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Ovarian trigger

Joe Mee Chan, Alvin Isaac Sukumar, Magendra Ramalingam, Surinder Singh Ranbir Singh, Mohamad Farouk Abdullah
Background: Chances of pregnancy in relation to endometrial thickness (EMT) remain elusive albeit some literatures suggest poorer pregnancy outcomes below the threshold of 6-7 mm, notwithstanding others perceive detrimental effect at thicker EMT. We aim to examine the implication of EMT on pregnancy outcomes using a cut-off of 8 mm and further explore for any effect of 'thick' EMT in our patient population. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study performed for 162 women to assess the associations between EMT on the human chorionic ganadotropin (hCG) trigger day and pregnancy outcomes in infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and autologous fresh embryo transfer (ET) in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycles under an assisted reproductive technology (ART) shared-care programme between public and private institutions from January 2012 through December 2016...
2018: Fertility Research and Practice
Charlotte Sonigo, Isabelle Beau, Michael Grynberg, Nadine Binart
The follicular ovarian reserve, constituted by primordial follicles (PMF), is established early in life, then keeps declining regularly along reproductive life. The maintenance of a normal female reproductive function implies the presence of a vast amount of dormant PMF. This process involves a continuous repression of PMF activation into early growing follicle through the balance between factors activating the initiation of follicular growth, mainly actors of the PI3K signaling pathway, and inhibiting factors such as anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)...
August 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Qianqian Wang, Min Yu, Yue Ma, Xiaoming Zhang, Hui Zhang, Shuiming Li, Rongfeng Lan, Fei Lu
Transcriptional factor SOX2 regulates stem cell pluripotency, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. As a key factor, the expression of SOX2 is tightly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. However, the underlying mechanism of SOX2 protein stability remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL1/WDR5 complexes physically interact with SOX2 and evoke SOX2 proteolysis, possibly through methylation on a potential site lysine 42 (K42). Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing of the components of the MLL1/WDR5 complexes WDR5, MLL1, RBBP5, and ASH2L lead to the accumulation of SOX2, while forced expression of WDR5 promotes SOX2 ubiquitination and proteolysis...
August 8, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Israel Ortega, Juan A García-Velasco, Antonio Pellicer
Current knowledge on ovarian physiology has challenged the traditional concept of folliculogenesis, creating the basis for novel ovarian stimulation protocols in assisted reproduction technology. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of novel clinical interventions that could aid clinicians in individualizing their protocols to patients' characteristics and personal situations. We conducted a literature review of the available evidence on new approaches for ovarian stimulation from both retrospective and prospective studies in the PubMed database...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Chang-Hee Whang, Eunsoo Yoo, Seong Kwon Hur, Kyeong Soo Kim, Dongin Kim, Seongbong Jo
SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin) is an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11) and the most potent camptothecin analogue. In this study, 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonyl (DNS) was covalently conjugated as a GSH-sensitive trigger to 10'-OH of SN-38 to yield a GSH-sensitive prodrug, denoted as DNS-SN38, with virtually quenched fluorescence due to donor-excited photo-induced electron transfer (d-PeT). By investigating DNS-SN38's activation properties upon fluorescence restoration and cytotoxic potency against ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780 and m-Cherry + OCSC1-F2), its potential applicability as a useful chemotherapeutic agent was demonstrated...
August 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Luigi Barrea, Paolo Marzullo, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Carolina Di Somma, Massimo Scacchi, Francesco Orio, Gianluca Aimaretti, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
High carbohydrate intake and low-grade inflammation cooperate with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism to constitute an interactive continuum acting on the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age characterised by oligo-anovulatory infertility and cardiometabolic disorders. The role of insulin in PCOS is pivotal both in regulating the activity of ovarian and liver enzymes, respectively involved in androgen production and in triggering low-grade inflammation usually reported to be associated with an insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic diseases...
