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High content imaging

Bernd Bittersohl, Chiara Benedikter, Alexander Franz, Tobias Hesper, Christoph Schleich, Gerald Antoch, Harish S Hosalkar, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens
BACKGROUND: Rowing exposes the femoral head and acetabulum to high levels of repetitive abutment motion and axial loading that may put elite athletes at an increased risk for developing early hip osteoarthritis. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Do elite rowers demonstrate characteristic hip cartilage lesions on T2 MRI sequences compared with asymptomatic individuals who do not row? METHODS: This study included 20 asymptomatic rowers (mean age, 23 ± 3 years; nine females, 11 males) who had a minimum of 5 years of intensive (≥ 12 hours/week) training...
November 27, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Tim Kampowski, Sven Demandt, Simon Poppinga, Thomas Speck
Resurrection plants have fascinated scientists since centuries as they can fully recover from cellular water contents below 10%, concomitantly showing remarkable leaf folding motions. While physiological adaptations have been meticulously investigated, the understanding of structural and mechanical adaptations of this phenomenon is scarce. Using imaging and bending techniques during dehydration-rehydration experiments, morphological, anatomical, and biomechanical properties of desiccation-tolerant Ramonda myconi are examined, and selected structural adaptations are compared to those of homoiohydrous Monophyllaea horsfieldii (both Gesneriaceae)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Deniz Vatansever, Natali S Bozhilova, Philip Asherson, Jonathan Smallwood
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition that profoundly affects quality of life. Although mounting evidence now suggests uncontrolled mind-wandering as a core aspect of the attentional problems associated with ADHD, the neural mechanisms underpinning this deficit remains unclear. To that extent, competing views argue for (i) excessive generation of task-unrelated mental content, or (ii) deficiency in the control of task-relevant cognition...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Philipp Kim, Sabine Weiskirchen, Ricarda Uerlings, Astrid Kueppers, Florian Stellmacher, André Viveiros, Heinz Zoller, Ralf Weiskirchen
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most frequent, identified, genetic disorder in Caucasians affecting about 1 in 1000 people of Northern European ancestry, where the associated genetic defect (homozygosity for the p.Cys282Tyr polymorphism in the HFE gene) has a prevalence of approximately 1:200. The disorder is characterized by excess iron stores in the body. Due to the incomplete disease penetrance of disease-associated genotype, genetic testing and accurate quantification of hepatic iron content by histological grading of stainable iron, quantitative chemical determination of iron, or imaging procedures are important in the evaluation and staging of hereditary hemochromatosis...
December 4, 2018: BMC Medical Imaging
M Rubega, M Carboni, M Seeber, D Pascucci, S Tourbier, G Toscano, P Van Mierlo, P Hagmann, G Plomp, S Vulliemoz, C M Michel
In the last decade, the use of high-density electrode arrays for EEG recordings combined with the improvements of source reconstruction algorithms has allowed the investigation of brain networks dynamics at a sub-second scale. One powerful tool for investigating large-scale functional brain networks with EEG is time-varying effective connectivity applied to source signals obtained from electric source imaging. Due to computational and interpretation limitations, the brain is usually parcelled into a limited number of regions of interests (ROIs) before computing EEG connectivity...
December 3, 2018: Brain Topography
Hye-Yeong Kim, Ran Li, Thomas S C Ng, Gabriel Courties, Christopher Blake Rodell, Mark Prytyskach, Rainer H Kohler, Mikael Pittet, Matthias Nahrendorf, Ralph Weissleder, Miles A Miller
Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are widely implicated in cancer progression, and TAM levels can influence drug responses, particularly to immunotherapy and nanomedicines. However, it has been difficult to quantify total TAM numbers and their dynamic spatiotemporal distribution in a non-invasive and translationally relevant manner. Here, we address this need by developing a pharmacokinetically optimized, 64Cu-labeled polyglucose nanoparticle (Macrin) for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of macrophages in tumors...
