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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456958/etiology-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss-nihl-and-its-symptomatic-correlation-with-audiometry-observations-in-type-ii-diabetes
#1
Meena K Yadav, K S Yadav
Type II diabetic mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that impairs normal insulin production and glucose transport to the liver and muscles. In the India, about 1-5% population suffer from diabetes or related complication. So there is need to cure this disease. DM chronic auditory complications may include spiral ganglia atrophy, degeneration of the vestibulocochlear nerve myelin sheath, reduction of the number of spiral lamina nerve fibres, and thickening of the capillary walls of the stria vascularis and small arteries...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455484/-analysis-of-clinical-outcomes-of-simplified-treatment-of-lumbar-spondylolisthesis-with-adjacent-segment-degeneration-by-mast-quadrant
#2
Jian-Hua Tang, Li-Li Zhao, Chun-Ming Huang, Cheng-Fan Zhong, Xiao-Chuan Li, Yu-Sheng He
OBJECTIVE: To explore the method and clinical effect of MAST Quadrant for lumbar spondylolisthesis with adjacent segment degeneration. METHODS: From April 2014 to January 2016, 36 cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis with adjacent segment degeneration were treated by MAST Quadrant(target nerve decompression and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or articulationes zygapophysiales fusion by unilateral fixation with MAST Quadrant). Twenty-three cases were degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis and 13 cases were isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis...
September 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453733/egfp-transgene-a-useful-tool-to-track-transplanted-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-contribution-to-peripheral-remyelination
#3
Gonzalo Piñero, Vanina Usach, Paula A Soto, Paula V Monje, Patricia Setton-Avruj
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) constitute a heterogeneous population with potential to promote tissue regeneration. For this reason, this cell fraction has recently become a therapeutic alternative to mesenchymal stem cells, as culture is not required and phenotypic transformations can be hence avoided. In this work, and in order to attain long-lasting cell labeling and study longer survival times, we used BMMC isolated from adult transgenic rats expressing GFP to reproduce our wild type model and evaluate their remyelination ability in a reversible model of Wallerian degeneration...
February 16, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452106/nerve-fibre-layer-degeneration-and-retinal-ganglion-cell-loss-long-term-after-optic-nerve-crush-or-transection-in-adult-mice
#4
M C Sánchez-Migallón, F J Valiente-Soriano, M Salinas-Navarro, F M Nadal-Nicolás, M Jiménez-López, M Vidal-Sanz, M Agudo-Barriuso
We have investigated the long term effects of two different models of unilateral optic nerve (ON) lesion on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, in the injured and contralateral retinas of adult albino mice. Intact animals were used as controls. The left ON was intraorbitally crushed or transected at 0.5 mm from the optic disk and both retinas were analyzed at 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 30, 45 or 90 days after injury. RGCs were immunoidentified with anti-Brn3a, and their axons with anti-highly phosphorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H (pNFH)...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451204/conundrums-and-confusions-regarding-how-polyethylene-glycol-fusion-produces-excellent-behavioral-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#5
REVIEW
George D Bittner, Dale R Sengelaub, Cameron L Ghergherehchi
Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly-regenerating (1 mm/d), proximal-stump outgrowths that must specifically reinnervate denervated targets; (3) Poor acceptance of microsutured nerve allografts, even if tissue-matched and immune-suppressed...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447481/regularity-changes-of-the-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-and-macular-ganglion-cell-complex-in-patients-with-the-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Yue Wu, Xiao-Ni Wang, Ningli Wang, Ying Han, Daqing Ma, Yan Lu
Background We investigated the regularity changes of the retinalnerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) of the amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) patients in this prospective cohort study. Methods Twenty-four aMCI patients and 30 health controls, who are more than 60 years old, were recruited into the study. The RNFL and the mGCC average thickness were measured with fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Results Compared with that in the controls, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower in the aMCI patients...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447059/therapeutic-potential-of-mucuna-pruriens-linn-on-ageing-induced-damage-in-dorsal-nerve-of-the-penis-and-its-implication-on-erectile-function-an-experimental-study-using-albino-rats
#7
Prakash Seppan, Ibrahim Muhammed, Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj, Ganesh Lakshmanan, Dinesh Premavathy, Sakthi Jothi Muthu, Khayinmi Wungmarong Shimray, Sathya Bharathy Sathyanathan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Mucuna pruriens on damaged dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) in aged rat in relation to penile erection. METHODS: The rats were divided into four groups Young (3 months), Aged (24 - 28 months), Aged + M. pruriens, and Young + M. pruriens (200 mg/kg b.w/60 days) and were subjected to the hypophysial - gonadal axis, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and penile reflex. DNP sections were stained with nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NaDPH) diaphorase, androgen receptor (AR), and osmium tetroxide...
