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Aggression training

Anita Li, Alan Poling
People with autism spectrum disorder often receive psychotropic medications and two drugs, risperidone and aripiprazole, are approved for treating "irritability" in this population. A number of authors have suggested that behavior analysts can contribute to the prudent use of such drugs, but little is known regarding Board Certified Behavior Analysts' involvement in practices relevant to the use of psychotropic drugs. We e-mailed Board Certified Behavior Analysts an anonymous web-based survey regarding such practices...
December 31, 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Mine Ergelen, Murat Yalçın, Rabia Bilici
Objective: The objectives of this study are, first, to explore the prevalence of lifetime violent and criminal behaviors among alcohol, opioid, and synthetic cannabinoid (SC) users in the treatment program; second, to examine and compare sociodemographic characteristics, childhood traumatic experiences, and impulsivity of these groups. Patients and method: This cross-sectional cohort study includes 110 male patients who received inpatient treatment in AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Addiction Treatment Center) Clinic of Erenköy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry and Neurology between October 2014 and May 2015, diagnosed with alcohol, opioid, SC use disorder...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Melanie Boxberg, Christine Bollwein, Korinna Jöhrens, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Bernhard Haller, Katja Steiger, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Andreas Kolk, Moritz Jesinghaus, Wilko Weichert
AIMS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) is a common tumour entity with a variable, partially highly aggressive clinical course. Recently, we proposed a novel (three-tiered) clinically useful grading scheme strongly associated with patient outcome in OSCC, consisting of a sum score of the histomorphological patterns tumour budding and cell nest size which outperforms WHO based grading algorithms currently in use. The aim of our study was to probe for interobserver and intraobserver reliability of this novel grading system...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Nazish Imran, Atif Rahman, Nakhshab Chaudhry, Aftab Asif
Background: We aimed to explore inner city school teachers' perceptions of problems faced in schools, it causes and role of schools and teachers in promoting child social and emotional well-being, using qualitative approach. Methods: Following ethical approval and informed consent, In-depth interviews were conducted in 2017 with twenty teachers belonging to four private schools in inner city area of Provincial capital, Lahore, Pakistan. Inclusion criteria were at least 12 years of formal education and minimum of 5 years' experience in teaching profession...
October 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Venkat Bhat, Mahmood Tazari, Kymberly D Watt, Mamatha Bhat
OBJECTIVE: To identify key predictors and survival outcomes of new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) in liver transplant (LT) recipients by using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of all adult LT recipients between October 1, 1987, and March 31, 2016, were analyzed using various machine learning methods. These data were divided into training (70%) and validation (30%) data sets to robustly determine predictors of NODAT...
December 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Lin-Wei Guo, Lin-Miao Jiang, Yue Gong, Hong-Hua Zhang, Xiao-Guang Li, Min He, Wei-Li Sun, Hong Ling, Xin Hu
Purpose: TNBC is generally more aggressive than other BC subtypes and has limited therapeutic options. We aimed to construct comprehensive and reliable nomograms to predict the OS and BCSS of TNBC patients to offer clinicians therapeutic guidance for improving the prognosis of TNBC patients. Patients and methods: We used the SEER 19 Cancer Registry to identify 21,419 eligible TNBC patients diagnosed from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015, and divided the database randomly into a training cohort (n=10,709) and a validation cohort (n=10,710)...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Kartikeya Rajdev, Nina Loghmanieh, Maria A Farberov, Seleshi Demissie, Theodore Maniatis
It is important for health-care providers to be comfortable in providing end-of-life (EOL) care to critically ill patients and realizing when continuing aggressive measures would be futile. Therefore, there is a need to understand health-care providers' self-perceived skills and barriers to providing optimum EOL care. A total of 660 health-care providers from medicine and surgery departments were asked via e-mail to complete an anonymous survey assessing their self-reported EOL care competencies, of which 238 responses were received...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Ruschelle M Leone, Dominic J Parrott
BACKGROUND: Bystander training programs aim to encourage third-party witnesses to intervene in high-risk sexual situations; however, these programs rarely focus on training bystanders to effectively intervene when intoxicated. This is not surprising due to the limited evidence on the proximal effects of alcohol on bystander intervention for sexual aggression. To this end, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of men's self-reported intent to help strangers and acute alcohol intoxication on the likelihood and speed of sexual aggression intervention...
