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foot flat

Adam Sangeorzan, Bruce Sangeorzan
Subtalar joint biomechanics are primarily driven by the shape of the articulations with contributions from the surrounding soft tissues. The joint motion occurs about a single axis oriented medially and superiorly. Joint contact forces change during different stages of gait and are affected by hindfoot alignment and traumatic alterations to their normal anatomy. A valgus subtalar joint axis is likely a contributing, and perhaps primary, risk factor for progression to adult acquired flat foot. The subtalar joint axis also contributes to the clinical picture of a cavus foot and a special subset of patients with dynamic varus...
September 2018: Foot and Ankle Clinics
Jan-Matthias Braun, Florentin Wörgötter, Poramate Manoonpong
Orthoses for the lower limbs support patients to perform movements that they could not perform on their own. In traditional devices, generic gait models for a limited set of supported movements restrict the patients mobility and device acceptance. To overcome such limitations, we propose a modular neural control approach with user feedback for personalizable Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (KAFO). The modular controller consists of two main neural components: neural orthosis control for gait phase tracking and neural internal models for gait prediction and selection...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Aynollah Naderi, Hans Degens, Ainollah Sakinepoor
Excessive foot pronation during gait is a risk factor in medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Arch-support foot-orthoses are commonly used to manage overpronation, but it is unknown whether it is effective to manage MTSS. The present study investigated the effects of bilateral foot orthoses during running on dynamic foot-pressure distribution patterns in recreational runners with MTSS. Fifty novice (started within the last 4 months) runners diagnosed with MTSS (20.7 ± 2.2 years; 71.1 ± 8.6 kg; 1...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Florian Siegerist, Karlhans Endlich, Nicole Endlich
Together with endothelial cells and the glomerular basement membrane, podocytes form the size-specific filtration barrier of the glomerulus with their interdigitating foot processes. Since glomerulopathies are associated with so-called foot process effacement-a severe change of well-formed foot processes into flat and broadened processes-visualization of the three-dimensional podocyte morphology is a crucial part for diagnosis of nephrotic diseases. However, interdigitating podocyte foot processes are too narrow to be resolved by classic light microscopy due to Ernst Abbe's law making electron microscopy necessary...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Douglas Bonifácio, Jim Richards, James Selfe, Sarah Curran, Renato Trede
BACKGROUND: Medial wedged foot orthoses are frequently prescribed to reduce retropatellar stress in patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) by controlling calcaneal eversion and internal rotation of the tibia. During activities of daily living, the highest patella loads occur during stair descent, but the effect of foot orthoses during stair descent remains unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation during a step descent task in healthy volunteers using three designs of foot orthoses (insoles)...
July 23, 2018: Gait & Posture
Se-Yeon Park, Hyun-Seok Bang, Du-Jin Park
This study investigated potential for foot dysfunction and plantar fasciitis according to the shape of the foot arch in young adults. Fifty-two participants were required for the present study design to achieve 80% power, 0.8 effect size (η2), and an alpha level of 0.05. This study recruited 52 young adults (30 men and 22 women). All participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study after hearing explanations about the purpose and process of the study. They were divided into two groups of 26 according to the shape of foot with and without flat foot using the navicular drop test...
June 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Mu Hu, Xiangyang Xu
The present study investigated the clinical efficacy of a modified approach for the treatment of chronic subluxation of the peroneal tendons using posteromedial peroneal tendon groove deepening. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 21 patients who had undergone posteromedial peroneal tendon groove deepening combined with repair of the tendon sheath for the treatment of chronic subluxation of the peroneal tendons from March 2006 to October 2012. The lateral edge of the peroneal tendon groove was left untouched...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Maedeh Farzadi, Zahra Safaeepour, Hoda Nabavi, Masumeh Bagherzadeh Cham, Mohammad Ebrahim Mousavi
BACKGROUND: Rocker shoes are commonly prescribed to healthy and pathologic populations to decrease stress on the lower limbs. An optimal rocker shoe design must consider both toe and heel rockers. Heel rockers are as effective as toe rockers in relieving foot plantar pressures. However, most studies have focused on the position of toe rockers. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different heel rocker apex placements on lower-limb kinetics and kinematics. METHODS: Eighteen healthy females participated in this study...
May 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Yizeng Li, Sean X Sun
Cells in vivo can reside in diverse physical and biochemical environments. For example, epithelial cells typically live in a two-dimensional (2D) environment, whereas metastatic cancer cells can move through dense three-dimensional matrices. These distinct environments impose different kinds of mechanical forces on cells and thus potentially can influence the mechanism of cell migration. For example, cell movement on 2D flat surfaces is mostly driven by forces from focal adhesion and actin polymerization, whereas in confined geometries, it can be driven by water permeation...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Ling-Fung Yeung, Corinna Ockenfeld, Man-Kit Pang, Hon-Wah Wai, Oi-Yan Soo, Sheung-Wai Li, Kai-Yu Tong
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted ankle-foot-orthosis (AFO) can provide immediate powered ankle assistance in post-stroke gait training. Our research team has developed a novel lightweight portable robot-assisted AFO which is capable of detecting walking intentions using sensor feedback of wearer's gait pattern. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of robot-assisted gait training with ankle dorsiflexion assistance. METHODS: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
R Larrainzar-Garijo, C Cifuentes de la Portilla, B Gutiérrez-Narvarte, E Díez-Nicolás, J Bayod
Medializing calcaneal osteotomy forms part of the treatment options for adult acquired flat foot. The structural correction that is achieved is widely known. However, the effect of this procedure on the soft tissues that support the plantar arch has been little studied, since it is not possible to quantify experimentally the tension and deformation variations generated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of medializing calcaneal osteotomy on the soft tissue that supports the plantar arch, using a computational model of the human foot designed with a clinical approach...
