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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719825/degeneration-of-the-vestibular-nerve-in-unilateral-meniere-s-disease-evaluated-by-galvanic-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#1
Chih-Ming Chang, Yi-Ho Young, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chi-Te Wang, Po-Wen Cheng
OBJECTIVE: The staging system of Meniere's disease utilizes audiograms to probe cochlear dysfunction. We explored the addition of galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) to further explore vestibular function. METHODS: Seventy patients with unilateral Meniere's disease were enrolled in this study. Within 2weeks of diagnosis, all subjects underwent pure tone audiometry, cervical and ocular VEMP, and caloric test. The prevalence of abnormal tests and the VEMP characteristic parameters such as latencies and amplitudes were analyzed...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#2
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706282/retinal-degeneration-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-measured-by-optical-coherence-tomography-and-scanning-laser-polarimetry
#3
Birthe Stemplewitz, Robert Kromer, Eik Vettorazzi, Ute Hidding, Andreas Frings, Carsten Buhmann
This cross-sectional study compared the retinal morphology between patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and healthy controls. (The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) around the optic disc and the retina in the macular area of 22 PSP patients and 151 controls were investigated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Additionally, the RNFL and the nerve fiber index (NFI) were measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). Results of RNFL measurements with SD-OCT and SLP were compared to assess diagnostic discriminatory power...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703795/edaravone-suppresses-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-normal-tension-glaucoma
#4
Kei Akaiwa, Kazuhiko Namekata, Yuriko Azuchi, Xiaoli Guo, Atsuko Kimura, Chikako Harada, Yoshinori Mitamura, Takayuki Harada
Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs. Loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and exhibits glaucomatous pathology including glutamate neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In the present study, we found that edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is used for treatment of acute brain infarction and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), reduces oxidative stress and prevents RGC death and thinning of the inner retinal layer in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701774/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-glucocerebrosidase-activity-preserves-motor-unit-integrity-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Alexandre Henriques, Mylene Huebecker, Hélène Blasco, Céline Keime, Christian R Andres, Philippe Corcia, David A Priestman, Frances M Platt, Michael Spedding, Jean-Philippe Loeffler
Recent metabolomic reports connect dysregulation of glycosphingolipids, particularly ceramide and glucosylceramide, to neurodegeneration and to motor unit dismantling in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at late disease stage. We report here altered levels of gangliosides in the cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients in early disease stage. Conduritol B epoxide is an inhibitor of acid beta-glucosidase, and lowers glucosylceramide degradation. Glucosylceramide is the precursor for all of the more complex glycosphingolipids...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690952/targeted-radiofrequency-ablation-as-an-adjunct-in-treatment-of-lumbar-facet-cysts
#6
Jesse Hatgis, Michelle Granville, Aldo Berti, Robert E Jacobson
Lumbar facet cysts are frequently found in patients with facet degeneration and segmental instability. When the facet cyst is localized in the neural foramina and lateral recess or becomes large, it can cause radiculopathy or neurogenic claudication. These symptomatic cysts are typically treated interventionally with drainage and a corticosteroid injection or attempts via overinflation to rupture the cyst; however, these procedures have a significant recurrence rate (up to 50%) and often need to be repeated or lead to lumbar surgery if unsuccessful...
June 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690836/noise-induced-and-age-related-hearing-loss-%C3%A2-new-perspectives-and-potential-therapies
#7
REVIEW
M Charles Liberman
The classic view of sensorineural hearing loss has been that the primary damage targets are hair cells and that auditory nerve loss is typically secondary to hair cell degeneration. Recent work has challenged that view. In noise-induced hearing loss, exposures causing only reversible threshold shifts (and no hair cell loss) nevertheless cause permanent loss of >50% of the synaptic connections between hair cells and the auditory nerve. Similarly, in age-related hearing loss, degeneration of cochlear synapses precedes both hair cell loss and threshold elevation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689485/therapeutic-ultrasound-after-sciatic-nerve-compression-of-wistar-rats
#8
Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini, Jhenifer Karvat, Camila Mayumi Martin Kakihata, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão
OBJECTIVES: The present study analyzed the effect of therapy with therapeutic ultrasound on the sciatic nerve after compression injury, comparing two similar doses of SATA. METHODS: In total, 32 Wistar rats were used, divided into the following groups: CG - control; IG - compression injury of the sciatic nerve; IGCU - injury and continuous ultrasound; and IGPU - injury and 20% pulsed ultrasound. The treatment with ultrasound started on the 3rd postoperative day, with a frequency of 1 MHz, 0...
