-pyelonephritis
#18
Martti Vaara, Timo Vaara, Carina Vingsbo Lundberg
Objectives: Extremely multiresistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae, such as those of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are emerging and spreading at a worrisome speed. Polymyxins (polymyxin B, colistin) are used as last-line therapy against such strains, in spite of their notable nephrotoxicity that may even require discontinuation of the therapy. We have previously developed polymyxin derivatives NAB739 and NAB815 that are better tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys than polymyxin B and are, in contrast to polymyxin B, excreted in the cynomolgus urine to a very significant degree...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149324/pyrethroid-insecticide-cypermethrin-modulates-gonadotropin-synthesis-via-calcium-homeostasis-and-erk1-2-signaling-in-l%C3%AE-t2-mouse-pituitary-cells
#19
Feixue Li, Huihui Ma, Jing Liu
Pyrethroids are a class of widely used insecticides. Cypermethrin (CP) is one of most commonly used pyrethroid insecticides and its residue has been frequently detected in environmental media. Our recent animal study reported that early postnatal exposure to CP induced an increase in serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as the expression of gonadotropin subunit genes [chorionic gonadotropin α (CGα), LHβ and FSHβ] in pituitary tissues. In this study, we further investigated the precise mechanism by which CP at concentrations of 1-100 nM affected the synthesis of gonadotropins using a murine pituitary gonadotropic cell line LβT2...
November 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149296/comparative-transcriptomics-of-five-high-altitude-vertebrates-and-their-low-altitude-relatives
#20
Qianzi Tang, Yiren Gu, Xuming Zhou, Long Jin, Jiuqiang Guan, Rui Liu, Jing Li, Kereng Long, Shilin Tian, Tiandong Che, Silu Hu, Yan Liang, Xuemei Yang, Xuan Tao, Zhijun Zhong, Guosong Wang, Xiaohui Chen, Diyan Li, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Miaomiao Mai, An'an Jiang, Xiaolin Luo, Xuebin Lv, Vadim N Gladyshev, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Background: Species living at high altitude are subject to strong selective pressures due to inhospitable environments (e.g., hypoxia, low temperature, high solar radiation, and lack of biological production), making these species valuable models for comparative analyses of local adaptation. Studies that examined high-altitude adaptation identified a vast array of rapidly evolving genes that characterize the dramatic phenotypic changes in high-altitude animals. However, how high-altitude environment shapes gene expression programs remains largely unknown...
November 15, 2017: GigaScience
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