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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923374/a-case-of-infected-schwannoma-mimicking-malignant-tumor
#1
Mamer S Rosario, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Inatani, Takashi Higuchi, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: Infected schwannoma has been reported, this being one of the four cases published in the literature. Infected schwannoma has proven to be a tough diagnostic challenge to the treating tumor surgeon, mimicking infectious entities and most essentially, a malignant tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors report the case of a 64-year-old male with a soft tissue mass in his right gluteal area that presented initially with right leg pain, then later with signs of inflammation on the tumor area...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923065/mutations-in-the-heme-exporter-flvcr1-cause-sensory-neurodegeneration-with-loss-of-pain-perception
#2
Deborah Chiabrando, Marco Castori, Maja di Rocco, Martin Ungelenk, Sebastian Gießelmann, Matteo Di Capua, Annalisa Madeo, Paola Grammatico, Sophie Bartsch, Christian A Hübner, Fiorella Altruda, Lorenzo Silengo, Emanuela Tolosano, Ingo Kurth
Pain is necessary to alert us to actual or potential tissue damage. Specialized nerve cells in the body periphery, so called nociceptors, are fundamental to mediate pain perception and humans without pain perception are at permanent risk for injuries, burns and mutilations. Pain insensitivity can be caused by sensory neurodegeneration which is a hallmark of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs). Although mutations in several genes were previously associated with sensory neurodegeneration, the etiology of many cases remains unknown...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920424/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-lower-motor-system-in-a-mouse-model-of-krabbe-disease
#3
Valentina Cappello, Laura Marchetti, Paola Parlanti, Silvia Landi, Ilaria Tonazzini, Marco Cecchini, Vincenzo Piazza, Mauro Gemmi
Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916026/role-of-cyclic-amp-in-the-eye-of-glaucoma
#4
Myoung Sup Shim, Keun-Young Kim, Won-Kyu Ju
Glaucoma is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of optic nerve, including retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the optic nerve head (ONH), leading to visual impairment. Despite the high prevalence, the biological basis of glaucoma pathogenesis still is not yet fully understood, and the factors contributing to its progression are currently not well characterized. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor, and reduction of IOP is the standard treatment for glaucoma. However, lowering IOP itself is not always effective for preserving visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma...
December 5, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909796/-clinical-morphological-and-molecular-biological-characteristics-of-the-aging-eye
#5
M R R Böhm, H Thomasen, F Parnitzke, K-P Steuhl
BACKGROUND: The physiological aging of the eye is associated with loss of visual function. Age-related changes of the eye can result in ophthalmological diseases. The aim of this article is to display morphological, histological and molecular biological alterations of the aging eye. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A web-based search and review of the literature for aging of the visual system including cornea, lens, vitreous humor, retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroidea and optic nerve were carried out...
December 1, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904498/pre-degenerated-peripheral-nerves-co-cultured-with-bone-marrow-derived-cells-a-new-technique-for-harvesting-high-purity-schwann-cells
#6
Xiao-Pan Wang, Min Wu, Jian-Zhong Guan, Zhao-Dong Wang, Xu-Bin Gao, Yang-Yang Liu
Schwann cells play an important role in the peripheral nervous system, especially in nerve repair following injury, so artificial nerve regeneration requires an effective technique for obtaining purified Schwann cells. In vivo and in vitro pre-degeneration of peripheral nerves have been shown to obtain high-purity Schwann cells. We believed that in vitro pre-degeneration was simple and controllable, and available for the clinic. Thus, we co-cultured the crushed sciatic nerves with bone marrow-derived cells in vitro...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904477/axon-injury-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Yang Hu
Injury to central nervous system axons is a common early characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Depending on its location and the type of neuron, axon injury often leads to axon degeneration, retrograde neuronal cell death and progressive permanent loss of vital neuronal functions. Although these sequential events are clearly connected, ample evidence indicates that neuronal soma and axon degenerations are active autonomous processes with distinct molecular mechanisms. By exploiting the anatomical and technical advantages of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC)/optic nerve (ON) system, we demonstrated that inhibition of the PERK-eIF2α-CHOP pathway and activation of the X-box binding protein 1 pathway synergistically protect RGC soma and axon, and preserve visual function, in both acute ON traumatic injury and chronic glaucomatous neuropathy...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904476/impairment-of-the-nerve-growth-factor-pathway-driving-amyloid-accumulation-in-cholinergic-neurons-the-incipit-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-story