July 8, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689354/functional-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-traumatic-peripheral-nerve-muscle-injury-model
#9
Renate Wanner, Manuel Gey, Alireza Abaei, Daniela Warnecke, Luisa de Roy, Lutz Dürselen, Volker Rasche, Bernd Knöll
Traumatic injuries to human peripheral nerves are frequently associated with damage to nerve surrounding tissues including muscles and blood vessels. Currently, most rodent models of peripheral nerve injuries (e.g., facial or sciatic nerve) employ surgical nerve transection with scissors or scalpels. However, such an isolated surgical nerve injury only mildly damages neighboring tissues and weakly activates an immune response. In order to provide a rodent nerve injury model accounting for such nerve-associated tissue damage and immune cell activation, we developed a drop tower-based facial nerve trauma model in mice...
July 8, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687782/human-cochlear-histopathology-reflects-clinical-signatures-of-primary-neural-degeneration
#10
Jessica E Sagers, Lukas D Landegger, Steven Worthington, Joseph B Nadol, Konstantina M Stankovic
Auditory neuropathy is a significant and understudied cause of human hearing loss, diagnosed in patients who demonstrate abnormal function of the cochlear nerve despite typical function of sensory cells. Because the human inner ear cannot be visualized during life, histopathological analysis of autopsy specimens is critical to understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Here we present statistical models of severe primary neuronal degeneration and its relationship to pure tone audiometric thresholds and word recognition scores in comparison to age-matched control patients, spanning every decade of life...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684211/age-related-accumulation-of-phosphorylated-mitofusin-2-protein-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-correlates-with-glaucoma-progression
#11
Mary P Nivison, Nolan G Ericson, Virginia M Green, Jason H Bielas, Jean S Campbell, Philip J Horner
Dysregulation of axonal bioenergetics is likely a key mechanism in the initiation and progression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Glaucoma is a quintessential neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of the optic nerve (ON) and eventual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Age and elevation of intraocular pressure are key risk factors in glaucoma, but the common early hallmarks of decreased axonal transport and increased bioenergetic vulnerability likely underlie disease initiation...
July 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677370/neuronal-vacuolation-and-spinocerebellar-degeneration-associated-with-altered-neurotransmission
#12
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou
<i>Inherited neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases that occur across different species, such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), and many are caused by mutations in the same genes as corresponding human conditions. In the present study, we report an inherited neurodegenerative condition, termed 'neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration' (NVSD) which affects neonatal or young dogs, mainly Rottweilers, which recently has been linked with the homozygosity for the RAB3GAP1:c...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674983/multiple-sclerosis-basic-and-clinical
#13
Katherine Buzzard, Wing Hei Chan, Trevor Kilpatrick, Simon Murray
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting young adults in our community. It is a complex disease influenced by gender, genetic and environmental factors. MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by aberrant immune activation resulting in damage to myelin sheaths within the brain and spinal cord and axonal loss. The demyelinating insult initially impairs the speed and efficiency of nerve cell function. In the majority of cases, this is followed by an innate endogenous repair response that can restore the myelin sheath and nerve cell function to relatively normal levels...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670416/correlation-among-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-levels-degree-of-disk-degeneration-and-predominant-clinical-symptoms-in-patients-with-degenerated-intervertebral-discs
#14
Takeshi Sainoh, Kazuhide Inage, Sumihisa Orita, Masao Koda, Takeo Furuya, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Miyako Suzuki, Yoshihiro Sakuma, Go Kubota, Yasuhiro Oikawa, Jun Sato, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Shiga, Koki Abe, Hirohito Kanamoto, Masahiro Inoue, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Masaki Norimoto, Tomotaka Umimura, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori
STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PURPOSE: To assess the correlation among inflammatory cytokine expression levels, degree of intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration, and predominant clinical symptoms observed in degenerative disk disease (DDD). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Low back pain (LBP) is associated with inflammatory cytokine expression levels, including those of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nerve growth factor (NGF)...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666629/ageing-and-ocular-tissue-stiffness-in-glaucoma
#15
REVIEW
Baiyun Liu, Sara McNally, Jason I Kilpatrick, Suzanne P Jarvis, Colm J O'Brien
Glaucoma is a progressive and chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by damage to the inner layers of the retina and deformation of the optic nerve head. The degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons results in an irreversible loss of vision and is correlated with increasing age. Extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to natural ageing generates a stiffer extracellular environment throughout the body. Altered age-associated ocular tissue stiffening plays a major role in a significant number of ophthalmic pathologies...
