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Tumour immunology

Victor I Seledtsov, Galina V Seledtsova
We propose a novel immunotherapeutic paradigm that justifies application of several antibodies to various membrane-associated antigens to achieve a critical threshold density of immune complexes on the surface of cancer cells sufficient for triggering downstream cytolytic pathways. Indeed, some cancer-associated antigens (such as cancer/testis antigens) were found to be expressed on many cancer (but not normal) cells, with their baseline membrane expression levels being originally quite low for some of them, or even further down-regulated due to immune-driven cell selection...
November 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Marcella Tazzari, Silvia Brich, Alessandra Tuccitto, Fabio Bozzi, Valeria Beretta, Rosalin D Spagnuolo, Tiziana Negri, Silvia Stacchiotti, Marcello Deraco, Dario Baratti, Chiara Camisaschi, Antonello Villa, Barbara Vergani, Licia Rivoltini, Silvana Pilotti, Chiara Castelli
Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MpM), arising in the setting of local inflammation, is a rare aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The three major MpM histological variants, epithelioid (E-MpMs), biphasic, and sarcomatoid MpMs (S-MpMs), are characterised by an increased aggressiveness and enhanced levels of EZH2 expression. To investigate the MpM immune contexture along the spectrum of MpM histotypes, an extended in situ analysis was performed on a series of 14 cases. Tumour-infiltrating immune cells and their functionality were assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and flow cytometry analysis...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Weili Xue, Weiming Li, Yufeng Shang, Yanjie Zhang, Xuan Lan, Guannan Wang, Zhaoming Li, Xudong Zhang, Yue Song, Baopeng Wu, Meng Dong, Xinhua Wang, Mingzhi Zhang
Novel nude mice model of human NK/T cell lymphoma were established by subcutaneously injecting two NK/T cell lymphoma cell lines into the right axillary region of mice and successful passages were completed by injecting cell suspension which was obtained through a 70-μm cell strainer. These mice models and corresponding cell clones have been successfully developed for more than 8 generations. The survival rates of both resuscitation and transplantation in NKYS and YT models were 90% and 70% correspondingly...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M Galiwango, Sara V Good, Juliet Mpendo, Egbert Tannich, Andrea K Boggild, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S Bagaya, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with increased risk of HIV transmission in African women. This association might be causal or mediated through shared socio-behavioural factors and associated co-infections. We tested the latter hypothesis in a cross-sectional pilot study in a cohort of women from a S. mansoni endemic region of Uganda. To validate the immunological effects of S. mansoni in this cohort, we additionally assessed known schistosomiasis biomarkers...
November 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chiara Agnoletto, Linda Minotti, Laura Brulle-Soumare, Lorenzo Pasquali, Marco Galasso, Fabio Corrà, Federica Baldassari, Jean-Gabriel Judde, Stefano Cairo, Stefano Volinia
Background: We aim to characterize the heterogeneous circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood, independently of physical or immunological purification, by using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) models. CTC studies from blood generally rely on enrichment or purification. Conversely, we devised a method for the inclusive study of human cells from blood of PDX models, without pre-selection or enrichment. Methods: A qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect human and cancer-related transcripts from CTCs in PDXs...
2018: Biomarker Research
Prasenjit Chakraborty, Tanusri Karmakar, Neeraj Arora, Geetashree Mukherjee
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is responsible for a large number of deaths each year. Oral cancer is the most frequent subtype of HNSCC. Historically, oral cancer has been associated with an increase in the consumption of tobacco and alcohol products, seen especially in the Asian subcontinent. It has also been associated with infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), particularly strain HPV16. Treatment usually involves a multidisciplinary approach of surgery combined with chemotherapy and radiation...
October 2018: Heliyon
Cyrill A Rentsch, Laurent Derré, Sarah G Dugas, Christian Wetterauer, Joël R Federer-Gsponer, George N Thalmann, Molly A Ingersoll
CONTEXT: More than 40 yr ago, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was introduced as an adjuvant therapy following transurethral resection of papillary tumours and as a treatment for carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Some 30 yr after its introduction, BCG maintenance therapy was found to be superior to induction therapy alone, representing the most relevant clinical improvement to BCG therapy since its inception. OBJECTIVE: To review current efforts and future opportunities to improve BCG immunotherapy...
July 2018: European Urology Focus
Ankur Chakravarthy, Lubaba Khan, Nathan Peter Bensler, Pinaki Bose, Daniel D De Carvalho
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key determinant of cancer progression and prognosis. Here we report findings from one of the largest pan-cancer analyses of ECM gene dysregulation in cancer. We define a distinct set of ECM genes upregulated in cancer (C-ECM) and linked to worse prognosis. We found that the C-ECM transcriptional programme dysregulation is correlated with the activation of TGF-β signalling in cancer-associated fibroblasts and is linked to immunosuppression in otherwise immunologically active tumours...
November 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Kim Clever, Karl Andreas Schlegel, Heinz Kniha, Georg Conrads, Lothar Rink, Ali Modabber, Frank Hölzle, Kristian Kniha
The purpose of this study was to assess host-derived parameters around dental zirconia and titanium implants and natural teeth during the occurrence of mucositis. After 4 weeks of perfect oral hygiene, 16 clinically profiled patients were asked to refrain from oral hygiene for 2 weeks, resulting in experimental plaque accumulation. This was followed by 4 weeks of perfect oral hygiene to reverse the inflammation. Immunological samples were analyzed for interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β)...