December 3, 2018: ACS Nano
Giacomo Bertazzoni, Alberto Schreiber, Marco Ferrari, Piero Nicolai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To illustrate the latest developments and trends in the management of juvenile angiofibroma. RECENT FINDINGS: Endoscopic surgery is currently the primary management strategy for juvenile angiofibroma. Recent reports on the use of multiportal approaches have contributed to further extend its indications. Studies from different countries suggest that the lesion can display variable growth rates not only in relation to patient age. The same concept applies to residual lesions...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Nitish Katoch, Bup Kyung Choi, Saurav Z K Sajib, Eun Ah Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Oh In Kwon, Eung Je Woo
Human brain mapping of low-frequency electrical conductivity tensors can realize patient-specific volume conductor models for neuroimaging and electrical stimulation. We report experimental validation and in vivo human experiments of a new electrodeless conductivity tensor imaging (CTI) method. From CTI imaging of a giant vesicle suspension using a 9.4 T MRI scanner, the relative error in the reconstructed conductivity tensor image was found to be less than 1.7% compared with the measured value using an impedance analyzer...
December 3, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Yijing Xie, Shipeng Zhang, Jianli Liu, Xiaohong Liang, Xueling Zhang, Yuting Zhang, Zhuoli Zhang, Junlin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the imaging characteristics of thymoma and mediastinal lymphoma using spectral CT and evaluate whether the quantitative information can improve the differential diagnosis of these diseases. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Overall, 39 patients with mediastinal tumors (24 thymomas and 15 mediastinal lymphomas) were examined with CT spectral imaging during the arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP)...
December 3, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
V P Bastiaenen, I Hovdenak Jakobsen, R Labianca, A Martling, D G Morton, J N Primrose, P J Tanis, S Laurberg
AIM: It is common clinical practice to follow patients for a period of years after curative intent treatment of non-metastatic colorectal cancer, but follow-up strategies vary widely. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of recommendations in guidelines from ESCP member countries on this topic, with supporting evidence. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, Embase and guidelines databases Tripdatabase, BMJ Best Practice and Guidelines International Network was performed...
November 30, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Erica Fadón, María Herrero, Javier Rodrigo
Anther and pollen development is a highly conserved process in angiosperms, but while pollen formation in annual plants occurs in a few days, in temperate woody perennials, it requires several months. How anther and pollen development is framed in terms of seasonality plays a clear part in reproductive success. In this study, seasonal anther and pollen development is characterized in two sweet cherry cultivars over 2 years, paying special attention to the period of dormancy and unveiling the role of starch in this process...
November 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Robert J Torphy, Zhen Wang, Aisha True-Yasaki, Keith E Volmar, Naim Rashid, Benjamin Yeh, Judy M Anderson, Julia S Johansen, Michael A Hollingsworth, Jen Jen Yeh, Eric A Collisson
Purpose: Desmoplastic stroma is a cardinal feature of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but its effects on the biology, prognosis and therapeutic outcomes are not known. We developed an automated method to assess tumor stroma density (TSD) and investigated computed tomography (CT)-correlates of stroma in PDAC. Patients and Methods: We collected PDAC samples from rapid autopsy and resection series and digitally annotated samples to quantify TSD. A series of resected patients also underwent preoperative multiphasic CT...
2018: JCO Precision Oncology
Yuanyuan Li, Sanjun Shi, Yue Ming, Linli Wang, Chenwen Li, Minghe Luo, Ziwei Li, Bin Li, Jianhong Chen
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are highly proliferative and tumorigenic, which contributes to chemotherapy resistance and tumor occurrence. CSCs specific therapy may achieve excellent therapeutic effects, especially to the drug-resistant tumors. RESULTS: In this study, we developed a kind of targeting nanoparticle system based on cationic albumin functionalized with hyaluronic acid (HA) to target the CD44 overexpressed CSCs. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was encapsulated in the nanoparticles with ultrahigh encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of 93% and loading content of 8...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Ya-Ling Huang, Ya-Sheng Ma, Yung-Hsiang Tsai, Sam K C Chang
Our previous study suggested that extrusion can enhance the soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and improve the physicochemical properties of fiber-rich orange pomace (OP). The aim of this study was to determine the predictive indices for the hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and fermentation capacities of extruded orange pomace (EOP) with several in vitro assays. The results revealed that EOP could effectively retard glucose diffusion and inhibit α-amylase activity relative to OP. Moreover, EOP had the binding capacities of cholesterol micelles and bile acids...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Daniel Jirak, Andrea Galisova, Kristyna Kolouchova, David Babuka, Martin Hruby
Over the last few years, the development and relevance of 19 F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for use in clinical practice has emerged. MRI using fluorinated probes enables the achievement of a specific signal with high contrast in MRI images. However, to ensure sufficient sensitivity of 19 F MRI, fluorine probes with a high content of chemically equivalent fluorine atoms are required. The majority of 19 F MRI agents are perfluorocarbon emulsions, which have a broad range of applications in molecular imaging, although the content of fluorine atoms in these molecules is limited...
