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Aggression training

Martin Lardén, Elisabeth Nordén, Mats Forsman, Niklas Långström
BACKGROUND: Aggression replacement training (ART) is a widely used cognitive behavioural intervention for reducing aggression-related recidivism among criminal offenders. Its effectiveness in reducing offending, however, remains uncertain. AIM: To examine the effect of ART on adult offenders' criminal recidivism rates. METHOD: We compared 1,124 convicted adult offenders who began ART in the Swedish Prison and Probation Services 2003-2009 with 3,372 offenders in the system at the same time who did not participate in ART...
October 16, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Jennifer K Brueckner-Collins, Terry D Stratton, Rosemarie L Conigliaro
There is growing evidence in the medical education literature for the aggressive need to recruit and retain the next generation of academic physicians. In 2008, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UK COM) developed an academic health careers (AHCs) program for preclinical medical students as an introduction into the practice of academic medicine. The goals of this elective experience included (1) highly customized training and mentorship experiences in research, teaching, and other aspects of academic medicine; (2) information and perspectives to assist students in making informed career choices, including options for academic careers; (3) access to academic career mentors and role models related to individual faculty research interests and teaching responsibilities; and (4) opportunities to network with UK COM administrators...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Kelly Chidgey, Nicholas Procter, Amy Baker, Carol Grech
Police are increasingly being called upon to respond to people experiencing suicidal crisis. Such incidents are a challenging aspect of modern policing. This paper reports on an integrative review study that aimed to investigate police responses to individuals displaying suicidal or self-harming behaviours. Six electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 2007 and 2017 relating to police responses to individuals in suicidal crisis. The review identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria...
October 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Leimarembi Devi Naorem, Mathavan Muthaiyan, Amouda Venkatesan
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has attracted more attention compared with other breast cancer subtypes due to its aggressive nature, poor prognosis, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment with no other approved targeted therapy. Therefore, the study aimed to discover more promising therapeutic targets and investigating new insights of biological mechanism of TNBC. Six microarray data sets consisting of 463 non-TNBC and 405 TNBC samples were mined from Gene Expression Omnibus. The data sets were integrated by meta-analysis and identified 1075 differentially expressed genes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
James G Scott, Michael Tunbridge, Stephen Stathis
Aggression in children is a common transdiagnostic symptom associated with a wide range of developmental and mental health problems. It emerges early and without intervention, may increase in severity as the child grows stronger. Aggressive children are more likely to experience physical and mental illness, unemployment, poverty and forensic problems as adults. Strategies to prevent aggression must address risk factors: low maternal education, adolescent pregnancy, in utero exposure to tobacco and alcohol, poverty, coercive parenting, childhood maltreatment and bullying victimisation...
October 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Anoop Misra, Naveed Sattar, Nikhil Tandon, Usha Shrivastava, Naval K Vikram, Kamlesh Khunti, Andrew P Hills
Compared with other ethnic groups, south Asian people with type 2 diabetes tend to develop the disease at a younger age and manifest with higher glycaemia, dyslipidaemia, nephropathy, and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, specific issues that can affect treatment of type 2 diabetes in south Asia include poor awareness of the disease, delay in diagnosis, inadequate treatment, the use of ineffective and often harmful alternative medicines, and frequent non-compliance with lifestyle recommendations and drug treatment...
October 1, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
John W McEvoy, John H Shatzer, Sanjay V Desai, Scott M Wright
Construct: Pimping is a controversial pedagogical technique in medicine, and there is a tension between pimping being considered as "value adding" in some circumstances versus always unacceptable. Consequently, faculty differ in their attitudes toward pimping, and such differences may be measurable and used to inform future research regarding the impact of pimping on learner outcomes. BACKGROUND: Despite renewed attention in medical education on creating a supportive learning environment, there is a dearth of prior research on pimping...
