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Toxic shock syndrom

Shuichi Sato, Masahiro Ito, Tsuyoshi Sakai, Anri Kaneta, Fumie Sato
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a life-threatening disease caused by infection of beta-hemolytic streptococci . Here, we report an uncommon case of STSS with both diffuse peritonitis and necrotizing fasciitis and summarize previous cases. The patient was diagnosed with STSS due to an infection of the soft tissue of the lower extremity after surgery for diffuse peritonitis. The general condition had rapidly deteriorated with multiple organ dysfunction. Immediate intensive care, including mechanical ventilation, hemodiafiltration, and repeated debridement, is indispensable for a favorable outcome...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
David Lalaouna, Emma Desgranges, Isabelle Caldelari, Stefano Marzi
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive major human pathogen involved in a wide range of human infectious diseases (from minor skin infections to septicemia, endocarditis or toxic shock syndrome). The treatment of S. aureus infections is very challenging due to the emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant isolates. The high diversity of clinical symptoms caused by S. aureus depends on the precise expression of numerous virulence factors and stress response pathways, which are tightly regulated at every level (transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational)...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
S N Svetozarskiy, A N Andreev
Intracameral injection of cefuroxime during phacoemulsification is considered effective in preventing endophthalmitis. Its widespread usage has led to the accumulation of data on local and systemic adverse reactions. The analysis of complications of cataract surgery with cefuroxime injections described in literature has allowed identifying a few different clusters of toxic and allergic reactions to intracameral cefuroxime for the first time. These clusters included toxic anterior segment syndrome, serous retinal detachment with macular edema, retinal hemorrhagic infarction and anaphylactic reaction...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Tatiana Belokrinitskaya, Oleg Filippov, Olesya Chugai
This report presents the relapse and treatment of streptococcal infection in the postpartum period in a patient with severe group A streptococcal sepsis. Maternal sepsis was estimated to cause around 10.7% of maternal deaths worldwide between 2003 and 2009 [1]. Puerperal sepsis caused by group A streptococci (GAS) is associated with 40% of septic deaths among patients with postpartum endometritis, necrotizing fasciitis, and toxic shock syndrome [2,3]. Here we describe a case of recurrent GAS sepsis in the postpartum period...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
M N Tarana, S M Shamsuzzaman
Pathogenic microorganisms are important cause of maternal and neonatal infections which are transmitted from colonized vagina of mother. The purpose of the present study was to detect the potential pathogens other than Group B Streptococcus in vaginal swab of pregnant women. This prospective cross sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 224 vaginal swab samples were studied. Gram stain Nugent score was applied for all vaginal smear to detect bacterial vaginosis...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Henok Ayalew Tegegne, Martina Florianová, Tereza Gelbíčová, Renáta Karpíšková, Ivana Koláčková
This study is aimed at detecting and characterizing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from bulk tank milk samples of cows, sheep, and goats collected from dairy farms in the Czech Republic. All MRSA isolates were identified using PCR detection of the Staphylococcus aureus-specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. The staphylococcal chromosomal cassettes mec (SCCmec), spa, and multilocus sequence types (MLST) were determined. The presence of genes encoding enterotoxins (ses), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl), exfoliative toxins A, B (eta, etb), and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst) were assessed...
November 27, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Jumpei Fujisawa, Tomokazu Mutoh, Kengo Kawamura, Nami Sawada, Daisuke Ono, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Ichiro Morioka
Haemophilus influenzae was the main causative organism for acute epiglottitis in the pre- Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era. However, with current widespread Hib vaccination, the causative organisms may have changed. Here, we report the case of a healthy infant with acute epiglottitis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The patient was a healthy 17-day-old male infant without a family history of immunodeficiency syndrome. He had not been started on any vaccines...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Regev Cohen, Talya Finn, Frida Babushkin, Maurice Shapiro, Martina Uda, Tamar Grossman
BACKGROUND: We describe a patient with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with Streptococcus pyogenes and with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. To the best of our knowledge this association has not been previously described. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78 year-old Israeli man, who was born in Iraq but lived in Israel for 66 years, presented with multi-organ failure including acute kidney and hepatic injury, coagulopathy, and lactic acidosis. He had a medical history including aortic valve replacement, diabetes mellitus, spinal stenosis, and low back pain treated with repeated local steroid injections...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ruth Link-Gelles, Karrie-Ann Toews, William Schaffner, Kathryn M Edwards, Carolyn Wright, Bernard Beall, Brenda Barnes, Brenda Jewell, Lee H Harrison, Pam D Kirley, Lauren Lorentzson, Deborah Aragon, Susan Petit, Joseph Bareta, Nancy L Spina, Paul R Cieslak, Chris Van Beneden
Background: Few data on intracranial group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in children are available. Here, we describe the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic characteristics of 91 children with intracranial GAS infection. Methods: Cases of intracranial GAS infection in persons ≤18 years of age reported between 1997 and 2014 were identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's population- and laboratory-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system...
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
T Nh Leung, K L Hon, A Kc Leung
Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus or Streptococcus pyogenes is a gram-positive coccus that tends to grow in chains. Streptococcus pyogenes is the cause of many important human diseases, ranging from pharyngitis and mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases. Infections typically begin in the throat or skin. Mild Streptococcus pyogenes infections include pharyngitis (strep throat) and localised skin infections (impetigo). Erysipelas and cellulitis are characterised by multiplication and lateral spread of Streptococcus pyogenes in deep layers of the skin...