November 29, 2018: Magma
Vít Herynek, Marie Martinisková, Yulia Bobrova, Andrea Gálisová, Jan Kotek, Petr Hermann, Filip Koucký, Daniel Jirák, Milan Hájek
OBJECTIVE: 19 F MRI requires biocompatible and non-toxic soluble contrast agents with high fluorine content and with suitable 19 F relaxation times. Probes based on a DOTP chelate with 12 magnetically equivalent fluorine atoms (DOTP-tfe) and a lanthanide(III) ion shortening the relaxation times were prepared and tested. METHODS: Complexes of DOTP-tfe with trivalent paramagnetic Ce, Dy, Ho, Tm, and Yb ions were synthetized and characterized. 19 F relaxation times were determined and compared to those of the La complex and of the empty ligand...
November 29, 2018: Magma
Vesna A Chappell, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg, Suzanne E Fenton
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most common flame retardant used in electrical housings, circuit boards, and automobiles. High-throughput screening and binding assays have identified TBBPA as an agonist for human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), the master regulator of adipogenesis. TBBPA has been suggested to be an obesogen based on in vitro cellular assays and zebrafish data. We hypothesized that exposing preadipocytes to TBBPA could influence adipogenesis via genes other than those in the PPARγ pathway due to its structural similarity to bisphenol A, which demonstrates varied endocrine disrupting activities...
December 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
L C Duits, P Lao-Sirieix, W A Wolf, M O'Donovan, N Galeano-Dalmau, S L Meijer, G J A Offerhaus, J Redman, J Crawte, S Zeki, R E Pouw, A Chak, N J Shaheen, J J G H M Bergman, R C Fitzgerald
Progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is uncommon but the consequences are serious. Predictors of progression are essential to optimize resource utilization. This study assessed the utility of a promising panel of biomarkers applicable to routine paraffin embedded biopsies (FFPE) to predict progression of BE to EAC in a large population-based, nested case-control study.We utilized the Amsterdam-based ReBus nested case-control cohort. BE patients who progressed to high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/EAC (n = 130) and BE patients who never progressed (n = 130) were matched on age, sex, length of the BE segment, and duration of endoscopic surveillance...
November 28, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Kaixin Li, Jianjun Yang, Qigen Tong, Wei Zhang, Fang Wang
In this study, soymilk was hydrolyzed to different degrees with flavourzyme, and then soymilk and enzyme modified soymilk at various levels were added to skim milk respectively, to generate a mixed gel using rennet. Rheological properties, scanning electron microscopy imaging, and physical and chemical indexes were examined to reveal the effect of enzyme modified soymilk on rennet induced gelation of skim milk. Results showed that soymilk inhibited the aggregation of skim milk, led to a decrease in storage modulus (G'), significantly increased moisture content and curd yield, and the resulting network was coarse...
November 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yang Ding, Chenchen Xu, Zheng Li, Wenjing Qin, Xisi Han, Xu Han, Chengwu Zhang, Changmin Yu, Xuchun Wang, Lin Li, Wei Huang
A novel fast response and visible fluorogenic probe (D1) for monitoring hypochlorite (ClO-) has been developed based on specific ClO- removal of a C=N bond. The response of the probe to ClO- showed increases linearly, and the fluorescence intensity heighten about 25 times. D1 responses to ClO- were observed with high selectivity and sensitivity within 10 s by naked eyes. D1 can not only detect the level of hypochlorite in vitro such as urine, but also monitoring hypochlorite content in extremely cold condition as low as -78 oC...
November 28, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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