November 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Benjamin W Sykes, Mark Bowen, Jocelyn L Habershon-Butcher, Martin Green, Gayle D Hallowell
BACKGROUND: To date, risk factors for equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) have not been described in Thoroughbred racehorses. OBJECTIVES: To determine management factors associated with EGGD, identify clinical signs in affected horses, and compare these to equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD). ANIMALS: The study was carried out on 109 Thoroughbred racehorses from 8 training yards (3 in the United Kingdom and 5 in Australia). METHODS: Gastroscopic examination alongside a questionnaire regarding management, feeding, exercise, and health...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Alan E Kazdin, Adam Glick, Jennifer Pope, Ted J Kaptchuk, Bernadette Lecza, Erin Carrubba, Emily McWhinney, Natasha Hamilton
Background/Objective: The study evaluated two variations of Parent Management Training (PMT) for children referred to treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. The goal was to evaluate the impact of multiple enhancements to optimize common and placebo factors to augment therapeutic change. Method: The families of all children ( N =138, 39 girls and 99 boys, ages 6-13) received PMT. One half of the families were assigned to receive an enhanced version with multiple additions designed to increase bonding of the parent to the therapist, professionalism of treatment and setting, credibility of the intervention, and expectancies for therapeutic change...
May 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology: IJCHP
Kai-Tak Poon, Wing-Yan Wong
Previous studies have focused almost exclusively on identifying the antecedents of aggression and violence; as such, there are virtually no experimental data about the psychological consequences of fantasizing aggressive and violent actions. The present experiment aimed to fill this significant informational void in the literature by testing whether aggressive fantasy would influence people's rumination tendency and subjective well-being. We hypothesized that aggressive fantasy would make people more likely to ruminate, which would thereby lower their subjective well-being...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Mohamad Alsalman, Brendan Colvert, Eva Kanso
We consider the inverse problem of classifying flow patterns from local sensory measurements. This problem is inspired by the ability of various aquatic organisms to respond to ambient flow signals, and is relevant for translating these abilities to underwater robotic vehicles. In Colvert, Alsalman and Kanso, B&B (2018), we trained neural networks to classify vortical flows by relying on a single flow sensor that measures a 'time history' of the local vorticity. Here, we systematically investigate the effects of distinct types of sensors on the accuracy of flow classification...
November 27, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chris Bonell, Elizabeth Allen, Emily Warren, Jennifer McGowan, Leonardo Bevilacqua, Farah Jamal, Rosa Legood, Meg Wiggins, Charles Opondo, Anne Mathiot, Jo Sturgess, Adam Fletcher, Zia Sadique, Diana Elbourne, Deborah Christie, Lyndal Bond, Stephen Scott, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: Bullying, aggression, and violence among children and young people are some of the most consequential public mental health problems. We tested the Learning Together intervention, which involved students in efforts to modify their school environment using restorative practice and by developing social and emotional skills. METHODS: We did a cluster randomised trial, with economic and process evaluations, of the Learning Together intervention compared with standard practice (controls) over 3 years in secondary schools in south-east England...
November 22, 2018: Lancet
Silvia Gonella, Ines Basso, Valerio Dimonte, Barbara Martin, Paola Berchialla, Sara Campagna, Paola Di Giulio
OBJECTIVE: Less aggressive end-of-life (EOL) care has been observed when health care professionals discuss approaching EOL and preferences about life-sustaining treatments with nursing home (NH) residents or their families. We performed a comprehensive systematic review to evaluate the association between health care professionals-residents and health care professionals-family EOL conversations and EOL care outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis...
