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microbiota microbiome obesity diabetes

Norbert Joachim Tripolt, Felix Aberer, Jasmin Url, Christoph Högenauer, Florian Schreiber, Andreas Eherer, Caren Sourij, Anna-Maria Obermayer, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Eva Svehlikova, Martina Brunner, Harald Kojzar, Peter Nikolaus Pferschy, Thomas Rudolf Pieber, Harald Sourij
INTRODUCTION: A 60-cm endoscopically implantable duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (Endobarrier™, GI Dynamics, Lexington, MA, USA) has been introduced as a therapeutic option to support weight loss for a selected group of obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The sleeve prevents contact between chyme and the intestinal mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The primary aim of this study is to elucidate the changes in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after EndoBarrier™ implantation in obese patients with T2DM; changes in gut permeability and gut microbiome are also to be examined...
December 11, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Yanan An, Yan Li, Xueyan Wang, Zhaobin Chen, Hongyue Xu, Lingyu Wu, Shulin Li, Chao Wang, Wenjing Luan, Xuefei Wang, Mingyuan Liu, Xudong Tang, Lu Yu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have shown that obesity is the key etiological agent of cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes and several kinds of cancer and that gut microbiota change was one of the reasons suffering from obesity. At present, the gut microbiota has gained increased attention as a potential energy metabolism organ. Our recent study reported that cordycepin, a major bioactive component separated from Cordyceps militaris, prevented body weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet directly acting to adipocytes, however, the effect of cordycepin regulating gut microbiota keeps unknown...
December 6, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Ronan F O'Toole, Sanjay S Gautam
The treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often viewed in isolation from other human microbial symbionts. Understandably, the clinical priority is eliminating active or latent tuberculosis (TB) in patients. With the increasing resolution of molecular biology technologies, it is becoming apparent that antibiotic treatment can perturb the homeostasis of the host microbiome. For example, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with an increased risk of the development of asthma, obesity and diabetes...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Pourya Gholizadeh, Majid Mahallei, Ali Pormohammad, Mojtaba Varshochi, Khudaverdi Ganbarov, Elham Zeinalzadeh, Bahman Yousefi, Milad Bastami, Asghar Tanomand, Suhad Saad Mahmood, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Recent studies have been considered to symbiotic interactions of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and human lifestyle-related disorders. The human gastrointestinal microbiota continuously stimulates the immune system against opportunistic and pathogen bacteria from infancy. Changes in gastrointestinal microbiota have been associated with numbers of human diseases such as allergic diseases, autoimmune encephalitis, atherosclerosis, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes etc. In this review article, we evaluate studies on the roles of human gastrointestinal microbiota and interference pathogenicity in allergic diseases, obesity, and diabetes...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Sapna Sharma, Prabhanshu Tripathi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a highly prevalent metabolic disorder characterized by an imbalance in blood glucose level, altered lipid profile and high blood pressure. Genetic constituents, high-fat and high-energy dietary habits, and a sedentary lifestyle are three major factors that contribute to high risk of T2D. Several studies have reported gut microbiome dysbiosis as a factor in rapid progression of insulin resistance in T2D that accounts for about 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. The gut microbiome dysbiosis may reshape intestinal barrier functions and host metabolic and signaling pathways, which are directly or indirectly related to the insulin resistance in T2D...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jacob E Friedman
Childhood obesity and its comorbidities continue to accelerate across the globe. Two-thirds of pregnant women are obese/overweight, as are 20% of preschoolers. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is escalating, affecting up to 1 in 5 pregnant women. The field of developmental origins of health and disease has begun to move beyond associations to potential causal mechanisms for developmental programming. Evidence across species compellingly demonstrates that maternal obesity, diabetes, and Western-style diets create a long-lasting signature on multiple systems, including infant stem cells, the early immune system, and gut microbiota...
November 2018: Diabetes
Natalia G Vallianou, Theodora Stratigou, Stylianos Tsagarakis
Alterations in the diversity or structure of gut microbiota known as dysbiosis, may affect metabolic activities, resulting in metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. The development of more sophisticated methods, such as metagenomics sequencing, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microarrays and fluorescence in situ hybridization, has expanded our knowledge on gut microbiome. Dysbiosis has been related to increased plasma concentrations of gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which triggers the production of a variety of cytokines and the recruitment of inflammatory cells...
October 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Xinpu Chen, Sridevi Devaraj
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and diabetes are worldwide epidemics. There is also a growing body of evidence relating the gut microbiome composition to insulin resistance. The purpose of this review is to delineate the studies linking gut microbiota to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies as well as proof of concept studies using fecal transplantation demonstrate the pivotal role of the gut microbiota in regulating insulin resistance states and inflammation...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Tamotsu Kato, Kyoko Yamazaki, Mayuka Nakajima, Yasuhiro Date, Jun Kikuchi, Koji Hase, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
Periodontal disease induced by periodontopathic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis is demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Although precise mechanisms for this connection have not been elucidated, we have proposed mechanisms by which orally administered periodontopathic bacteria might induce changes in gut microbiota composition, barrier function, and immune system, resulting in an increased risk of diseases characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation...
October 17, 2018: MSphere
Emanuel Vamanu
BACKGROUND: Two pathologies commonly associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis are type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A disturbance in microbial balance translates into the occurrence of degenerative dysfunctions that are also associated with other pathologies, such as obesity, colon cancer. METHODS: Thus, the aim of this review was to present the significant findings related to human microbiome modulation via the prebiotic effects of wild edible mushrooms as a complementary strategy to modern treatment...