October 1, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Amanda E Halliburton, Matthew S Fritz
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is problematic for youth because of negative effects such as reduced fertility, increased aggression and exposure to toxic chemicals. An effective programme for addressing this problem is Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS). This secondary analysis expands prior research by identifying prominent mechanisms of change and highlighting key longitudinal processes that contributed to the success of ATLAS. The current sample consists of high-school football players ( N = 1...
2018: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
Jose M Net, Gary J Whitman, Elizabteh Morris, Kathleen R Brandt, Elizabeth S Burnside, Maryellen L Giger, Marie Ganott, Elizabeth J Sutton, Margarita L Zuley, Arvind Rao
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if human-extracted MRI tumor phenotypes of breast cancer could predict receptor status and tumor molecular subtype using MRIs from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our retrospective interpretation study utilized the analysis of HIPAA-compliant breast MRI data from The Cancer Imaging Archive. One hundred and seven preoperative breast MRIs of biopsy proven invasive breast cancers were analyzed by 3 fellowship-trained breast-imaging radiologists...
August 23, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Bonnie Leadbeater, Kara Thompson, Paweena Sukhawathanakul, Gabriel J Merrin
Research on the processes that enhance implementation fidelity is needed to increase understanding of ways to advance the uptake and sustainability of evidence-based programs (Berkel et al. in Prevention Science, 12, 23-33, 2011; Berkel et al. 2017). We propose and test a theoretical model of interrelations among implementation fidelity (i.e., adherence to program components), and rarely investigated activities of program users that may enhance fidelity; namely integration of program strategies into daily activities and children's use of program strategies (CUoPS)...
September 26, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Michele Cascardi, Christopher M King, Daniel Rector, Jill DelPozzo
The most recent legislative attempts to curb violence in schools have been school-based dating violence prevention laws. In the previous decade, there was an increase in legislation designed to prevent bullying in schools; these laws now exist in 50 states. However, most anti-bullying laws provide an expansive definition of bullying that includes any type of peer aggression, harassment, or teen dating violence (TDV). Having several different state and federal laws aimed at curtailing multiple forms of aggression may produce confusion about appropriate intervention and disciplinary responses, requiring school districts to develop parallel sets of policies, educational curricula, intervention approaches, and reporting requirements for overlapping behaviors that can be simultaneously peer aggression, bullying, harassment, and TDV...
November 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Niall Higgins, Thomas Meehan, Nathan Dart, Michael Kilshaw, Lisa Fawcett
BACKGROUND: The Safewards model is gaining increasing acceptance in the mental health field in Australia and overseas. One of the most important goals of inpatient psychiatric services is to provide a safe and therapeutic environment for both patients and staff. However, this goal can be difficult to achieve if staff-patient interaction is not conducive to preventing violence and aggression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore nursing staff perceptions of the factors impacting on their capacity to establish Safewards in acute adult inpatient wards...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Ineke R van Herwijnen, Joanne A M van der Borg, Marc Naguib, Bonne Beerda
Dog ownership satisfaction relates to the quality of life of both owner and dog, and when seriously compromised may even lead to dog abandonment. Knowledge on determinants of dog ownership satisfaction is limited, obstructing solutions for promoting satisfaction, and here we quantified causes making dog owners less than very satisfied with their dog. We focused on the owner perceived relationship with the dog, unwanted dog behaviour, and dog obedience class attendance. The study population included only few seriously dissatisfied dog owners, preventing discrimination of multiple levels below 'very satisfied'...
