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High content imaging

Idoia Labayen, Jonatan R Ruiz, Lide Arenaza, María Medrano, Ignacio Tobalina, Luis Gracia-Marco, Francisco B Ortega, Beatriz Rodriguez-Vigil
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatic fat content on bone mineral density (BMD), and to investigate whether the relationship between NAFLD and BMD is independent of lifestyle factors related to BMD. METHODS: Hepatic fat content (magnetic resonance imaging), BMD, lean mass index, total and abdominal fat mass (dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry), and calcium and vitamin D intake (two 24 h recalls) were measured in 115 children with overweight/obesity aged 10...
August 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Ronny Förster, Walter Müller, René Richter, Rainer Heintzmann
Any motion during an image acquisition leads to an artefact in the final image. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) combines several raw images into one high-resolution image and is thus particularly prone to these motion artefacts. Their unpredictable shape cannot easily be distinguished from real high-resolution content. We previously implemented a motion detection specifically for SIM, which had two shortcomings which are solved here. First, the brightness dependency of the motion signal is removed...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Vishesh Dubey, Azeem Ahmad, Rajwinder Singh, Deanna L Wolfson, Purusotam Basnet, Ganesh Acharya, Dalip Singh Mehta, Balpreet Singh Ahluwalia
Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy benefits from high-sensitivity, low background noise, low photo-toxicity and high-contrast imaging of sub-cellular structures close to the membrane surface. Although, TIRF microscopy provides high-contrast imaging it does not provide quantitative information about morphological features of the biological cells. Here, we propose an integrated waveguide chip-based TIRF microscopy and label-free quantitative phase imaging (QPI). The evanescent field present on top of a waveguide surface is used to excite the fluorescence and an upright microscope is used to collect the signal...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Cheng Zhang, Shehzahdi Shebbrin Moonshi, Wenqian Wang, Hang Thu Ta, Yanxiao Han, Felicity Y Han, Hui Peng, Petr Král, Barbara E Rolfe, John Justin Gooding, Katharina Gaus, Andrew Keith Whittaker
Two important challenges in the field of 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the maintenance of high fluorine content without compromising imaging performance, and effective targeting of small particles to diseased tissue. To address these challenges, we have developed a series of perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based hyperbranched (HBPFPE) nanoparticles with attached peptide aptamer as targeting ligands for specific in vivo detection of breast cancer with high 19F MRI sensitivity. A detailed comparison of the HBPFPE nanoparticles (NPs) with the previously reported trifluoroethyl acrylate (TFEA)-based polymers demonstrates that the mobility of fluorinated segments of the HBPFPE nanoparticles is significantly enhanced (19F T2 > 80 ms vs...
August 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Priscila M Hiraiwa, Alessandra M de Aguiar, Andréa R Ávila
Trypanosomatid parasites are causative agents of neglected human diseases. Their lineage diverged early from the common eukaryotic ancestor, and they evolved singular mechanisms of gene expression that are crucial for their survival. Studies on unusual and essential molecular pathways lead to new drug targets. In this respect, assays to analyze transcriptional activity will provide useful information to identify essential and specific factors. However, the current methods are laborious and do not provide global and accurate measures...