February 15, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446814/nerve-surgery-in-obstetric-brachial-plexus-palsy-report-of-68-cases
#8
Maher Barsaoui, Hatem Safi, Walid Said, Med Nabil Nessib
BACKGROUND: Obstetric brachial plexus palsy aredue to elongation of the brachial plexus during delivery by increasing thedistance between the head and shoulder. The majority of paralysis recoverspontaneously, but in some cases, nerve repair is necessary. The timing of thisnerve surgery and criteria for its indication are topics of discussion in theworld literature.The aim of this study is to askdirections and to evaluate the contribution of nerve surgery in improving theprognosis of this disease...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443031/ultrasound-cyclo-plasty-in-eyes-with-glaucoma
#9
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Stefano Sebastiani, Emilio C Campos
Glaucoma is a chronic disease caused by the progressive degeneration of the optical nerve fibers, resulting in decreased visual field that can lead to severe visual impairment, and eventually blindness. This manuscript describes a simple, surgeon-friendly, non-incisional technique, named Ultrasound Cyclo Plasty (UCP), for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. The technique determines a selective coagulation necrosis of the ciliary body; in addition, the stimulation of supra-choroidal and trans-scleral portions of the uveo-scleral outflow pathway has been recently proposed...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438332/diaphragmatic-palsy
#10
REVIEW
Laxmi Kokatnur, Mohan Rudrappa
The diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration, and its weakness can lead to respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic palsy can be caused by various causes. Injury to the phrenic nerve during thoracic surgeries is the most common cause for diaphragmatic palsy. Depending on the cause, the symptoms of diaphragmatic palsies vary from completely asymptomatic to disabling dyspnea requiring mechanical ventilation. On pulmonary function tests, there will be a decrease in the maximum respiratory muscle power. Spirometry shows reduced lung functions and a significant drop of lung function in supine position is typical of diaphragmatic palsy...
February 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435815/nerve-ultrasound-predicts-treatment-response-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy-a-prospective-follow-up
#11
Florian Härtig, Marlene Ross, Nele Maria Dammeier, Nadin Fedtke, Bianka Heiling, Hubertus Axer, Bernhard F Décard, Eva Auffenberg, Marilin Koch, Tim W Rattay, Markus Krumbholz, Antje Bornemann, Holger Lerche, Natalie Winter, Alexander Grimm
As reliable biomarkers of disease activity are lacking, monitoring of therapeutic response in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) remains a challenge. We sought to determine whether nerve ultrasound and electrophysiology scoring could close this gap. In CIDP patients (fulfilling EFNS/PNS criteria), we performed high-resolution nerve ultrasound to determine ultrasound pattern sum scores (UPSS) and predominant echotexture nerve conduction study scores (NCSS) as well as Medical Research Council sum scores (MRCSS) and inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment disability scores (INCAT) at baseline and after 12 months of standard treatment...
February 12, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434374/reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-axonal-regeneration-through-the-release-of-exosomal-nadph-oxidase-2-complexes-into-injured-axons
#12
Arnau Hervera, Francesco De Virgiliis, Ilaria Palmisano, Luming Zhou, Elena Tantardini, Guiping Kong, Thomas Hutson, Matt C Danzi, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Celio X C Santos, Alexander N Kapustin, Roland A Fleck, José Antonio Del Río, Thomas Carroll, Vance Lemmon, John L Bixby, Ajay M Shah, Mike Fainzilber, Simone Di Giovanni
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to tissue damage and remodelling mediated by the inflammatory response after injury. Here we show that ROS, which promote axonal dieback and degeneration after injury, are also required for axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal injury. We find that ROS production in the injured sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia requires CX3CR1-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Next, exosomes containing functional NADPH oxidase 2 complexes are released from macrophages and incorporated into injured axons via endocytosis...