July 23, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
J Grosbois, I Demeestere
STUDY QUESTION: How does biochemical stimulation or inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway affect the activation and the growth of human primordial follicles in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: The PI3K/Akt activators act synergistically with the Hippo signaling pathway, disrupted by tissue fragmentation, to accelerate primordial follicles recruitment while mTORC1 inhibitor partially prevents the massive spontaneous activation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hippo disruption caused by ovarian fragmentation and exposure to PI3K/Akt activators have been successfully used to activate resting follicles prior to grafting in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
Bindu N Chimote, Natchandra M Chimote
Steroid hormones form an integral part of normal development in mammalian organisms. Cholesterol is the parent compound from which all steroid hormones are synthesized. The product pregnenolone formed from cholesterol serves as precursor for mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its derived sexual hormones. DHEA assumes the prohormone status of a predominant endogenous precursor and a metabolic intermediate in ovarian follicular steroidogenesis. DHEA supplementation has been used to enhance ovarian reserve...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Shahar Kol
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist-based ovarian stimulation protocol is gaining popularity. This protocol allows for the use of GnRH agonist as a trigger of final oocyte maturation, instead of the "gold standard" human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger. GnRH agonist trigger causes quick luteolysis, hence its widespread use in the context of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) prevention. To secure pregnancy post GnRH agonist trigger, the luteal phase must be supplemented to counteract the luteolysis...
July 13, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
So-Youn Kim, Devi M Nair, Megan Romero, Vanida A Serna, Anthony J Koleske, Teresa K Woodruff, Takeshi Kurita
Platinum-based chemotherapies can result in ovarian insufficiency by reducing the ovarian reserve, a reduction believed to result from apoptosis of immature oocytes via activation/phosphorylation of TAp63α by multiple kinases including CHEK2, CK1, and ABL1. Here we demonstrate that cisplatin (CDDP) induces oocyte apoptosis through a novel pathway and that temporary repression of this pathway fully preserves ovarian function in vivo. Although ABL kinase inhibitors effectively block CDDP-induced apoptosis of oocytes, oocytic ABL1, and ABL2 are dispensable for damage-induced apoptosis...
July 9, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Larissa Kotelevets, Francine Walker, Godefroy Mamadou, Thérèse Lehy, Peter Jordan, Eric Chastre
We previously have identified the ectopic expression of Rac1b, an activated and novel splice variant of Rac1, in a subset of human colorectal adenocarcinomas, as well as in inflammatory bowel diseases and in colitis mouse model. Rac1b overexpression has been further evidenced in breast, pancreatic, thyroid, ovarian, and lung cancers. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the physiopathological implications of Rac1b in intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in vivo. The ectopic expression of Rac1b was induced in mouse intestinal epithelial cells after crossing Rosa26-LSL-Rac1b and villin-Cre mice...
July 9, 2018: Oncogene
Jun Zou, Yamei Wang, Mingdi Liu, Xiushu Huang, Wenjian Zheng, Qian Gao, Haijing Wang
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most prevalent gynaecological cancers. Euxanthone, an active ingredient of the medicinal plant Polygala caudata, exhibits a selective cytotoxic effect in tumour cells. The present study was aimed to determine whether euxanthone could suppress ovarian tumour growth, and to study the relevant mechanism. Two EOC cell lines, SKOV3 and A2780, were used as the in vitro model and treated with euxanthone. Cell viability and apoptosis were assayed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining, respectively...
July 8, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Francesca Magherini, Tania Fiaschi, Elisa Valocchia, Matteo Becatti, Alessandro Pratesi, Tiziano Marzo, Lara Massai, Chiara Gabbiani, Ida Landini, Stefania Nobili, Enrico Mini, Luigi Messori, Alessandra Modesti, Tania Gamberi
Au(NHC) and Au(NHC)2 , i.e. a monocarbene gold(I) complex and the corresponding bis(carbene) complex, are two structurally related compounds, endowed with cytotoxic properties against several cancer cell lines. Herein, we explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms at the basis of their cytotoxicity in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. Through a comparative proteomic analysis, we demonstrated that the number of modulated proteins is far larger in Au(NHC)2 -treated than in Au(NHC)-treated A2780 cells. Both gold compounds mainly affected proteins belonging to the following functional classes: protein synthesis, metabolism, cytoskeleton and stress response and chaperones...
June 15, 2018: Oncotarget
Matheus Roque, Beatrice Nuto Nóbrega, Marcello Valle, Marcos Sampaio, Selmo Geber, Thor Haahr, Peter Humaidan, Sandro C Esteves
Over the years concerns have arisen about possible adverse effects associated with controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) as regards not only the endometrium, but also on obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies after fresh embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The improvements in cryopreservation techniques associated with the possible impairment in endometrial receptivity due to the supra-physiologic hormonal levels observed during conventional COS have increased the implementation of the so-called 'freeze-all' policy...