June 12, 2018: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Alicja Rutkowska-Kucharska, Agnieszka Szpala, Sebastian Jaroszczuk, Małgorzata Sobera
Balance exercises in rhythmic gymnastics are performed on tiptoes, which causes overload of foot joints. This study aimed to evaluate the engagement of muscles stabilizing ankle and knee joints in balance exercises and determine exercises which may lead to ankle and knee joint injuries. It was hypothesized that long-term training has an influence on balance control and efficient use of muscles in their stabilizing function. Two rhythmic gymnasts (8 and 21 years old) performed balances on tiptoes (side split with hand support, ring with hand support) and on a flat foot (back split without hand support exercise)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Conor M Bolger, Veronica Bessone, Peter Federolf, Gertjan Ettema, Øyvind Sandbakk
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively...
2018: PloS One
James Becker, Mimi Nakajima, Will F W Wu
PURPOSE: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common overuse injuries sustained by runners. Despite the prevalence of this injury, risk factors for developing MTSS remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate differences in passive range of motion, muscle strength, plantar pressure distributions, and running kinematics between runners who developed MTSS and those who did not. METHODS: 24 NCAA Division 1 cross country runners participated in this study...
May 22, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Wing-Kai Lam, Jacobus Liebenberg, Jeonghyun Woo, Sang-Kyoon Park, Suk-Hoon Yoon, Roy Tsz-Hei Cheung, Jiseon Ryu
Background: Tibial stress fracture (TSF) is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances...
2018: PeerJ
Paul S Sung
Understanding plantar pressure changes is an important component of the functional evaluation of subjects with flat foot. However, the altered postural control determined by the threshold from the vertical ground reaction force (GRF) requires clarification. The purpose of our study was to investigate the various GRF thresholds in subjects with and without flat foot during 1-leg standing. We included 34 control subjects and 30 subjects with flat foot in the present study. They performed the 1-leg standing test for 30 seconds, with the contralateral hip and knee flexed approximately 90°...
July 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska, Katarzyna Wódka, Małgorzata Kołpa, Edyta Mikołajczyk
Nowadays, excessive body weight is the cause of death of more people than malnutrition. Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide, which also results in a considerable number of movement dysfunctions, including degenerative changes and foot pain. The study aimed to assess the effect of overweight and obesity on the height of foot arches in females aged 10-84 years, as well as to establish which factor - age or BMI - affected the height of medial longitudinal arch (MLA) to a greater extent. Three groups of females (96 pupils, 86 young adults and 88 seniors) were selected to participate in the study...
March 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Yoshihide Kanai, Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Tomohiro Nakayama, Arito Yozu, Nobuaki Iwasaki
[Purpose] The general approach for flat foot (FF) treatment in people with Down's syndrome (DS) is the use of insoles. However, the appropriate timing of the first insole prescription remains unclear. An aim of this present research was to investigate the status of prevalence of FF and orthosis prescription in the DS population. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred fifteen subjects with DS who were seen at our hospital were retrospectively investigated. Investigated parameters were: prevalence of FF and other foot diseases, ratio and timing of orthopaedic consultation, ratio and timing of orthoses prescription, and mean age at the time of orthosis prescription...
April 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Sindhrani Dars, Hayley Uden, Saravana Kumar, Helen A Banwell
Background: Flexible pes planus (flat feet) in children is a common reason parents and caregivers seek health professionals consult and a frequent reason podiatrists prescribe foot orthoses. Yet no universal agreement exists on the diagnosis of this condition, or when and how foot orthoses should be prescribed. The aim of this study was to garner consensus and agreement among podiatrists on the use of FOs for paediatric flexible pes planus. Methods: A three round Delphi consensus survey was undertaken with 15 podiatry experts from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom...
2018: PeerJ
Helena Burger, Gaj Vidmar, Branko Zdovc, Dominik Erzar, Metka Zalar
There are many prosthetic feet (Pfeet) on the market, and those in the same category do not necessarily have the same properties. We assessed three different Pfeet in terms of gait patterns on various terrains, balance and walking speed in a randomized double-blind controlled single-subject multiple-rater clinical trial. The patient was a 43-year old man who was an active prosthesis user and was amputated at transtibial level because of injury 17 years ago. One Solid Ankle Cushion Heel and two Dynamic Elastic Response (DER) Pfeet were tried six times in random order...
June 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
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