#8
REVIEW
Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF) alterations in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN), is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#9
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901476/the-change-of-hcn1-hcn2-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-nerve-after-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathy-followed-by-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-therapy
#10
Hui Liu, Jun Zhou, Lianbing Gu, Yunxia Zuo
Neuropathic pain is usually defined as a chronic pain state caused by peripheral or central nerve injury as a result of acute damage or systemic diseases. It remains a difficult disease to treat. Recent studies showed that the frequency of action potentials in nociceptive afferents is affected by the activity of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCN) family. In the current study, we used a neuropathy rat model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve to evaluate the change of expression of HCN1/HCN2 mRNA in peripheral nerve and spinal cord...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900711/lacertus-fibrosus-augmentation-for-distal-biceps-brachii-rupture-repair-surgical-technique
#11
M Fontana, A Trimarchi, A Colozza
BACKGROUND: Repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures has become widely accepted. Unfortunately, care of retracted-degenerated injuries remains a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Complication rates appear to increase when surgery is performed in chronic cases compared to those operated acutely. Multiple techniques for chronic reconstruction with the use of grafts have been described. Recently Morrey, from the Mayo Clinic, proposed a direct anatomic repair of retracted distal biceps tendon ruptures in extreme flexion (60°-90°) to avoid grafting...
December 2016: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898033/towards-clinical-application-of-neurotrophic-factors-to-the-auditory-nerve-assessment-of-safety-and-efficacy-by-a-systematic-review-of-neurotrophic-treatments-in-humans
#12
REVIEW
Aren Bezdjian, Véronique J C Kraaijenga, Dyan Ramekers, Huib Versnel, Hans G X M Thomeer, Sjaak F L Klis, Wilko Grolman
Animal studies have evidenced protection of the auditory nerve by exogenous neurotrophic factors. In order to assess clinical applicability of neurotrophic treatment of the auditory nerve, the safety and efficacy of neurotrophic therapies in various human disorders were systematically reviewed. Outcomes of our literature search included disorder, neurotrophic factor, administration route, therapeutic outcome, and adverse event. From 2103 articles retrieved, 20 randomized controlled trials including 3974 patients were selected...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895937/medical-management-of-glaucoma-in-the-21st-century-from-a-canadian-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Paul Harasymowycz, Catherine Birt, Patrick Gooi, Lisa Heckler, Cindy Hutnik, Delan Jinapriya, Lesya Shuba, David Yan, Radmila Day
Glaucoma is a medical term describing a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fibre layer and resulting in changes in the optic nerve head. Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. With the aging population it is expected that the prevalence of glaucoma will continue to increase. Despite recent advances in imaging and visual field testing techniques that allow establishment of earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation, significant numbers of glaucoma patients are undiagnosed and present late in the course of their disease...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#14
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jayswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893827/astrocyte-structural-and-molecular-response-to-elevated-intraocular-pressure-occurs-rapidly-and-precedes-axonal-tubulin-rearrangement-within-the-optic-nerve-head-in-a-rat-model
#15
Shandiz Tehrani, Lauren Davis, William O Cepurna, Tiffany E Choe, Diana C Lozano, Ashley Monfared, Lauren Cooper, Joshua Cheng, Elaine C Johnson, John C Morrison
Glaucomatous axon injury occurs at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP). The temporal response of ONH astrocytes (glial cells responsible for axonal support) to elevated IOP remains unknown. Here, we evaluate the response of actin-based astrocyte extensions and integrin-based signaling within the ONH to 8 hours of IOP elevation in a rat model. IOP elevation of 60 mm Hg was achieved under isoflurane anesthesia using anterior chamber cannulation connected to a saline reservoir...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890860/renal-denervation-by-ct-guided-periarterial-injection-of-hyperosmolar-saline-vincristine-paclitaxel-and-guanethidine-in-a-pig-model
#16
Patrick Freyhardt, Ricardo Donners, Alex Riemert, Jörg Schnorr, Nicola Stolzenburg, Jan Leo Rinnenthal, Ulrich Bernhardt, Bernd Hamm, Rolf W Günther, Florian Streitparth
AIMS: To evaluate feasibility, safety and efficacy of renal sympathetic denervation with CT- guided periarterial injection of potentially neurolytic agents in pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unilateral injection of formulations containing either 5 M hyperosmolar saline, vincristine, paclitaxel or guanethidine around the renal artery was performed in 24 normotensive pigs with 6 animals per group. Needle placement and injections were performed under CT-fluoroscopy guidance...
