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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676840/behavioral-morphological-and-electrophysiological-assessment-of-the-effects-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-large-and-small-nerve-fibers-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rat-zucker-lean-and-wistar-rats
#1
E Garcia-Perez, T Schönberger, M Sumalla, B Stierstorfer, R Solà, H Doods, J Serra, N Gorodetskaya
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The most common presentation is in the form of a distal axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy that involves large and small nerve fibers in variable proportion. METHODS: Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF), Zucker Lean (ZL) and Wistar Han (WH) rats were used to asses the behavioral, morphological and electrophysiological effects that T2DM have on peripheral large and small nerve fibers of 6-40 week-old rats...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676228/glaucoma-pathogenesis-and-neurotrophins-focus-on-the-molecular-and-genetic-basis-for-therapeutic-prospects
#2
Nitin Chitranshi, Yogita Dheer, Mojdeh Abbasi, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is a major feature of glaucoma pathology. Neuroprotective approaches that delay or halt the progression of RGC loss are needed to prevent vision loss which can occur even after conventional medical or surgical treatments to lower intraocular pressure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to examine the progress in genetics and cellular mechanisms associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, RGC dysfunction and cell death pathways in glaucoma...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671017/-degenerative-cervical-spine-diseases-fusion-vs-total-disc-replacement-what-can-be-done-when
#3
REVIEW
T Pitzen, J Drumm, C Berthold, G Ostrowski, U Heiler, M Ruf
Motion preserving surgery within the cervical spine may be performed by special implants, for example, c spine disc prosthesis or total disc replacement (cTDR), or by simple decompression of the cervical nerve roots. However, also fusion surgery may be performed with good results. Here, we summarize indications as well as contraindications for motion preserving techniques and indications for fusion surgery. cTDR is indicated in special cases of soft disc herniation, especially in younger individuals without signs of myelopathy...
April 18, 2018: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670505/selective-fiber-degeneration-in-the-peripheral-nerve-of-a-patient-with-severe-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#4
Adrien Yvon, Alessandro Faroni, Adam J Reid, Vivien C Lees
Aims: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by chronic debilitating pain disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by motor, sensory, and autonomic disturbances. The pathophysiology of CRPS remains elusive. An exceptional case of severe CRPS leading to forearm amputation provided the opportunity to examine nerve histopathological features of the peripheral nerves. Methods: A 35-year-old female developed CRPS secondary to low voltage electrical injury. The CRPS was refractory to medical therapy and led to functional loss of the forelimb, repeated cutaneous wound infections leading to hospitalization...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661920/dhtkd1-deficiency-causes-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-in-mice
#5
Wang-Yang Xu, Houbao Zhu, Yan Shen, Ying-Han Wan, Xiao-Die Tu, Wen-Ting Wu, Lingyun Tang, Hong-Xin Zhang, Shun-Yuan Lu, Xiao-Long Jin, Jian Fei, Zhu-Gang Wang
DHTKD1, a part of 2-ketoadipic acid dehydrogenase complex, is involved in lysine and tryptophan catabolism. Mutations in DHTKD1 block the metabolic pathway and cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria (AMOXAD), an autosomal recessive inborn metabolic disorder. In addition, a nonsense mutation in DHTKD1 we identified previously causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2Q, one of the most common inherited neurological disorders affecting the peripheral nerves in the musculature. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism underlying CMT2Q remains elusive...
