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Tumour immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098205/the-impact-of-inflationary-cmv-specific-memory-t-cells-on-anti-tumour-immune-responses-in-patients-with-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Xiao-Hua Luo, Qingda Meng, Martin Rao, Zhenjiang Liu, Georgia Paraschoudi, Ernest Dodoo, Markus Maeurer
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous, persistent beta herpesvirus. CMV infection contributes to the accumulation of functional antigen (Ag)-specific CD8+ T-cell pools with an effector-memory phenotype and enrichment of these immune cells in peripheral organs. We review here this "memory T-cell inflation" phenomenon and associated factors including age and sex. 'Collateral damage' due to CMV-directed immune reactivity may occur in later stages of life - arising from CMV-specific immune responses that were beneficial in earlier life...
August 11, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091243/immunological-profile-of-teeth-with-inflammatory-periapical-disease-from-chronic-liver-disease-patients
#2
J M Braga Diniz, M C Espaladori, M E Souza E Silva, L C N Brito, L Q Vieira, A P Ribeiro Sobrinho
AIM: To evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the cytokines interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, IL-6, VEGF, and AGT and the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 in periapical interstitial fluid associated with root canal infections before and after the reduction of the bacterial load using a cleaning procedure. METHODOLOGY: The case group included 11 patients with chronic liver disease, and the control group included 11 healthy patients. Clinical samples were taken from teeth with pulp necrosis...
August 8, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082356/complementary-vaccination-protocol-with-dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-autologous-tumour-lysate-in-patients-with-resected-stage-iii-or-iv-melanoma-protocol-for-a-phase-ii-randomised-trial-acdc-adjuvant-trial
#3
Laura Ridolfi, Francesco de Rosa, Laura Fiammenghi, Massimiliano Petrini, Anna Maria Granato, Valentina Ancarani, Elena Pancisi, Valentina Soldati, Serena Cassan, Jenny Bulgarelli, Angela Riccobon, Giorgia Gentili, Oriana Nanni, Massimo Framarini, Francesca Tauceri, Massimo Guidoboni
INTRODUCTION: Surgery is one of the treatments of choice for patients with a single metastasis from melanoma but is rarely curative. Such patients could potentially benefit from consolidation immunotherapy. Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumour antigens elicits a tumour-specific immune response. In our experience, patients who developed delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) after DC vaccination showed a median overall survival (OS) of 22.9 monthsvs4.8 months for DTH-negative cases...
August 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075815/increased-cd4-t-cell-lineage-commitment-determined-by-cpg-methylation-correlates-with-better-prognosis-in-urinary-bladder-cancer-patients
#4
Emma Ahlén Bergman, Ciputra Adijaya Hartana, Markus Johansson, Ludvig B Linton, Sofia Berglund, Martin Hyllienmark, Christian Lundgren, Benny Holmström, Karin Palmqvist, Johan Hansson, Farhood Alamdari, Ylva Huge, Firas Aljabery, Katrine Riklund, Malin E Winerdal, David Krantz, A Ali Zirakzadeh, Per Marits, Louise K Sjöholm, Amir Sherif, Ola Winqvist
BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Environmental factors and chronic inflammation are correlated with the disease risk. Diagnosis is performed by transurethral resection of the bladder, and patients with muscle invasive disease preferably proceed to radical cystectomy, with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The anti-tumour immune responses, known to be initiated in the tumour and draining lymph nodes, may play a major role in future treatment strategies...
August 3, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060998/primary-brain-tumours-in-adults
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Lapointe, Arie Perry, Nicholas A Butowski
Primary CNS tumours refer to a heterogeneous group of tumours arising from cells within the CNS, and can be benign or malignant. Malignant primary brain tumours remain among the most difficult cancers to treat, with a 5 year overall survival no greater than 35%. The most common malignant primary brain tumours in adults are gliomas. Recent advances in molecular biology have improved understanding of glioma pathogenesis, and several clinically significant genetic alterations have been described. A number of these (IDH, 1p/19q codeletion, H3 Lys27Met, and RELA-fusion) are now combined with histology in the revised 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumours...
July 27, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059989/interleukin-27-is-a-potential-marker-for-the-onset-of-post-transplant-malignancies
#6
Paola Pontrelli, Federica Rascio, Gianluigi Zaza, Matteo Accetturo, Simona Simone, Barbara Infante, Lucrezia Furian, Giuseppe Castellano, Pasquale Ditonno, Michele Battaglia, Luigi Cormio, Giuseppe Carrieri, Antonio Lupo, Paolo Rigotti, Loreto Gesualdo, Giovanni Stallone, Giuseppe Grandaliano
Background: Malignancies represent the third leading cause of post-transplant mortality worldwide. The main challenge for transplant physicians is a timely diagnosis of this condition. The aim of the study was to identify a soluble diagnostic marker for monitoring the development of post-transplant malignancies. Methods: This is a multicentre, observational, perspective, case-control study. We enrolled 47 patients with post-transplant solid neoplasia. As a control group we employed 106 transplant recipients without a history of neoplasia and matched them with cases for the main demographic and clinical features...