November 29, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890677/time-course-of-organ-of-corti-degeneration-after-noise-exposure
#17
Barbara A Bohne, Melissa Kimlinger, Gary W Harding
From our permanent collection of plastic-embedded flat preparations of chinchilla cochleae, 22 controls and 199 ears from noise-exposed animals were used to determine when, postexposure, hair cell (HC) and supporting cell (SC) degeneration were completed. The exposed ears were divided into four groups based on exposure parameters: 0.5- or 4-kHz octave band of noise at moderate (M) or high (H) intensities. Postexposure survival ranged from < 1 h to 2.5 y. Ears fixed ≤ 0-12 h postexposure were called ‛acute‛...
November 24, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881461/lysosomal-dysfunction-disrupts-presynaptic-maintenance-and-restoration-of-presynaptic-function-prevents-neurodegeneration-in-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#18
Irene Sambri, Rosa D'Alessio, Yulia Ezhova, Teresa Giuliano, Nicolina Cristina Sorrentino, Vincenzo Cacace, Maria De Risi, Mauro Cataldi, Lucio Annunziato, Elvira De Leonibus, Alessandro Fraldi
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are inherited diseases characterized by lysosomal dysfunction and often showing a neurodegenerative course. There is no cure to treat the central nervous system in LSDs. Moreover, the mechanisms driving neuronal degeneration in these pathological conditions remain largely unknown. By studying mouse models of LSDs, we found that neurodegeneration develops progressively with profound alterations in presynaptic structure and function. In these models, impaired lysosomal activity causes massive perikaryal accumulation of insoluble α-synuclein and increased proteasomal degradation of cysteine string protein α (CSPα)...
November 25, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878997/corneal-epithelial-cells-function-as-surrogate-schwann-cells-for-their-sensory-nerves
#19
REVIEW
Mary Ann Stepp, Gauri Tadvalkar, Raymond Hakh, Sonali Pal-Ghosh
The eye is innervated by neurons derived from both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS). While much is known about retinal neurobiology and phototransduction, less attention has been paid to the innervation of the eye by the PNS and the roles it plays in maintaining a functioning visual system. The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion contains somas of neurons that innervate the cornea. These nerves provide sensory functions for the cornea and are referred to as intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs) consisting of subbasal nerves and their associated intraepithelial nerve terminals...
November 23, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876000/comparison-of-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-transection-in-predegenerated-muscle-with-and-without-a-vein-graft
#20
Jamshid Mohammadi, Hamdollah Delaviz, Bahram Mohammadi, Hamoun Delaviz, Parastou Rad
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial research into the topic and valiant surgical efforts, reconstruction of peripheral nerve injury remains a challenging surgery. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of axonal regeneration of a transected sciatic nerve through a vein conduit containing degenerated skeletal muscle compared with axonal regeneration in a transected sciatic nerve through degenerated skeletal muscle alone. METHODS: In two of the three experimental rat groups, 10 mm of the left sciatic nerve was transected and removed...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neurology
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