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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041174/gut-microbiota-composition-in-healthy-japanese-infants-and-young-adults-born-by-c-section
#1
REVIEW
Ravinder Nagpal, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Our gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in our health and disease. The microbial colonization of human gut begins immediately at birth and is an indispensable natural process that modulates our physiology and immunity. Recent studies are elegantly revealing how and when these microbes colonize the gut and what elements could potentially influence this natural phenomenon. The vertical mother-to-baby transmission of microbes is a crucial factor for normal development and maturation of newborn's immune, metabolic as well as neurological health...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016149/diabetes-associated-alterations-in-the-cecal-microbiome-and-metabolome-are-independent-of-diet-or-environment-in-the-uc-davis-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-rat-model
#2
Brian D Piccolo, James L Graham, Kimber L Stanhope, Intawat Nookaew, Kelly E Mercer, Sree V Chintapalli, Umesh D Wankhade, Kartik Shankar, Peter J Havel, Sean H Adams
The composition of the gut microbiome is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, it is not known whether these alterations are mediated by dietary factors or related to declines in metabolic health. To address this, cecal contents were collected from age-matched, chow-fed male UCD-T2DM rats before the onset of diabetes (pre-diabetic PD, n=15); 2 wk recently-diabetic (RD, n=10); 3 mo (D3M, n=11); and 6 mo (D6M, n=8) post-onset of diabetes. Bacterial species and functional gene counts were assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bacterial DNA in cecal contents, while metabolites were identified by GC-QTOF-MS...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942096/molecular-phenomics-and-metagenomics-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-non-diabetic-obese-women
#3
Lesley Hoyles, José-Manuel Fernández-Real, Massimo Federici, Matteo Serino, James Abbott, Julie Charpentier, Christophe Heymes, Jèssica Latorre Luque, Elodie Anthony, Richard H Barton, Julien Chilloux, Antonis Myridakis, Laura Martinez-Gili, José Maria Moreno-Navarrete, Fadila Benhamed, Vincent Azalbert, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Josep Puig, Gemma Xifra, Wifredo Ricart, Christopher Tomlinson, Mark Woodbridge, Marina Cardellini, Francesca Davato, Iris Cardolini, Ottavia Porzio, Paolo Gentileschi, Frédéric Lopez, Fabienne Foufelle, Sarah A Butcher, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K Nicholson, Catherine Postic, Rémy Burcelin, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
Hepatic steatosis is a multifactorial condition that is often observed in obese patients and is a prelude to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we combine shotgun sequencing of fecal metagenomes with molecular phenomics (hepatic transcriptome and plasma and urine metabolomes) in two well-characterized cohorts of morbidly obese women recruited to the FLORINASH study. We reveal molecular networks linking the gut microbiome and the host phenome to hepatic steatosis. Patients with steatosis have low microbial gene richness and increased genetic potential for the processing of dietary lipids and endotoxin biosynthesis (notably from Proteobacteria), hepatic inflammation and dysregulation of aromatic and branched-chain amino acid metabolism...
July 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934437/human-gut-microbiome-hopes-threats-and-promises
#4
REVIEW
Patrice D Cani
The microbiome has received increasing attention over the last 15 years. Although gut microbes have been explored for several decades, investigations of the role of microorganisms that reside in the human gut has attracted much attention beyond classical infectious diseases. For example, numerous studies have reported changes in the gut microbiota during not only obesity, diabetes, and liver diseases but also cancer and even neurodegenerative diseases. The human gut microbiota is viewed as a potential source of novel therapeutics...
June 22, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931981/supplementation-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-improves-markers-of-metabolic-dysfunction-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Alice Martinic, Javad Barouei, Zach Bendiks, Darya Mishchuk, Dustin D Heeney, Roy Martin, Maria L Marco, Carolyn M Slupsky
Obesity is a prevalent chronic condition in many developed and developing nations that raises the risk for developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that consuming particular probiotic strains of Lactobacillus is associated with improvement in the obese and diabetic phenotype; however, the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not well understood. In this study, C57BL/6J male mice were fed a lard-based high fat diet for 15 weeks with Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation NCIMB8826 (Lp) between weeks 10 and 15 ( n = 10 per group)...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931613/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Ömrüm Aydin, Max Nieuwdorp, Victor Gerdes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to critically assess the contributing role of the gut microbiota in human obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). RECENT FINDINGS: Experiments in animal and human studies have produced growing evidence for the causality of the gut microbiome in developing obesity and T2D. The introduction of high-throughput sequencing technologies has provided novel insight into the interpersonal differences in microbiome composition and function...
June 21, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925242/beneficial-metabolic-effects-of-2-3-5-triacetyl-n-6-3-hydroxylaniline-adenosine-in-multiple-biological-matrices-and-intestinal-flora-of-hyperlipidemic-hamsters
#7
Tianqi Li, Shanshan Sun, Jinyue Zhang, Kai Qu, Liu Yang, Changlu Ma, Xiangju Jin, Haibo Zhu, Yinghong Wang
Hyperlipidemia is one of the main causes of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and atherosclerosis. The adenosine derivative, 2',3',5'-triacetyl-N6 -(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) is an effective lipid-lowering compound that has important implications for the development of lipid-lowering drugs. Metabolomic analysis based on 1 H NMR was used to monitor dynamic changes in diverse biological media including serum, liver, urine, and feces in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and IMM-H007 treatments...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#8
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899081/major-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-severe-obesity-fate-after-bariatric-surgery
#9
Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Edi Prifti, Eugeni Belda, Farid Ichou, Brandon D Kayser, Maria Carlota Dao, Eric O Verger, Lyamine Hedjazi, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Jean-Marc Chevallier, Nicolas Pons, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Florence Levenez, Stanislav Dusko Ehrlich, Joel Dore, Jean-Daniel Zucker, Karine Clément
OBJECTIVES: Decreased gut microbial gene richness (MGR) and compositional changes are associated with adverse metabolism in overweight or moderate obesity, but lack characterisation in severe obesity. Bariatric surgery (BS) improves metabolism and inflammation in severe obesity and is associated with gut microbiota modifications. Here, we characterised severe obesity-associated dysbiosis (ie, MGR, microbiota composition and functional characteristics) and assessed whether BS would rescue these changes...