February 12, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432799/mitochondrial-protein-s-nitrosation-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-denervation-at-neuromuscular-junction-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
Rebecca J Wilson, Joshua C Drake, Di Cui, Bevan M Lewellen, Carleigh C Fisher, Mei Zhang, David F Kashatus, Lisa A Palmer, Michael P Murphy, Zhen Yan
Deterioration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) integrity and function is causal to muscle atrophy and frailty, ultimately hindering quality of life and increasing the risk of death. In particular, NMJ is vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury when blood flow is restricted followed by restoration. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) and hence the lack of effective interventions. New evidence suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a causal role in IR injury, which can be precluded by enhancing mitochondrial protein S-nitrosation (SNO)...
February 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427106/the-neuropathology-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-machado-joseph-disease
#14
Arnulf H Koeppen
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3)/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), the most common autosomal dominant ataxia, affects many regions of the brain and spinal cord. Similar to SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-6, SCA-7, and SCA-17, the mutation consists of a pathogenic translated cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion. Almost invariably, the substantia nigra and the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum bear the brunt of the disease, and these lesions account for the Parkinsonian and ataxic phenotypes. Lesions of motor nuclei in the brain stem cause the complex disturbance of ocular motility and weakness of the tongue...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426449/structural-and-functional-degeneration-of-retinal-nerves-in-sibling-carriers-of-a-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-mutation
#15
Richard A Manfready, Thomas R Hedges, Carlos E Mendoza-Santiesteban
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426444/eyeprintpro-therapeutic-scleral-contact-lens-indications-and-outcomes
#16
Michael T B Nguyen, Vishakha Thakrar, Clara C Chan
OBJECTIVE: To describe indications and outcomes of patients fitted with the EyePrintPRO therapeutic scleral lens. METHODS: A database search of patients fitted with the EyePrintPRO from 2014 to 2016. Fourteen eyes of 10 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Patient demographics, medical and ocular history, indications for fitting, duration of wear, symptoms, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age at lens fitting was 49 years (range, 21-67 years)...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425209/retinal-genes-are-differentially-expressed-in-areas-of-primary-versus-secondary-degeneration-following-partial-optic-nerve-injury
#17
Wissam Chiha, Chrisna J LeVaillant, Carole A Bartlett, Alex W Hewitt, Phillip E Melton, Melinda Fitzgerald, Alan R Harvey
BACKGROUND: Partial transection (PT) of the optic nerve is an established experimental model of secondary degeneration in the central nervous system. After a dorsal transection, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with axons in ventral optic nerve are intact but vulnerable to secondary degeneration, whereas RGCs in dorsal retina with dorsal axons are affected by primary and secondary injuries. Using microarray, we quantified gene expression changes in dorsal and ventral retina at 1 and 7 days post PT, to characterize pathogenic pathways linked to primary and secondary degeneration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423915/sensory-nerve-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-mimicking-early-manifestations-of-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-due-to-transthyretin-ala97ser
#18
Hung-Wei Kan, Hao Chiang, Whei-Min Lin, I-Shing Yu, Shu-Wha Lin, Sung-Tsang Hsieh
AIMS: Sensory nerve degeneration and consequent abnormal sensations are the earliest and most prevalent manifestations of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) due to amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR). FAP is a relentlessly progressive degenerative disease of the peripheral nervous system. However, there is a lack of mouse models to replicate the early neuropathic manifestations of FAP. METHODS: We established human TTR knock-in mice by replacing one allele of the mouse Ttr locus with human wild-type TTR (hTTRwt ) or human TTR with the A97S mutation (hTTRA97S )...
February 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421330/genomic-loci-modulating-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-following-elevated-iop-in-the-mouse
#19
Felix L Struebing, Rebecca King, Ying Li, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Janey L Wiggs, Eldon E Geisert
The present study was designed to identify genomic loci modulating the susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strain set. IOP was elevated by injecting magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber and blocking the trabecular meshwork using a handheld magnet to impede drainage. The IOP was then measured over the next 21 days. Only animals with IOP greater than 25 mmHg for two consecutive days or an IOP above 30 mmHg on a single day after microsphere-injection were used in this study...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420438/retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-various-retinal-diseases
#20
Hyung-Bin Lim, Jae-Yun Sung, Seung-Il Ahn, Young-Joon Jo, Jung-Yeul Kim
SIGNIFICANCE: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements may be influenced by the range and severity of lesions that are observed distinctively in each retinal disease. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of various macular (central serous chorioretinopathy, macular hole, epiretinal membrane, wet age-related macular degeneration) and retinal vascular (branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, diabetic macular edema) diseases on peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
February 7, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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