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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Seyed Majid Alavi-Mehr, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Due to inconclusive evidence on the effects of foot orthoses treatment on lower limb kinematics and kinetics in children, studies are needed that particularly evaluate the long-term use of foot orthoses on lower limb alignment during walking. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment with arch support foot orthoses versus a sham condition on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during walking in children with flexible flat feet...
2018: PloS One
Tarush Rustagi, Richard A Tallarico, William F Lavelle
Background: Three-column osteotomy is an effective means of correcting fixed sagittal plane deformities. Deformity correction surgeries may be associated with early postoperative neurological deficits often presenting as palsies involving the lumbar roots. The objective was to retrospectively assess a subset of our series of adult deformity correction surgeries and analyze neurological deficits and associated patient and surgical factors. Methods: Hospital records of 17 patients from a single center were examined...
April 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
Serkan Taş, Nezehat Özgül Ünlüer, Feza Korkusuz
PURPOSE: Many musculoskeletal disorders are associated with over-pronated foot and decreased medial longitudinal arch (MLA) height. Foot intrinsic muscles and plantar fascia (PF) are the primary structures that support MLA. An important reason for the over-pronated foot and the reduction in the MLA height may be the morphological characteristics of the foot intrinsic muscles and PF as well as changes in their mechanical properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphologic structure and mechanical properties of PF, flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles in individuals with flat foot and to compare the results with those of healthy individuals...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Soo Yeon Cho, You Chan Kim, Jee Woong Choi
Although ingrown nail (IN) is common, there is no large-scale study regarding its epidemiology and risk factors, such as foot deformity. The purpose of this study is to determine the demographics of IN and clarify its association with bone-related comorbidities of the ankle, foot and toe. Patients in a representative sample cohort of the National Health Information Database of South Korea from 2004 to 2013 who had IN were compared with a control group without IN. Ten-year overall incidence was 307.5/100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 304...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Sara R Koehler-McNicholas, Billie C Savvas Slater, Karl Koester, Eric A Nickel, John E Ferguson, Andrew H Hansen
Previous work suggests that to restore postural stability for individuals with lower-limb amputation, ankle-foot prostheses should be designed with a flat effective rocker shape for standing. However, most commercially available ankle-foot prostheses are designed with a curved effective rocker shape for walking. To address the demands of both standing and walking, we designed a novel bimodal ankle-foot prosthesis that can accommodate both functional modes using a rigid foot plate and an ankle that can lock and unlock...
2018: PloS One
S L Orozco-Villaseñor, M Monzó-Planella, X Martín-Oliva, J E Frias-Chimal, J J Mayagoitia-Vázquez, S N Alvarado-Camacho
The insufficiency of the posterior tibial tendon is the most common acquired cause of pain related to valgus flatfoot deformity in adults. The acquired flatfoot adult is a very painful symptomatic deformity resulting from a gradual stretching (attenuation) of the posterior tibial tendon and ligaments that support the arch of the foot. The progressive pain acquired flatfoot adult affects four times more women than men. Some factors that contribute to increased risk of acquired flatfoot in adults, are diabetes, hypertension and obesity...
March 2018: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
Alen Hajnal, Catalina X Olavarria, Tyler Surber, Joseph D Clark, Jonathan K Doyon
Recent research (Hajnal et al. in Perception 45(7):768-786, 2016) found apparent differences between haptic and visual perception of the affordance of stand-on-ability. One reason for this discrepancy might be the imprecision of the measurement method. We compared the psychophysical method of adjustment with a dynamic staircase method of stimulus presentation in an affordance task. Three groups of participants either visually inspected a flat sturdy sloped ramp, placed one foot onto the ramp occluded from view, or placed one foot on the ramp while allowed to look at it, in the visual, haptic, or multimodal condition, respectively...
September 3, 2018: Psychological Research
Yohei Tomaru, Hiroshi Kamada, Yuta Tsukagoshi, Shogo Nakagawa, Kenta Tanaka, Ryoko Takeuchi, Yuki Mataki, Shumpei Miyakawa, Masashi Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: On April 1, 2016, the Ministerial ordinance was enforced, and musculoskeletal examination of the extremities was made mandatory. From 2008, the University of us started musculoskeletal direct examination. To expand the examination, from 2016, we started to use the marksheet-type questionnaire. This study aimed to report the results of a musculoskeletal examination and investigate the association between musculoskeletal examination and age/gender and reports the reliability of the collected questionnaire data...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Tanmay T Verlekar, Luís D Soares, Paulo L Correia
Systemic disorders affecting an individual can cause gait impairments. Successful acquisition and evaluation of features representing such impairments make it possible to estimate the severity of those disorders, which is important information for monitoring patients' health evolution. However, current state-of-the-art systems perform the acquisition and evaluation of these features in specially equipped laboratories, typically limiting the periodicity of evaluations. With the objective of making health monitoring easier and more accessible, this paper presents a system that performs automatic detection and classification of gait impairments, based on the acquisition and evaluation of biomechanical gait features using a single 2D video camera...
August 21, 2018: Sensors
Luna Yamamori, Makoto Kato
Flattening of coiled shells has occurred in several gastropod lineages, while the evolutionary process of shell flattening is little known. The subfamily Fossarininae of the top shell family (Trochidae) is unique, because it includes four genera at various stages of shell flattening. Broderipia and Roya, have zygomorphic shells that has lost coiling, while the sister genera, Fossarina and Synaptocochlea, have respectively turbiniform and auriform shells. Therefore, comparisons of biology, habitats and detailed morphology among these four genera may help us to detect selection pressure driving shell flattening and loss of coiling...