July 27, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057419/cd4-t-cell-help-in-cancer-immunology-and-immunotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Jannie Borst, Tomasz Ahrends, Nikolina Bąbała, Cornelis J M Melief, Wolfgang Kastenmüller
Cancer immunotherapy aims to promote the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) within a tumour, assist the priming of tumour-specific CTLs in lymphoid organs and establish efficient and durable antitumour immunity. During priming, help signals are relayed from CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells by specific dendritic cells to optimize the magnitude and quality of the CTL response. In this Review, we highlight the cellular dynamics and membrane receptors that mediate CD4+ T cell help and the molecular mechanisms of the enhanced antitumour activity of CTLs...
July 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049387/cytokine-networks-and-survivin-peptide-specific-cellular-immune-responses-predict-improved-survival-in-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme
#8
Liu Zhenjiang, Martin Rao, Xiaohua Luo, Davide Valentini, Anna von Landenberg, Qingda Meng, Georges Sinclair, Nina Hoffmann, Julia Karbach, Hans-Michael Altmannsberger, Elke Jäger, Inti Harvey Peredo, Ernest Dodoo, Markus Maeurer
PURPOSE: We investigated serum cytokine and T-cell responses directed against tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in association with survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood from 205 treatment-naïve patients with glioma (GBM = 145; non-GBM = 60) was obtained on the day of surgery to measure (i) circulating T-cells reacting to viral antigens and TAAs, in the presence or absence of cytokine conditioning with IL-2/IL-15/IL-21 or IL-2/IL-7, and (ii) serum cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A)...
July 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046110/53bp1-cooperation-with-the-rev7-shieldin-complex-underpins-dna-structure-specific-nhej
#9
Hind Ghezraoui, Catarina Oliveira, Jordan R Becker, Kirstin Bilham, Daniela Moralli, Consuelo Anzilotti, Roman Fischer, Mukta Deobagkar-Lele, Maria Sanchiz-Calvo, Elena Fueyo-Marcos, Sarah Bonham, Benedikt M Kessler, Sven Rottenberg, Richard J Cornall, Catherine M Green, J Ross Chapman
53BP1 governs a specialized, context-specific branch of the classical non-homologous end joining DNA double-strand break repair pathway. Mice lacking 53bp1 (also known as Trp53bp1) are immunodeficient owing to a complete loss of immunoglobulin class-switch recombination1,2 , and reduced fidelity of long-range V(D)J recombination3 . The 53BP1-dependent pathway is also responsible for pathological joining events at dysfunctional telomeres4 , and its unrestricted activity in Brca1-deficient cellular and tumour models causes genomic instability and oncogenesis5-7 ...
July 25, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025882/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-reinforces-antitumour-t-cell-response-in-urothelial-urinary-bladder-cancer
#10
David Krantz, Ciputra Adijaya Hartana, Malin E Winerdal, Markus Johansson, Farhood Alamdari, Tomasz Jakubczyk, Ylva Huge, Firas Aljabery, Karin Palmqvist, A Ali Zirakzadeh, Benny Holmström, Katrine Riklund, Amir Sherif, Ola Winqvist
Evidence indicates that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may promote antitumour immune responses by activating T cells. The tumour-draining sentinel node (SN) is a key site to study tumour-specific T cell activation, being the primary immunological barrier against the tumour. In this prospective study, we set out to elucidate the effects of NAC on T cell subsets in the SNs of patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. We found that CD8+ effector T (Teff) cell exhaustion was reduced after NAC treatment, while cytotoxicity was increased...
July 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004792/cancer-immunology-and-radiobiology-oliver-scott-s-struggle-for-the-perfect-tumour-model-in-translational-research
#11
Klaus-Rüdiger Trott
Oliver Scott is best known for his research into the role of tumour hypoxia in radiation oncology. Yet no less important were Oliver's activities in the development of concepts and methods for performing translational research on the effect of ionising radiation on tumour in experimental animals, stressing the importance of using strictly inbred animals for transplantation of tumours which had arisen in exactly the identical mouse strain. Otherwise residual immunity would lead to uncontrollable bias in the results of cure experiments, invalidating conclusions...
July 30, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998216/the-influence-of-radiation-in-the-context-of-developing-combination-immunotherapies-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Jamie Honeychurch, Timothy M Illidge
In addition to tumouricidal activity, radiotherapy is now recognized to display potent immunostimulatory properties that can contribute to the generation of anti-cancer immune responses. Treatment with radiation can induce a variety of pro-immunogenic and phenotypic changes in malignant cells, and recalibrate the immune contexture of the tumour microenvironment, leading to enhanced activation of the innate immune system, and priming of tumour-specific T-cell immunity. The immune-dependent effects of radiotherapy provide a sound rationale for the development of combination strategies, whereby the immunomodulatory properties of radiation can be exploited to augment the activity of immunotherapeutic agents...