August 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Di Zhang, Jing Zhang, Qian Li, Hailong Tian, Na Zhang, Zhonghao Li, Yuxia Luan
The short lifetime and easily quick elimination of near-infrared dye new indocyanine green (IR820) in body restrict its practical application as photothermal agent in cancer therapy. Meanwhile, the drawback of poor water solubility of chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX) largely restricts its clinical applications. Herein we for the first time combined IR820 and PTX in an "all-in-one" fluorescence imaging-guided chemo-photothermal therapy platform by rational design of a novel pH- and enzyme-sensitive IR820-PTX conjugate assembly...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jing Wang, Dalong Ni, Zhiwei Shen, Yan Ren, Yanyan Liu, Wenpei Fan, Yue Wu, Guishan Zhang, Hua Zhang, Renhua Wu, Xiaoyuan Feng, Wenbo Bu, Zhenwei Yao
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows the assessment of metabolic contents and biochemical information in vivo. It provides essential compositional information in the diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, especially brain tumors. Conventional MRS is usually confined to endogenous metabolites that may lack specificity for certain disease such as differentiating glioma from other tumor and non-tumorous lesions. Therefore, exogenous MRS contrast agents (CAs) that may improve the sensitivity and specificity of MRS are highly desirable for its clinical use...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yanshuo Cao, Qing Chang, Michael Cabanero, Wenjiang Zhang, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, David Hedley, Gail Darling, Fayez Quereshy, Raymond Jang, Elena Elimova, Jennifer Knox, Olga Ornatsky, Stefano Serra, Eric Chen
PURPOSE: There is a wide range in tumor response following preoperative chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancers. We investigated the relationship between tumor platinum levels and pathological responses in these patients. METHODS: Tumor and adjacent normal tissues were retrieved. Pathological responses were assessed per standard criteria. Tissue platinum concentrations were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Qianchun Zhang, Siqi Xie, Yanqun Yang, Yun Wu, Xingyi Wang, Jincheng Wu, Li Zhang, Junyu Chen, Yuan Wang
A facile, green, and high-output hydrothermal synthesis was proposed for the fabrication of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-doped CDs). The nitrogen content in N-doped CDs reached 19.2% and demonstrated strong blue fluorescence emission was obtained with fluorescence quantum yield (QY) of up to 32.9%, which exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, high photostability, and excellent biocompatibility. The N-doped CDs possess high photostability, low toxicity, and excellent biocompatibility, based on which the N-doped CDs were successfully applied as a fluorescence probe for cell imaging...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Michael P Saddoris, Kayla A Siletti, Katherine J Stansfield, Maria Florencia Bercum
Despite decades of research, investigations into effective neural and pharmacological therapies for many drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, have produced no FDA-approved approaches. This difficulty derives from the complexity of substance use disorders, which encompass a variety of behavioral, psychological, and neural circuit-based changes that occur as a result of repeated experience with the drug. Dopamine signaling has been demonstrated to play a key role in several aspects of drug abuse-from mediating its reinforcing properties and drug-seeking to triggering relapse-while also mediating a number of important aspects of normal (nondrug related) motivated behaviors and actions...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
Xinxing Xia, Xiangyu Zhang, Lei Zhang, Phil Surman, Yuanjin Zheng
A novel time-multiplexed multi-view three-dimensional (3D) display has been implemented using a projector array to provide the image source and an angular steering-screen module to generate multiple high density horizontal views. The liquid crystal (LC)-based steering screen was specially developed to deflect light beams over a small range and operate in synchronism with the projector array with the use of a customized FPGA driver. The prototype produces vivid color 3D scenes with smooth parallax to multiple viewers...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Jonathan J Stone, Jennifer M Boland, Robert J Spinner
INTRODUCTION: Using proper surgical technique, schwannomas can be resected safely, with a low recurrence rate and high likelihood of improvement in symptomatology. There are multiple peritumoral tissue layers and finding the correct plane is critical to safe tumor enucleation. The contents of the pseudocapsule tissue surrounding a schwannoma are not well described and the consequences of resecting or leaving pseudocapsule are unknown. METHODS: An institutional database was searched for any pathology reports that contained both of the words "schwannoma" and "capsule"...
August 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bernd Kästner, Franko Schmähling, Andrea Hornemann, Georg Ulrich, Arne Hoehl, Mattias Kruskopf, Klaus Pierz, Markus B Raschke, Gerd Wübbeler, Clemens Elster
Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) provides for spectroscopic imaging with nanometer spatial resolution, yet full spatio-spectral imaging is constrained by long measurement times. Here, we demonstrate the application of compressed sensing algorithms to achieve hyperspectral FTIR-based nano-imaging at an order of magnitude faster imaging speed to achieve the same spectral content compared to conventional approaches. At the example of the spectroscopy of a single vibrational resonance, we discuss the relationship of prior knowledge of sparseness of the employed Fourier base functions and sub-sampling...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Kazuto Yasuda, Samit Ganguly, Erin G Schuetz
We investigated whether pheophorbide A (PhA) could serve as a selective BCRP substrate (victim) to screen in vivo using fluorescent live animal imaging for transporter-mediated interactions with orally administered inhibitors (perpetrators), and whether that could be coupled with serum sampling to measure PhA's systemic concentration with a fast-throughput in vitro fluorescent assay. PhA is a breakdown product of chlorophyll and is highly fluorescent in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum. Whole body NIR fluorescence was greater in the Bcrp KO compared to WT mice fed a regular diet containing chlorophyll and PhA, with fluorescence in WT mice confined to the intestine...