2018: PloS One
Joshua C Tremblay, Taylor V Stimpson, Kristen M Murray, Kyra E Pyke
Prolonged sitting decreases lower limb endothelial function via sustained reductions in mean shear rate. We tested whether 30 minutes of sitting cross-legged differentially impacts superficial femoral artery shear rate pattern, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and leg pulse-wave velocity (PWV) compared to sitting flat-footed. Sitting cross-legged attenuated the reduction in mean and antegrade shear rate and increased arterial pressure compared to sitting flat-footed. Superficial femoral artery FMD and leg PWV were unaltered following either sitting position...
August 13, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Adam Sangeorzan, Bruce Sangeorzan
Subtalar joint biomechanics are primarily driven by the shape of the articulations with contributions from the surrounding soft tissues. The joint motion occurs about a single axis oriented medially and superiorly. Joint contact forces change during different stages of gait and are affected by hindfoot alignment and traumatic alterations to their normal anatomy. A valgus subtalar joint axis is likely a contributing, and perhaps primary, risk factor for progression to adult acquired flat foot. The subtalar joint axis also contributes to the clinical picture of a cavus foot and a special subset of patients with dynamic varus...
September 2018: Foot and Ankle Clinics
Jan-Matthias Braun, Florentin Wörgötter, Poramate Manoonpong
Orthoses for the lower limbs support patients to perform movements that they could not perform on their own. In traditional devices, generic gait models for a limited set of supported movements restrict the patients mobility and device acceptance. To overcome such limitations, we propose a modular neural control approach with user feedback for personalizable Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (KAFO). The modular controller consists of two main neural components: neural orthosis control for gait phase tracking and neural internal models for gait prediction and selection...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Aynollah Naderi, Hans Degens, Ainollah Sakinepoor
Excessive foot pronation during gait is a risk factor in medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Arch-support foot-orthoses are commonly used to manage overpronation, but it is unknown whether it is effective to manage MTSS. The present study investigated the effects of bilateral foot orthoses during running on dynamic foot-pressure distribution patterns in recreational runners with MTSS. Fifty novice (started within the last 4 months) runners diagnosed with MTSS (20.7 ± 2.2 years; 71.1 ± 8.6 kg; 1...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Florian Siegerist, Karlhans Endlich, Nicole Endlich
Together with endothelial cells and the glomerular basement membrane, podocytes form the size-specific filtration barrier of the glomerulus with their interdigitating foot processes. Since glomerulopathies are associated with so-called foot process effacement-a severe change of well-formed foot processes into flat and broadened processes-visualization of the three-dimensional podocyte morphology is a crucial part for diagnosis of nephrotic diseases. However, interdigitating podocyte foot processes are too narrow to be resolved by classic light microscopy due to Ernst Abbe's law making electron microscopy necessary...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Douglas Bonifácio, Jim Richards, James Selfe, Sarah Curran, Renato Trede
BACKGROUND: Medial wedged foot orthoses are frequently prescribed to reduce retropatellar stress in patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) by controlling calcaneal eversion and internal rotation of the tibia. During activities of daily living, the highest patella loads occur during stair descent, but the effect of foot orthoses during stair descent remains unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation during a step descent task in healthy volunteers using three designs of foot orthoses (insoles)...
September 2018: Gait & Posture
Se-Yeon Park, Hyun-Seok Bang, Du-Jin Park
This study investigated potential for foot dysfunction and plantar fasciitis according to the shape of the foot arch in young adults. Fifty-two participants were required for the present study design to achieve 80% power, 0.8 effect size (η2), and an alpha level of 0.05. This study recruited 52 young adults (30 men and 22 women). All participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study after hearing explanations about the purpose and process of the study. They were divided into two groups of 26 according to the shape of foot with and without flat foot using the navicular drop test...
June 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Mu Hu, Xiangyang Xu
The present study investigated the clinical efficacy of a modified approach for the treatment of chronic subluxation of the peroneal tendons using posteromedial peroneal tendon groove deepening. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 21 patients who had undergone posteromedial peroneal tendon groove deepening combined with repair of the tendon sheath for the treatment of chronic subluxation of the peroneal tendons from March 2006 to October 2012. The lateral edge of the peroneal tendon groove was left untouched...
September 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Maedeh Farzadi, Zahra Safaeepour, Hoda Nabavi, Masumeh Bagherzadeh Cham, Mohammad Ebrahim Mousavi
BACKGROUND: Rocker shoes are commonly prescribed to healthy and pathologic populations to decrease stress on the lower limbs. An optimal rocker shoe design must consider both toe and heel rockers. Heel rockers are as effective as toe rockers in relieving foot plantar pressures. However, most studies have focused on the position of toe rockers. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different heel rocker apex placements on lower-limb kinetics and kinematics. METHODS: Eighteen healthy females participated in this study...
May 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Yizeng Li, Sean X Sun
Cells in vivo can reside in diverse physical and biochemical environments. For example, epithelial cells typically live in a two-dimensional (2D) environment, whereas metastatic cancer cells can move through dense three-dimensional matrices. These distinct environments impose different kinds of mechanical forces on cells and thus potentially can influence the mechanism of cell migration. For example, cell movement on 2D flat surfaces is mostly driven by forces from focal adhesion and actin polymerization, whereas in confined geometries, it can be driven by water permeation...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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