November 9, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
R Briancesco, S Paduano, M Semproni, L Bonadonna
Introduction: Sanitary tampons have been in existence for over 60 years. Their use may present certain health risks, potentially associated with an abnormal change of microbial flora in the vagina (e.g., toxic shock syndrome). Tampon production and marketing are regulated differently in different countries. In Australia, Canada and the USA, tampons are classified as Class-II medical devices and their marketing requires pre-clinical and clinical studies, including microbiological trials...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Stéphanie Note, Patrick Soentjens, Marie Van Laer, Philippe Meert, Peter Vanbrabant
 A patient presenting with fever and purpura after a stay in the tropics tempts a physician to make a differential diagnosis mainly focusing on imported diseases. Although the importance of considering a tropical disease is obvious, the fact that cosmopolitan infections account for one third of the cases in a febrile returning traveler must not be overseen. Toxic Shock Syndrome is amongst the most notorious diseases due to the high mortality when inappropriately managed and the association with necrotizing fasciitis...
October 27, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Yoko Deguchi, Yuko Horiuchi, Kensaku Shojima, Naoyuki Iwahashi, Miwa Ikejima, Kazuhiko Ino, Kenichi Furukawa
Although toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is rare, multiorgan failure can occur without early identification and appropriate therapy. In particular, a few cases of postpartum TSS due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported. Here, we describe a rare case in which a 32-year-old Japanese woman had TSS due to MRSA that was caused by a perineal infection after a normal vaginal delivery. Twelve days after giving birth to a healthy child, she was readmitted to our hospital due to a 2-day fever and perineal pain without uterine tenderness...
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Teruaki Oku, Hikari Soma, Chisato Kurisaka, Tsutomu Tsuji
Staphylococcus aureus secretes a family of exoproteins structurally homologous to bacterial superantigens, such as toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), and those exoproteins are thus called staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). Recent studies have revealed that SSLs play roles in evasion of the host defense by disturbing host immune responses. We previously reported that staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 5 (SSL5; a member of the SSL family) inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is crucial for leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection...
November 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Ahsan Wahab, Bilal Nasir
A 47-year-old female with a history of chronic alcoholism presented with nausea, vomiting and mild epigastric tenderness. She reported subjective fever, abdominal fullness and loose, watery stools and had stable vitals on arrival. Examination was positive for mild epigastric tenderness with hepatic enlargement. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed circumferential thickening of the stomach wall, lower esophagus and the first part of the duodenum in addition to peritoneal ascites. She was admitted for alcohol-related gastritis, acute alcoholic hepatitis, and acute kidney injury...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Fumihiro Ochi, Hisamichi Tauchi, Toshihiro Jogamoto, Hiromitsu Miura, Tomozo Moritani, Kozo Nagai, Eiichi Ishii
Streptococcus pyogenes (also referred to as group A streptococci, GAS) causes severe invasive diseases such as bacteremia, necrotizing fasciitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and toxic shock syndrome in children. However, there are only a few reports on pleural empyema caused by GAS in children. Here, we report the case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with pleural empyema due to GAS after influenza A virus infection. With intravenous antibiotic administration and continuous chest-tube drainage, followed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, his condition improved...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Hiroki Kitagawa, Hiroki Ohge, Junzo Hisatsune, Toshiki Kajihara, Keijiro Katayama, Shinya Takahashi, Taijiro Sueda, Motoyuki Sugai
The emergence of a Japan-intrinsic community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (CA-MRSA/J) has been reported. A 70-year-old man with recurrent colon cancer and a history of mitral valve replacement was admitted to the hospital in a state of shock. He was diagnosed with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by MRSA and underwent cardiac surgery. The MRSA isolates belonged to multilocus sequence type 8 and carried staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IVl and the genes of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, enterotoxin C, and enterotoxin L...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Stephanie Noviello, David B Huang, G Ralph Corey
Iclaprim is a selective bacterial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor. Although there are alternative options for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), iclaprim is differentiated from other available antibiotics. Areas covered: Iclaprim is under clinical development for ABSSSI. This review summarizes the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, microbiology, clinical development program, and the differentiation of iclaprim from other antibiotics. Expert commentary: Iclaprim has a different mechanism of action (DHFR inhibitor) compared to most other antibiotics, is active and rapidly bactericidal against Gram-positive pathogens including antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and suppresses bacterial exotoxins (alpha hemolysin, Panton Valentine leukocidin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1)...
November 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Kohei Ogura, Kayo Okumura, Yukiko Shimizu, Teruo Kirikae, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes severe invasive diseases such as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, similar to that caused by S. pyogenes (GAS). Invasive SDSE infections are increasing, particularly among patients with diabetes mellitus. Here we investigate the association between the pathogenicity of SDSE and diabetes mellitus in a mouse model, using GAS infection for comparison. Intraperitoneal injection of highly hemolytic SDSE-167 into C57BL6/J mice induced a rapid rise in blood glucose concentrations within 4 h, which was otherwise seen only in mice injected with high doses of hypervirulent GAS mutants...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yves Gillet, Thomas Henry, Francois Vandenesch
Fulminant staphylococcal infection indicates an explosive, intense, and severe infection occurring in a patient whose previous condition and antecedent would never have caused any anticipation of life-threatening development. This includes necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and to some extent toxic shock syndrome and infective endocarditis. In the three former diseases, toxin production plays a major role whereas in the latter (fulminant presentation of infective endocarditis), association with any particular toxinic profile has never been demonstrated...
October 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
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