June 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873429/microbiome-in-normal-and-pathological-pregnancies-a-literature-overview
#10
Carla R Taddei, Ramon V Cortez, Rosiane Mattar, Maria Regina Torloni, Silvia Daher
This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867803/shifts-on-gut-microbiota-associated-to-mediterranean-diet-adherence-and-specific-dietary-intakes-on-general-adult-population
#11
Izaskun Garcia-Mantrana, Marta Selma-Royo, Cristina Alcantara, María C Collado
There is increasing evidence for the interaction between gut microbiome, diet, and health. It is known that dysbiosis is related to disease and that most of the times this imbalances in gut microbial populations can be promoted through diet. Western dietary habits, which are characterized by high intakes of calories, animal proteins, saturated fats, and simple sugars have been linked with higher risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the impact of dietary patterns, dietary components, and nutrients on gut microbiota in healthy people...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805314/gut-microbiota-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-current-applications-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Fengna Chu, Mingchao Shi, Yue Lang, Donghui Shen, Tao Jin, Jie Zhu, Li Cui
The gut environment and gut microbiome dysbiosis have been demonstrated to significantly influence a range of disorders in humans, including obesity, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The etiology of MS is not clear, and it should involve both genetic and extrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors responsible for predisposition to MS remain elusive. Recent studies on MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have found that gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712884/imbalance-of-gut-microbiome-and-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Judith N Lezutekong, Anish Nikhanj, Gavin Y Oudit
The main function of the intestinal barrier is to regulate the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from the lumen into circulation and to prevent the entry of pathogenic microorganisms and toxic luminal substances. To maintain this function, an ideal microbiota balance is required and gut microbiota are critical for the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. There is a demonstrable link between dysbiosis and intestinal dysfunction and diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710519/effects-of-shenling-baizhu-powder-herbal-formula-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-rats
#14
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694348/oral-microbiota-reveals-signs-of-acculturation-in-mexican-american-women
#15
Kristi L Hoffman, Diane S Hutchinson, Jerry Fowler, Daniel P Smith, Nadim J Ajami, Hua Zhao, Paul Scheet, Wong-Ho Chow, Joseph F Petrosino, Carrie R Daniel
The oral microbiome has been linked to a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, including obesity, diabetes, periodontitis, and cancers of the stomach and liver. These conditions disproportionately affect Mexican American women, yet few studies have examined the oral microbiota in this at-risk group. We characterized the 16S rDNA oral microbiome in 369 non-smoking women enrolled in the MD Anderson Mano a Mano Mexican American Cohort Study. Lower bacterial diversity, a potential indicator of oral health, was associated with increased age and length of US residency among recent immigrants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623708/-gut-microbiota-its-development-and-relation-to-certain-diseases
#17
Hana Kiňová Sepová, Boris Dudík, Andrea Bilková
Coexistence of humans with microorganisms is well known for a long time. Besides the association with infectious diseases, personal microbiota is important for human health, possibly for some non-infectious diseases. Colonization of the human body with appropriate microorganisms after delivery is essential for physiological immune system maturation and also has an influence on central nervous system development. The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by the mode of delivery, early life nutrition and last but not least by lifestyle and drug, especially antibiotics intake...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553541/a-method-to-define-the-effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-colon-microbiome-biodiversity-in-a-mouse-colon-tumor-model
#18
Andrew K Fuller, Benjamin D Bice, Ashlee R Venancio, Olivia M Crowley, Ambur M Staab, Stephanie J Georges, Julio R Hidalgo, Annika V Warncke, Melinda L Angus-Hill
Several recent studies have illustrated the beneficial effects of living in an enriched environment on improving human disease. In mice, environmental enrichment (EE) reduces tumorigenesis by activating the mouse immune system, or affects tumor bearing animal survival by stimulating the wound repair response, including improved microbiome diversity, in the tumor microenvironment. Provided here is a detailed procedure to assess the effects of environmental enrichment on the biodiversity of the microbiome in a mouse colon tumor model...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530806/the-association-between-gut-microbiome-sex-age-and-body-condition-scores-of-horses-in-maiduguri-and-its-environs
#19
Esther Solomon Mshelia, Lawan Adamu, Yakaka Wakil, Usman Aliyu Turaki, Isa Adamu Gulani, Jasini Musa
The equine gut harbours complex microbial populations which influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions, while disruption to the gut microbiota has been linked with conditions such as lameness, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the association between microbial dysbiosis, sex, age and body condition scores (BCS) of horses (Equus equus caballus) in Maiduguri and its environs. Forty horses were assessed by convenient sampling, while faecal samples were collected and analyzed to determine the microbiomes in the various age groups with variable BSC in stallions and mares...
May 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524863/the-gut-microbiome-and-elevated-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity-and-autoimmunity
#20
REVIEW
Lora J Kasselman, Nicholas A Vernice, Joshua DeLeon, Allison B Reiss
Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease...
April 2018: Atherosclerosis
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