August 15, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Deepak Krishnan, Sudip K Ghosh
Entamoeba histolytica , the causative agent of amoebiasis, does not form cysts in vitro , so reptilian pathogen Entamoeba invadens is used as an Entamoeba encystation model. During the in vitro encystation of E. invadens , a few multinucleated giant cells (MGC) were also appeared in the culture along with cysts. Like the cyst, these MGC's were also formed in the multicellular aggregates found in the encystation culture. Time-lapse live cell imaging revealed that MGC's were the result of repeated cellular fusion with fusion-competent trophozoites as a starting point...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mingkai Huang, Qiu Shen, Zhan Ma, Alan C Bovik, Praful Gupta, Rongbing Zhou, Xun Cao
We develop a model that expresses the joint impact of spatial resolution s and JPEG compression quality factor qf on immersive image quality. The model is expressed as the product of optimized exponential functions of these factors. The model is tested on a subjective database of immersive image contents rendered on a head mounted display (HMD). High Pearson correlation and Spearman correlation (> 0.95) and small relative root mean squared error (< 5.6%) are achieved between the model predictions and the subjective quality judgements...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Lorenz J Maier, Stefan M Kallenberger, Katharina Jechow, Marcel Waschow, Roland Eils, Christian Conrad
Three-dimensional protein localization intricately determines the functional coordination of cellular processes. The complex spatial context of protein landscape has been assessed by multiplexed immunofluorescent staining or mass spectrometry, applied to 2D cell culture with limited physiological relevance or tissue sections. Here, we present 3D SPECS, an automated technology for 3D Spatial characterization of Protein Expression Changes by microscopic Screening. This workflow comprises iterative antibody staining, high-content 3D imaging, and machine learning for detection of mitoses...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Marzieh Najafi, Neda Kordalivand, Mohammad-Amin Moradi, Joep van den Dikkenberg, Remco Fokkink, Heiner Friedrich, Nico A J M Sommerdijk, Mathew Hembury, Tina Vermonden
In this study, native chemical ligation (NCL) was used as a selective crosslinking method to form core-crosslinked thermosensitive polymeric micelles for drug delivery applications. To this end, two complementary ABA triblock copolymers having polyethylene glycol (PEG) as midblock were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The thermosensitive poly isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) outer blocks of the polymers were co-polymerized with either N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-cysteine (HPMA-Cys), P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-Cys)-PEG-P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-Cys) (PNC), or N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-ethylthioglycolate succinic acid (HPMA-ETSA), P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-ETSA)-PEG-P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-ETSA) (PNE)...
August 13, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Paul M Gignac, Nathan J Kley
Advancements in imaging techniques have drastically improved our ability to visualize, study, and digitally share complex, often minute, anatomical relationships. The recent adoption of soft-tissue X-ray imaging techniques, such as diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT), is beginning to offer previously unattainable insights into the detailed configurations of soft- tissue complexes across Metazoa. As a contrast agent, dissolved iodine diffuses deeply throughout preserved specimens to bind fats and carbohydrates that are natural ly present within metazoan soft tissues, increasing the radiodensities of these tissues in predictable ways...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Lihong Chen, Congying Qiao, Yi Jiang
Spatial frequency (SF) information is essential for visual perception. By combining a sensitization procedure and the Ebbinghaus illusion, we investigated the effect of SF bias in context-dependent visual size perception. During the sensitization phase, participants were repeatedly presented with low- or high-pass filtered faces or gratings and were asked to discriminate the gender or the orientation of them, respectively. Immediately following the sensitization phase, the Ebbinghaus illusion strength was measured...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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