November 5, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
S Kareemaghay, M Tavassoli
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for more than 550,000 cases and 380,000 deaths annually. The primary risk factors associated with HNSCC are tobacco use and alcohol consumption; nevertheless genetic predisposition and oncogenic viruses also play important roles in the development of these malignancies. The current treatments for HNSCC patients include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and cetuximab, and combinations of these. However, these treatments are associated with significant toxicity, and many patients are either refractory to the treatment or relapse after a short period...
November 3, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
S Stavrakakis, F Loisel, P Sakkas, N Le Floc'h, I Kyriazakis, G Stewart, L Montagne
The choice of animal-based traits to identify and deal with production diseases is often a challenge for pig farmers, researchers and other related professionals. This systematic review focused on production diseases, that is, the diseases that arise from management practices, affecting the digestive, locomotory and respiratory system of pigs. The aim was to classify all traits that have been measured and conduct a meta-analysis to quantify the impact of diseases on these traits so that these can be used as indicators for intervention...
October 30, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jyoti B Chhetri, Elena Drousioti, José Afonso Guerra-Assunção, Javier Herrero, Steen K T Ooi
In the context of cancer immunotherapy, agents that target the immune system to cancer cells need to fulfil two criteria: 1) that they are only expressed on the desired target cell and 2) that they can elicit a potent immunological response. Cancer Testis Antigens are a large disparate family of factors ordinarily expressed in the germ-line but aberrantly expressed across multiple types of cancer. The ability to enforce their expression on tumour cells is an attractive strategy that could render such cells potent targets of the immune system, but very little is known about their regulation...
October 2018: Heliyon
P Koelblinger, M Emberger, M Drach, P F Cheng, R Lang, M P Levesque, J W Bauer, R Dummer
BACKGROUND: Primary melanoma ulceration is an unfavourable prognostic factor included in current staging systems. Yet, the immunological and molecular alterations responsible for this adverse outcome have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify immunological differences between ulcerated and non-ulcerated primary melanomas concerning both innate and adaptive immunity and to correlate these with clinical outcome. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary melanomas from 112 patients (pts) were analysed by immunohistochemistry...
October 25, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Qianqian Zheng, Shuo Diao, Qi Wang, Chen Zhu, Xun Sun, Bo Yin, Xinwen Zhang, Xin Meng, Biao Wang
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common of both benign and malignant primary brain tumours, in which the inflammatory and immunologic abnormalities are involved. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) plays an important role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers. Several recent studies revealed that the expression of IL-17A was overexpressed in human GBMs tissue. However, the accurate role of IL-17A in GBMs remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of IL-17A on cell migration and invasion of GBMs and the mechanism by which the effects occurred...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
François Bertucci, Pascal Finetti, Ines Simeone, Wouter Hendrickx, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Patrice Viens, Emilie Mamessier, Michele Ceccarelli, Daniel Birnbaum, Davide Bedognetti
BACKGROUND: The immunologic constant of rejection (ICR) is a broad phenomenon of Th-1 immunity-mediated, tissue-specific destruction. METHODS: We tested the prognostic value of a 20-gene ICR expression signature in 8766 early breast cancers. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of tumours were ICR1, 29% ICR2, 23% ICR3, and 15% ICR4. In univariate analysis, ICR4 was associated with a 36% reduction in risk of metastatic relapse when compared with ICR1-3 (p = 2...
November 2018: British Journal of Cancer
P Rastogi, A K Deva, H Miles Prince
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a recently recognised malignancy of T lymphocytes exclusively associated with textured breast implants. This review aims to evaluate existing theories regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical evaluation and management of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The true incidence of BIA-ALCL is difficult to define. Prevailing pathogenic theories recognise the interplay between textured implants, Gram-negative bacteria, host genetics (e...
October 22, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Daniel M Altmann
The field of cancer immunology stepped into the limelight this year when James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. Among many exciting advances contributing to the coming of age of tumour immunology as a viable clinical specialty has been the ability to progress from the initial elucidation of tumour antigens, such as the melanoma antigen, MAGE-1, to high-throughput sequencing facilitating identification of T cell epitopes from diverse tumour neoantigens...
November 2018: Immunology
V Brie, M Faure, J Garon, I Petit, E Gomez, A Knoepfli, M Decavele, N Petitpain, F Chabot, A Chaouat
INTRODUCTION: The anti programmed death-1 (PD-1) and the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies are used as immunotherapies in the treatment of many solid tumours. Cases of interstitial pneumonitis induced by anti PD-1 have been widely described, but there are fewer data with anti PD-L1. Avelumab is a new immunotherapy of the anti PD-L1 class. CASE REPORT: A 66-year-old woman, ex-smoker, had been treated with avelumab and axitinib since November 2016 for renal cell cancer...
October 11, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Adrian C Bateman
This mini review describes some of the key interactions between cancer cells and the immune system. This includes the concept of tumour cell immunosurveillance, mechanisms of immune evasion by tumour cells and some of the novel immunology-based anticancer therapies that have recently been introduced. The latter are also set into the context of the enlarging spectrum of immunohistochemistry-based and molecular testing that can now be performed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues for predicting response to both well-established and newly developed agents...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Isobel Dobbin-Sears, Janet Roberts, Darren D O'Rielly, Proton Rahman
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis that commonly occurs with psoriasis and is attributed to genetic, immunologic and environmental factors. The T-helper (Th)-17 pathway and the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis have become prominent players in PsA and considerably increased our understanding of disease pathogenesis. In this review article, we will focus on the emerging role of IL-12/23 and its blockade, in the pathogenesis and management of PsA as well as of psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease...
October 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
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