April 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659058/polyethylene-glycol-solutions-rapidly-restore-and-maintain-axonal-continuity-neuromuscular-structures-and-behaviors-lost-after-sciatic-nerve-transections-in-female-rats
#6
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Robert Louis Hastings, Amir Ali, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, George D Bittner
Complete severance of major peripheral mixed sensory-motor nerve proximally in a mammalian limb produces immediate loss of action potential conduction and voluntary behaviors mediated by the severed distal axonal segments. These severed distal segments undergo Wallerian degeneration within days. Denervated muscles atrophy within weeks. Slowly regenerating (∼1 mm/day) outgrowths from surviving proximal stumps that often nonspecifically reinnervate denervated targets produce poor, if any, restoration of lost voluntary behaviors...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659046/polyethylene-glycol-treated-allografts-not-tissue-matched-nor-immunosuppressed-rapidly-repair-sciatic-nerve-gaps-maintain-neuromuscular-functions-and-restore-voluntary-behaviors-in-female-rats
#7
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Amir Ali, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, Haley O Tucker, George D Bittner
Many publications report that ablations of segments of peripheral nerves produce the following unfortunate results: (1) Immediate loss of sensory signaling and motor control; (2) rapid Wallerian degeneration of severed distal axons within days; (3) muscle atrophy within weeks; (4) poor behavioral (functional) recovery after many months, if ever, by slowly-regenerating (∼1mm/d) axon outgrowths from surviving proximal nerve stumps; and (5) Nerve allografts to repair gap injuries are rejected, often even if tissue matched and immunosuppressed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658918/whole-mount-confocal-microscopy-for-adult-ear-skin-a-model-system-to-study-neuro-vascular-branching-morphogenesis-and-immune-cell-distribution
#8
Tomoko Yamazaki, Wenling Li, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Here, we present a protocol of a whole-mount adult ear skin imaging technique to study comprehensive three-dimensional neuro-vascular branching morphogenesis and patterning, as well as immune cell distribution at a cellular level. The analysis of peripheral nerve and blood vessel anatomical structures in adult tissues provides some insights into the understanding of functional neuro-vascular wiring and neuro-vascular degeneration in pathological conditions such as wound healing. As a highly informative model system, we have focused our studies on adult ear skin, which is readily accessible for dissection...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644600/schwann-cell-autophagy-functional-recovery-and-scar-reduction-after-peripheral-nerve-repair
#9
Po-Yen Ko, Cheng-Chang Yang, Yao-Lung Kuo, Fong-Chin Su, Tai-I Hsu, Yuan-Kun Tu, I-Ming Jou
The functional outcome after peripheral nerve repair is often unpredictable for many reasons, e.g., the severity of neuronal death and scarring. Axonal degeneration significantly affects outcomes. Post-injury axonal degeneration in peripheral nerves is accompanied by myelin degradation initiated by Schwann cells (SCs), which activate autophagy, a ubiquitous cytoprotective process essential for degrading and recycling cellular constituents. Scar formation occurs concomitantly with nerve insult and axonal degeneration...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643223/nerve-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-label-free-multiphoton-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-investigation
#10
Pamela Imperadore, Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch, Graziano Fiorito
Octopus and cephalopods are able to regenerate injured tissues. Recent advancements in the study of regeneration in cephalopods appear promising encompassing different approaches helping to decipher cellular and molecular machinery involved in the process. However, lack of specific markers to investigate degenerative/regenerative phenomena and inflammatory events occurring after damage is limiting these studies. Label-free multiphoton microscopy is applied for the first time to the transected pallial nerve of Octopus vulgaris Various optical contrast methods including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) have been used...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643068/hydrogen-peroxide-is-a-neuronal-alarmin-that-triggers-specific-rnas-local-translation-of-annexin-a2-and-cytoskeletal-remodeling-in-schwann-cells
#11
Samuele Negro, Marco Stazi, Marta Marchioretto, Toma Tebaldi, Umberto Rodella, Elisa Duregotti, Volker Gerke, Alessandro Quattrone, Cesare Montecucco, Michela Rigoni, Gabriella Viero
Schwann cells are key players in neuro-regeneration: they sense alarm signals released by degenerating nerve terminals and differentiate toward a pro-regenerative phenotype, with phagocytosis of nerve debris and nerve guidance. At the murine neuromuscular junction, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signal of Schwann cells activation in response to a variety of nerve injuries. Here we report that Schwann cells exposed to low doses of H2 O2 rewire the expression of several RNAs at both transcriptional and translational levels...
April 11, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629543/partial-conduction-block-as-an-early-nerve-conduction-finding-in-neurolymphomatosis
#12
Hyung Jun Park, Ha Young Shin, Se Hoon Kim, Ha Neul Jeong, Young Chul Choi, Bum Chun Suh, Kee Duk Park, Seung Min Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurolymphomatosis is a rare manifestation of hematological malignancy and is characterized by direct infiltration of the peripheral nervous system. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical and electrophysiological features of neurolymphomatosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 13 patients with neurolymphomatosis. Seven (54%) of the patients were men, and the median age at symptom onset was 60.0 years...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628809/cytokine-involvement-in-biological-inflammation-related-to-degenerative-disorders-of-the-intervertebral-disk-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Christopher M De Geer
Objective: The purpose of this narrative literature review is to discuss the literature regarding the potential role that cytokines play in degenerative disk disease. Methods: The inclusion criteria were studies that used inflammatory mediators in advancing disk disease processes. Research studies were limited to the last 3 decades that had free full-text available online in English. Exclusion criteria were review articles and articles pertaining to temporomandibular joints and other joints of the body other than the intervertebral disk...