2018: PloS One
Tong Chen, Mengjuan Li, Yuefan Gu, Yueyue Zhang, Shuo Yang, Chaogang Wei, Jiangfen Wu, Xin Li, Wenlu Zhao, Junkang Shen
BACKGROUND: Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) combined with machine-aided approaches have shown high accuracy and sensitivity in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. However, radiomics-based analysis has not been thoroughly compared with Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) scores. PURPOSE: To develop and validate a radiomics-based model for differentiating PCa and assessing its aggressiveness compared with PI-RADS v2 scores. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Dominik Wolf, Carolin Rhein, Katharina Geschke, Andreas Fellgiebel
ABSTRACTObjectives:Dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with higher rates of complications and mortality during hospitalization in older patients. Moreover, length of hospital stay and costs are increased. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the frequency of hospitalizations caused by ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs), for which proactive ambulatory care might prevent the need for a hospital stay, in older patients with and without cognitive impairments. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
September 17, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Jill Beattie, Kelli Innes, Debra Griffiths, Julia Morphet
AIMS: To examine the neurobiological response experienced by healthcare workers when exposed to workplace violence perpetrated by consumers, with a view to informing future training and self-care strategies for staff well-being. BACKGROUND: Considerable work has been undertaken internationally to identify the causes of workplace violence and to develop legislation and guidance for reducing the risk in healthcare. However, there is a gap in understanding workers' innate neurobiological response to workplace violence, and how to prepare staff to recognise the professional and self-care implications of such a response...
October 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Pınar Yaprak, Mehmet Güçlü, Tebessüm Ayyildiz Durhan
Happiness, psychological hardiness, and humor ("the 3Hs") are useful ways of assessing resilience to stress in positive psychology. The literature analyzing their confluence regarding sports is scarce. This study aims to analyze the participants' 3H levels and the relationships between those levels and specific variables. The Psychological Hardiness Scale (Psikolojik Dayaniklilik Olcegi, PDO), the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form (OHQ-SF), and the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) were used...
September 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Muhammad Hassan Majeed, Ramsha Nadeem, Muhammad Abbas Khokhar, Muhammad Nawaz Qaisar
PURPOSE: Pain is highly prevalent in advanced cancer and requires aggressive management. However, pain management in cancer is minimally investigated in Pakistan. This cross-sectional study explores the adequacy of pain management in patients with advanced stage cancer in Pakistan. METHOD: From January 2017 to May 2017, a cross-sectional study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 218 patients with cancers were interviewed, and 136 patients with pain ≥5 on a Numerical Rating Scale for pain were included in the study...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
Franklin Schwartz, Pamela Bjorklund
BACKGROUND: The study of workplace violence has focused on quantifying the problem and profiling perpetrators and victims. Intervention studies are scarce. The diverse nature of violence risk in hospitals highlights the need for broad training in risk recognition and de-escalation. LOCAL PROBLEM: A violence management program was piloted on a general medical unit following staff requests for measures to protect them from patient and visitor violence. METHODS: An independent pre/posttest design measured changes in participant knowledge...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
Gil Bar-Sela, Michael J Schultz, Karima Elshamy, Maryam Rassouli, Eran Ben-Arye, Myrna Doumit, Nahla Gafer, Alaa Albashayreh, Ibtisam Ghrayeb, Ibrahim Turker, Gulcin Ozalp, Sultan Kav, Rasha Fahmi, Sophia Nestoros, Hasanein Ghali, Layth Mula-Hussain, Ilana Shazar, Rana Obeidat, Rehana Punjwani, Mohamad Khleif, Gulbeyaz Can, Gonca Tuncel, Haris Charalambous, Safa Faraj, Neophyta Keoppi, Mazin Al-Jadiry, Sergey Postovsky, Ma'an Al-Omari, Samaher Razzaq, Hani Ayyash, Khaled Khader, Rejin Kebudi, Suha Omran, Osaid Rasheed, Mohammed Qadire, Ahmet Ozet, Michael Silbermann
OBJECTIVE: When patients feel spiritually supported by staff, we find increased use of hospice and reduced use of aggressive treatments at end of life, yet substantial barriers to staff spiritual care provision still exist. We aimed to study these barriers in a new cultural context and analyzed a new subgroup with "unrealized potential" for improved spiritual care provision: those who are positively inclined toward spiritual care yet do not themselves provide it. METHOD: We distributed the Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Care Study via the Middle East Cancer Consortium to physicians and nurses caring for advanced cancer patients...
September 6, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
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