June 28, 2018: Panminerva Medica
Haidong Li, Qichao Yao, Feng Xu, Ning Xu, Ran Duan, Saran Long, Jiangli Fan, Jianjun Du, Jingyun Wang, Xiaojun Peng
Development of high selectivity, accurate targeted and noninvasive fluorescent probe for monitoring specific enzyme activity associated with the tumor is urgent needed for early diagnosis of cancer and clinical fluorescence interventional resection guidance treatment. Owing to the invasion of malignant tumor cells, tumor cells are mixed with normal cells in the actual tumor location, which make it quite difficult for clinician to diagnose early diagnosis of tumor as well as resection of tumor. To overcome aforementioned obstacle, herein, an ingenious enzyme-activated one and two-photon fluorescent probe TCF-GGT was constructed and synthesized including γ-GGT enzyme specific identification site and far-red fluorophore for imaging...
October 2018: Biomaterials
Jaime Prat, Emanuela D'Angelo, Iñigo Espinosa
Based on histopathology and molecular genetics, ovarian carcinomas are divided into five main types: high-grade serous (70%), endometrioid (10%), clear cell (10%), mucinous (3%), and low-grade serous (<5%) carcinomas. These tumors, which account for over 95% of cases, represent distinct diseases with different prognosis and treatments. TP53 mutations are identified in almost all (96%) high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). Early p53 loss followed by BRCA loss leads to deficiency in homologous recombination (DHR) repair, which in turn triggers chromosomal instability and widespread somatic copy number changes...
June 23, 2018: Human Pathology
Yilu Chen, Tanchu Yang, Cuifang Hao, Junzhao Zhao
BACKGROUND Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are given letrozole before a trigger injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to lower estrogen (E2) levels, but can experience ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral letrozole, prior to administration of hCG, on the outcome of IVF and development of OHSS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective clinical review included 181 cases of women with PCOS who underwent IVF cycles with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) (IVF/ICSI-ET)...
June 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ryu Yashiro, Yukiko Murota, Kazumichi M Nishida, Haruna Yamashiro, Kaede Fujii, Asuka Ogai, Soichiro Yamanaka, Lumi Negishi, Haruhiko Siomi, Mikiko C Siomi
In Drosophila ovarian somatic cells (OSCs), Piwi represses transposons transcriptionally to maintain genome integrity. Piwi nuclear localization requires the N terminus and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) loading of Piwi. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that Importinα (Impα) plays a pivotal role in Piwi nuclear localization and that Piwi has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). Impα2 and Impα3 are highly expressed in OSCs, whereas Impα1 is the least expressed. Loss of Impα2 or Impα3 forces Piwi to be cytoplasmic, which is rectified by overexpression of any Impα members...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Ilana Graetz, Janeane N Anderson, Caitlin N McKillop, Edward J Stepanski, Andrew J Paladino, Todd D Tillmanns
OBJECTIVE: Nearly 1 in 5 patients hospitalized for ovarian cancer surgery are readmitted for complications that may have been prevented with monitoring. We conducted a randomized controlled feasibility trial to evaluate a postoperative web-based app intervention to provide real-time symptom monitoring among patients diagnosed or with suspected gynecological cancer who had open bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy surgery. METHODS: Participants were randomized into two groups: (1) App + Reminder: had access to the app, and use was encouraged with daily and/or weekly reminders; (2) app: had access to the app but received no reminders...
August 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Sabrina Noack, Monika Raab, Yves Matthess, Mourad Sanhaji, Andrea Krämer, Balázs Győrffy, Lars Kaderali, Ahmed El-Balat, Sven Becker, Klaus Strebhardt
The taxanes are effective microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapy drugs that inhibit mitosis, induce apoptosis, and produce regression in a fraction of cancers that arise at many sites including the ovary. Novel therapeutic targets that augment taxane effects are needed to improve clinical chemotherapy response in CCNE1 -amplified high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cells. In this study, we conducted an siRNA-based kinome screen to identify modulators of mitotic progression in CCNE1 -amplified HGSOC cells that may influence clinical paclitaxel response...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
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