March 2018: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627590/exploring-experimental-autoimmune-optic-neuritis-using-multimodal-imaging
#14
Praveena Manogaran, Christine Walker-Egger, Marijana Samardzija, Conny Waschkies, Christian Grimm, Markus Rudin, Sven Schippling
BACKGROUND: Neuro-axonal injury is a key contributor to non-reversible long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Visual impairment is common among MS patients, in which episodes of optic neuritis (ON) are often followed by structural retinal damage and sustained functional impairment. Alterations in the optic nerve and retina have also been described in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627532/effector-memory-cd8-t-cells-synergize-with-co-stimulation-competent-macrophages-to-trigger-autoimmune-peripheral-neuropathy
#15
Mu Yang, Xiang Qun Shi, Corentin Peyret, Oladayo Oladiran, Sonia Wu, Julien Chambon, Sylvie Fournier, Ji Zhang
Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (APN) such as Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a debilitating illness and sometimes life threatening. The molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive but exposure to environmental factors including viral/bacterial infection and injury is highly associated with disease incidence. We demonstrated previously that both male and female B7.2 (CD86) transgenic L31 and L31/CD4KO mice develop spontaneous APN. Here we further reveal that CD8+ T cells in these mice exhibit an effector/memory phenotype, which bears a resemblance to CD8+ T cell response following persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in humans and mice, whilst CMV has been considered as one of the most relevant pathogens in APN development...
April 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625774/-surface-transplantation-for-nerve-injury-and-repair-the-quest-for-minimally-invasive-cell-delivery
#16
REVIEW
Tetsuji Sekiya, Matthew C Holley
Cell transplantation is an ambitious, but arguably realistic, therapy for repair of the nervous system. Cell delivery is a major challenge for clinical translation, especially given the apparently inhibitory astrogliotic environment in degenerated tissue. However, astrogliotic tissue also contains endogenous structural and biochemical cues that can be harnessed for functional repair. Minimizing damage to these cues during cell delivery could enhance cell integration. This theory is supported by studies with an auditory astrocyte scar model, in which cells delivered onto the surface of the damaged nerve were more successfully integrated in the host than those injected into the tissue...
April 3, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625080/the-effects-of-age-on-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-axonal-degeneration-after-chronic-iop-elevation-using-a-murine-ocular-explant-model
#17
Elizabeth C Kimball, Joan L Jefferys, Mary E Pease, Ericka N Oglesby, Cathy Nguyen, Julie Schaub, Ian Pitha, Harry A Quigley
The purpose of this study was to compare younger and older mice after chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation lasting up to 4 days with respect to mitochondrial density, structure, and movement, as well as axonal integrity, in an ex vivo explant model. We studied 2 transgenic mouse strains, both on a C57BL/6J background, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in selected axons and one expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in all mitochondria. Mice of 4 months or 14 months of age were exposed to chronic IOP by anterior chamber microbead injection for 14 h, 1, 3, or 4 days...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624116/evaluation-of-congo-red-staining-in-degenerating-porcine-photoreceptors-in-vitro-protective-effects-by-structural-and-trophic-support
#18
Camilla Mohlin, Dick Delbro, Anders Kvanta, Kjell Johansson
Congo red (CR) is a histological stain used for the detection of extracellular amyloids mediating various neurodegenerative diseases. Given that damaged photoreceptors appear to degenerate similarly to other nerve cells, CR staining was evaluated in experimentally injured porcine retina. CR staining appeared mostly as discrete cytosolic deposits with no obvious plaque formation during the investigated time period. Increases of CR labeling coincided temporally with the known accumulation of mislocalized opsins and increases of cell death...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623298/a-murine-model-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-4f-reveals-a-role-for-the-c-terminus-of-periaxin-in-the-formation-and-stabilization-of-cajal-bands
#19
Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease comprises up to 80 monogenic inherited neuropathies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that collectively result in demyelination and axon degeneration. The majority of CMT disease is primarily either dysmyelinating or demyelinating in which mutations affect the ability of Schwann cells to either assemble or stabilize peripheral nerve myelin. CMT4F is a recessive demyelinating form of the disease caused by mutations in the Periaxin ( PRX ) gene . Periaxin (Prx) interacts with Dystrophin Related Protein 2 (Drp2) in an adhesion complex with the laminin receptor Dystroglycan (Dag)...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614113/searching-for-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis-at-clinical-onset-diagnostic-value-of-biomarkers
#20
Lenka Novakova, Markus Axelsson, Clas Malmeström, Henrik Imberg, Olle Elias, Henrik Zetterberg, Olle Nerman, Jan Lycke
BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration occurs during the early stages of multiple sclerosis. It is an essential, devastating part of the pathophysiology. Tools for measuring the degree of neurodegeneration could improve diagnostics and patient characterization. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of biomarkers of degeneration in patients with recent clinical onset of suspected multiple sclerosis, and to evaluate these biomarkers for characterizing disease course...
2018: PloS One
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