October 1, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Maoyang Lu, Zhao Wang
The human gut microbiota is a huge ecosystem that provides lots of functions for host development, immune system, and metabolism. Gut microbiota is linked to lots of diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), irritable bowel syndrome, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies, however, have noted the relationship between aging and microbiota; the connection between aging and microbiota remains largely to be researched. In this review, recent research findings are summarized on the role of gut microbiota in aging processes with emphasis on therapeutic potential of microbiome-targeted interventions in antiaging medicine...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Helen J Dranse, Ashlee Zheng, André M Comeau, Morgan G I Langille, Brian A Zabel, Christopher J Sinal
Chemerin is an adipocyte derived signalling molecule (adipokine) that serves as a ligand activator of Chemokine-like receptor 1(CMKLR1). Chemerin/CMKLR1 signalling is well established to regulate fundamental processes in metabolism and inflammation. The composition and function of gut microbiota has also been shown to impact the development of metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we assessed the microbiome composition of fecal samples isolated from wildtype, chemerin, or CMKLR1 knockout mice using Illumina-based sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
Soyoung Park, Jihee Kang, Sanghaeng Choi, Haryung Park, Eunchong Hwang, Yoongu Kang, Aram Kim, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Yosep Ji
Thanks to recent scientific progress a relationship between the intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases could be established. A deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms has opened ways towards new approaches for alleviating conditions associated with metabolic diseases. Dysbiosis appears to be a major underlying factor associated with metabolic syndrome and related adverse health conditions. A major focus has therefore shifted to controlling of the gut microbiota through administration of functional lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
2018: PloS One
Ravinder Nagpal, Shaohua Wang, Shokouh Ahmadi, Joshua Hayes, Jason Gagliano, Sargurunathan Subashchandrabose, Dalane W Kitzman, Thomas Becton, Russel Read, Hariom Yadav
The gut bacteria producing metabolites like short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate), are frequently reduced in Patients with diabetes, obesity, autoimmune disorders, and cancers. Hence, microbiome modulators such as probiotics may be helpful in maintaining or even restoring normal gut microbiome composition to benefit host health. Herein, we developed a human-origin probiotic cocktail with the ability to modulate gut microbiota to increase native SCFA production. Following a robust protocol of isolation, characterization and safety validation of infant gut-origin Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains with probiotic attributes (tolerance to simulated gastric and intestinal conditions, adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, absence of potential virulence genes, cell-surface hydrophobicity, and susceptibility to common antibiotics), we select 10 strains (5 from each genera) out of total 321 isolates...
August 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabriele G Schiattarella, Anna Sannino, Giovanni Esposito, Cinzia Perrino
Alterations in gut microbiota composition and its metabolic activity are emerging as one of the most powerful determinants of cardiovascular disease. Although our knowledge of the precise molecular mechanisms by which gut microbiota influences cardiometabolic homeostasis is still limited, a growing body of knowledge has recently been uncovered about the potential modulation of microbiome for cardiovascular diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. The multitude of interactions between the microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract and the host has been recognized crucial in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes and hypertension...
August 7, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Ravinder Nagpal, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Our gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in our health and disease. The microbial colonization of human gut begins immediately at birth and is an indispensable natural process that modulates our physiology and immunity. Recent studies are elegantly revealing how and when these microbes colonize the gut and what elements could potentially influence this natural phenomenon. The vertical mother-to-baby transmission of microbes is a crucial factor for normal development and maturation of newborn's immune, metabolic as well as neurological health...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Brian D Piccolo, James L Graham, Kimber L Stanhope, Intawat Nookaew, Kelly E Mercer, Sree V Chintapalli, Umesh D Wankhade, Kartik Shankar, Peter J Havel, Sean H Adams
The composition of the gut microbiome is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, it is not known whether these alterations are mediated by dietary factors or related to declines in metabolic health. To address this, cecal contents were collected from age-matched, chow-fed male UCD-T2DM rats before the onset of diabetes (pre-diabetic PD, n=15); 2 wk recently-diabetic (RD, n=10); 3 mo (D3M, n=11); and 6 mo (D6M, n=8) post-onset of diabetes. Bacterial species and functional gene counts were assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bacterial DNA in cecal contents, while metabolites were identified by GC-QTOF-MS...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lesley Hoyles, José-Manuel Fernández-Real, Massimo Federici, Matteo Serino, James Abbott, Julie Charpentier, Christophe Heymes, Jèssica Latorre Luque, Elodie Anthony, Richard H Barton, Julien Chilloux, Antonis Myridakis, Laura Martinez-Gili, José Maria Moreno-Navarrete, Fadila Benhamed, Vincent Azalbert, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Josep Puig, Gemma Xifra, Wifredo Ricart, Christopher Tomlinson, Mark Woodbridge, Marina Cardellini, Francesca Davato, Iris Cardolini, Ottavia Porzio, Paolo Gentileschi, Frédéric Lopez, Fabienne Foufelle, Sarah A Butcher, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K Nicholson, Catherine Postic, Rémy Burcelin, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
Hepatic steatosis is a multifactorial condition that is often observed in obese patients and is a prelude to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we combine shotgun sequencing of fecal metagenomes with molecular phenomics (hepatic transcriptome and plasma and urine metabolomes) in two well-characterized cohorts of morbidly obese women recruited to the FLORINASH study. We reveal molecular networks linking the gut microbiome and the host phenome to hepatic steatosis. Patients with steatosis have low microbial gene richness and increased genetic potential for the processing of dietary lipids and endotoxin biosynthesis (notably from Proteobacteria), hepatic inflammation and dysregulation of aromatic and branched-chain amino acid metabolism...
July 2018: Nature Medicine
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