December 2017: Therapeutic advances in vaccines and immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963042/functional-characterisation-and-analysis-of-the-soluble-nkg2d-ligand-repertoire-detected-in-umbilical-cord-blood-plasma
#13
Steven T Cox, Robert Danby, Diana Hernandez, J Alejandro Madrigal, Aurore Saudemont
We previously reported that cord blood plasma (CBP) contains significantly more soluble NKG2D ligands (sNKG2DLs), such as sMICB and sULBP1, than healthy adult plasma. Viral infection or malignant transformation upregulates expression of NKG2D ligand on affected cells, leading to NK group 2, member D (NKG2D)-mediated natural killer (NK) cell lysis. Conversely, sNKG2DL engagement of NKG2D decreases NK cell cytotoxicity leading to viral or tumour immune escape. We hypothesised that sNKG2DLs detected in CBP may represent an additional fetal-maternal tolerance mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958837/tumour-suppressor-properties-of-mir-15a-and-its-regulatory-effects-on-bcl2-and-sox2-proteins-in-colorectal-carcinomas
#14
Vinod Gopalan, Faeza Ebrahimi, Farhadul Islam, Jelena Vider, Omel Baneen Qallandar, Suja Pillai, Cu-Tai Lu, Alfred King-Yin Lam
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression pattern, clinicopathological significance and tumour suppressive properties of miR-15a in patients with colorectal carcinomas. METHODS: Tissue samples from 87 patients with primary colorectal carcinomas, 50 matched metastatic lymph node and 37 non-neoplastic colon (control) were prospectively recruited. The expression level of miR-15a was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
June 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957083/how-to-predict-response-to-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-agents-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Samuele Naviglio, Paolo Giuffrida, Gabriele Stocco, Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Alessandro Ventura, Gino Roberto Corazza, Antonio Di Sabatino
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents have changed the therapeutic approach to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a considerable proportion of patients either do not primarily respond or lose response to treatment. Despite the long-standing experience in the use of these drugs, still there is the need of identifying the possible predictors of efficacy. Areas covered: We critically review the current knowledge on predictors of response to anti-TNF therapy - both those available in clinical practice and those still under investigation...
August 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951296/combining-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy-in-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Neeraj Bhalla, Rachel Brooker, Michael Brada
Immunotherapy has become standard of care in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a number of settings. Radiotherapy remains an important and potentially curative treatment for localized and locally advanced NSCLC not amenable to surgery. While the principal cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation is via DNA damage, the effect on tumour microenvironment, promoting dendritic cell presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells stimulating the host adaptive immune system to mount an immune response against tumours cells, has become of particular interest when combining immunomodulating agents with radiation...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942666/phase-ib-ii-trial-evaluating-the-safety-tolerability-and-immunological-activity-of-durvalumab-medi4736-anti-pd-l1-plus-tremelimumab-anti-ctla-4-combined-with-folfox-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#17
Jean-David Fumet, Nicolas Isambert, Alice Hervieu, Sylvie Zanetta, Jean-Florian Guion, Audrey Hennequin, Emilie Rederstorff, Aurélie Bertaut, Francois Ghiringhelli
Background: 5-Fluorouracil plus irinotecan or oxaliplatin alone or in association with target therapy are standard first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 demonstrated efficacy on mCRC with microsatellite instability but remain ineffective alone in microsatellite stable tumour. 5-Fluorouracil and oxaliplatin were known to present immunogenic properties. Durvalumab (D) is a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that inhibits binding of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to its receptor...
2018: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904127/strategies-to-enhance-the-graft-versus-tumour-effect-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#18
Eric Wong, Joanne E Davis, Andrew Grigg, Jeff Szer, David Ritchie
Relapse of haematological malignancies after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant is a major cause of mortality. The immunological mechanisms that may lead to disease relapse may include immunological immaturity prior to reconstitution of the allogeneic immune system, tumour antigen downregulation or promotion of T-cell exhaustion by interactions with the tumour microenvironment. Current therapeutic strategies for post-transplant relapse are limited in their efficacy and alternative approaches are required...
June 14, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902342/new-tools-for-mhc-research-from-machine-learning-and-predictive-algorithms-to-the-tumour-immunopeptidome
#19
EDITORIAL
Daniel M Altmann
At a time when immunology seeks to progress ever more rapidly from characterization of a microbial or tumour antigen to the immune correlates that may define protective T-cell immunity, there is a need for robust tools to enable accurate predictions of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) and peptide-MHC-T-cell receptor binding. Improvements in the curation of data sets from high throughput pMHC analysis, such as the NIH Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), and the associated developments of predictive tools rooted in machine-learning approaches, are having significant impact...
July 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899810/gene-therapy-with-rala-inos-composite-nanoparticles-significantly-enhances-survival-in-a-model-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#20
Cian M McCrudden, John W McBride, Joanne McCaffrey, Emma M McErlean, Nicholas J Dunne, Vicky L Kett, Jonathan A Coulter, Tracy Robson, Helen O McCarthy
Background: Recent approvals of gene therapies by the FDA and the EMA for treatment of inherited disorders have further opened the door for assessment of nucleic acid pharmaceuticals for clinical usage. Arising from the presence of damaged or inappropriate DNA, cancer is a condition particularly suitable for genetic intervention. The RALA peptide has been shown to be a potent non-viral delivery platform for nucleic acids. This study examines the use of RALA to deliver a plasmid encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as an anti-cancer treatment...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
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