June 27, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665811/small-fibre-neuropathy
#16
Daniele Cazzato, Giuseppe Lauria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a review on the state-of-art of clinical features, diagnostics, genetics and treatments of small fibre neuropathy (SFN). RECENT FINDINGS: The spectrum of clinical features has been widened from the classical presentation of burning feet as length-dependent SFN to that of small fibre dysfunction and/or degeneration associated with focal, diffuse and episodic neuropathic pain syndromes. The involvement of small nerve fibres in neurodegenerative diseases has been further defined, challenging the relationship between neuropathic pain symptoms and small fibre loss...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658200/critical-ischemia-times-and-the-effect-of-novel-preservation-solutions-htk-n-and-tiprotec-on-tissues-of-a-vascularized-tissue-isograft
#17
Franka Messner, Theresa Hautz, Michael Jf Blumer, Mario Bitsche, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Martin Hermann, Bettina Zelger, Bernhard Zelger, Dietmar Öfner, Stefan Schneeberger
BACKGROUND: We herein investigate critical ischemia times and the effect of novel preservation solutions HTK-N and TiProtec on the individual tissues of a rat limb isograft. METHODS: Orthotopic hind-limb transplantations were performed in male Lewis rats following 2h, 6h or 10h of cold ischemia. Limbs were flushed and stored in either HTK-N, TiProtec, HTK or saline solution. Muscle, nerve, vessel, skin and bone samples were procured on day 10 for histology, immunohistochemistry, confocal and electron microscopy and RTqPCR analysis...
June 28, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657129/acetyl-coa-production-from-pyruvate-is-not-necessary-for-preservation-of-myelin
#18
Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Lauren Mueller, Nicholas Silvestri, Mulchand S Patel, Lawrence Wrabetz, M Laura Feltri, Yannick Poitelon
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells not only form myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also provide metabolic and trophic support to the axons they ensheathe. Acetyl-CoA is potentially a key molecule in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes because it is at the crossroads of cellular lipid biosynthesis and energy generation. The main route for acetyl-CoA production is the oxidation of pyruvate by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC deficiency in humans results in neurodegeneration and developmental impairments in both white and gray matter structures...
June 28, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652204/evidence-for-a-role-of-nerve-injury-in-painful-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-a-cross-sectional-proteomic-analysis-of-human-cerebrospinal-fluid
#19
Tony K Y Lim, Kathleen M Anderson, Pawan Hari, Marcos Di Falco, Troy E Reihsen, George L Wilcox, Kumar G Belani, Sylvie LaBoissiere, Manuel R Pinto, David S Beebe, Lois Kehl, Laura S Stone
Intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) is a cause of low back pain (LBP) in some individuals. However, while >30% of adults have DD, LBP only develops in a subset of individuals. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying non-painful versus painful DD, human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was examined using differential expression shotgun proteomic techniques comparing healthy controls, subjects with non-painful DD, and patients with painful DD scheduled for spinal fusion surgery. Eighty-eight proteins were detected, 27 of which were differentially expressed...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650925/quantitative-analysis-of-the-inner-retinal-layer-thicknesses-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-using-corrected-optical-coherence-tomography-segmentation
#20
Ilkay Kilic Muftuoglu, Hema L Ramkumar, Dirk-Uwe Bartsch, Amit Meshi, Raouf Gaber, William R Freeman
PURPOSE: To characterize inner retinal damage in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 60 patients with AMD were categorized using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) severity scale. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of these patients were quantified by manually correcting the segmentation of each retinal layer, including the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer to ensure accurate delineation of layers...
June 23, 2017: Retina
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