November 20, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Fang Zhao, Ekaterina Olkhov-Mitsel, Shivani Kamdar, Renu Jeyapala, Julia Garcia, Rachel Hurst, Marcelino Yazbek Hanna, Robert Mills, Alexandra V Tuzova, Eve O'Reilly, Sarah Kelly, Colin Cooper, Daniel Brewer, Antoinette S Perry, Jeremy Clark, Neil Fleshner, Bharati Bapat
BACKGROUND: Prevention of unnecessary biopsies and overtreatment of indolent disease remains a challenge in the management of prostate cancer. Novel non-invasive tests that can identify clinically significant (intermediate-risk and high-risk) diseases are needed to improve risk stratification and monitoring of prostate cancer patients. Here, we investigated a panel of six DNA methylation biomarkers in urine samples collected post-digital rectal exam from patients undergoing prostate biopsy, for their utility to guide decision making for diagnostic biopsy and early detection of aggressive prostate cancer...
November 23, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Bo-Hao Zheng, Long-Zi Liu, Zhi-Zhi Zhang, Jie-Yi Shi, Liang-Qing Dong, Ling-Yu Tian, Zhen-Bin Ding, Yuan Ji, Sheng-Xiang Rao, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Xiao-Ying Wang, Qiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Radiomics is an emerging field in oncological research. In this study, we aimed at developing a radiomics score (rad-score) to estimate postoperative recurrence and survival in patients with solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A total of 319 solitary HCC patients (training cohort: n = 212; validation cohort: n = 107) were enrolled. Radiomics features were extracted from the artery phase of preoperatively acquired computed tomography (CT) in all patients...
November 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
Manuela Zebunke, Maren Kreiser, Nina Melzer, Jan Langbein, Birger Puppe
Delay-of-gratification paradigms, such as the famous "Marshmallow Test," are designed to investigate the complex cognitive concepts of self-control and impulse control in humans and animals. Such tests determine whether a subject will demonstrate impulse control by choosing a large, delayed reward over an immediate, but smaller reward. Documented relationships between impulsive behavior and aggression in humans and animals suggest important implications for farm animal husbandry and welfare, especially in terms of inadequate social behavior, tail biting and maternal behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Amirreza Mahbod, Gerald Schaefer, Isabella Ellinger, Rupert Ecker, Alain Pitiot, Chunliang Wang
Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer. Early detection is important as it significantly improves survival rates. Consequently, accurate discrimination of malignant skin lesions from benign lesions such as seborrheic keratoses or benign nevi is crucial, while accurate computerised classification of skin lesion images is of great interest to support diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic computerised method to classify skin lesions from dermoscopic images. Our approach is based on a novel ensemble scheme for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that combines intra-architecture and inter-architecture network fusion...
November 3, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Mildred Ngaage, Mark Agius
Scars can result from a range of causes: accidents, surgery, and even acne. The resultant change in appearance can negatively affect body image and self-confidence. Scarring is stigmatised in society because of the premium placed on beauty - disfigurement or unsightly features are still used to portray evil in horror films, comic strips, and fairy tales. Patients describe scars as living with the trauma and sufferers can feel devalued by society. Scars are inflexible and cause functional impairment which may prompt a change in career and have financial repercussions...
November 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Simone P Haller, Joel Stoddard, Caroline MacGillivray, Kelsey Stiles, Gretchen Perhamus, Ian S Penton-Voak, Yair Bar-Haim, Marcus R Munafò, Melissa A Brotman
BACKGROUND: Severe, chronic, and impairing irritability is a common presenting clinical problem in youth. Indeed, it was recently operationalized as disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in the DSM-5. However, to date, there are no evidence-based treatments that were specifically developed for DMDD. The current randomized controlled trial assesses the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training intervention (Interpretation Bias Training; IBT) in youth with DMDD. IBT aims to reduce irritability by altering judgments of ambiguous face-emotions through computerized feedback...
November 14, 2018: Trials
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