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High content imaging

U Voss, A Klimke
REM sleep is a state of desynchronized electrophysiological activity of the brain. It is usually accompanied by mental activity characterized by a succession of complex visual experiences commonly referred to as dreaming. Although REM sleep and dreaming are not implicitly conjoined, when they co-occur, they have a very distinct phenomenology, as, typically, the dream plot is bizarre and incohesive which is mirrored in heightened brain activation coupled with strongly attenuated coherence levels. At the same time, owing to increased limbic system activity, REM sleep dreams are highly emotional...
September 1, 2018: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Tehrim Yoon, Robert B Geary, Alaa A Ahmed, Reza Shadmehr
During foraging, animals decide how long to stay at a patch and harvest reward, and then, they move with certain vigor to another location. How does the brain decide when to leave, and how does it determine the speed of the ensuing movement? Here, we considered the possibility that both the decision-making and the motor control problems aimed to maximize a single normative utility: the sum of all rewards acquired minus all efforts expended divided by total time. This optimization could be achieved if the brain compared a local measure of utility with its history...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marine Fanny Garrido, Nicolas Jp Martin, Matthieu Bertrand, Catherine Gaudin, Frederic Commo, Nassif El Kalaany, Nader Al Nakouzi, Ladan Fazli, Elaine Del Nery, Jacques Camonis, Franck Perez, Stéphanie Lerondel, Alain LE Pape, Martin E Gleave, Yohann Loriot, Laurent Desaubry, Stephan Vagner, Karim Fizazi, Anne Chauchereau
PURPOSE: Targeted therapies that use the signaling pathways involved in prostate cancer are required to overcome chemoresistance and improve treatment outcomes for men. Molecular chaperones play a key role in the regulation of protein homeostasis and are potential targets for overcoming chemoresistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We established four chemoresistant prostate cancer cell lines and used image-based high-content siRNA functional screening, based on gene-expression signature, to explore mechanisms of chemoresistance and identify new potential targets with potential roles in taxane resistance...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Sean K Sethi, Shawn J Kisch, Kiarash Ghassaban, Ali Rajput, Alex Rajput, Paul S Babyn, Saifeng Liu, Peter Szkup, E Mark Haacke
BACKGROUND: Elevated brain iron has been observed in Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) within the deep gray matter. Using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and a thresholded high-iron region, we quantified iron content in the midbrain of patients with Parkinson's disease as a function of age. METHODS: We used MRI to scan 24 IPD patients at 3-Tesla. Susceptibility-weighted images were collected with the following parameters, TE: 6 and 20 ms, TR: 30 ms, FA: 15°, and resolution: 0...
October 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Gertraud Gradl-Dietsch, Lea Hitpaß, Boyko Gueorguiev, Sven Nebelung, Simone Schrading, Matthias Knobe
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Peyton's 4-step approach on musculoskeletal ultrasound skills in a peer-teaching environment as compared to traditional "see one, do one" training and to evaluate students' acceptance of the training strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 491 second year medical students (342 women, 149 men) completed a compulsory curricular course on musculoskeletal ultrasound. We randomly assigned students to receive traditional peer teaching or peer teaching using Peyton's four-step approach in small groups...
October 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Vanessa Cavalli, Denise Aparecida da Rosa, Daylana Pacheco da Silva, Matheus Kury, Priscila C S Liporoni, Luis Eduardo S Soares, Airton Abraão Martins
OBJECTIVE: High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can cause adverse effects on composition and structure of teeth. However, the addition of calcium and fluoride in bleaching agents may reduce enamel demineralization. To evaluate chemical changes of sound and demineralized enamels submitted to high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide containing fluoride (F) or calcium (Ca). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks of bovine incisors with standard dimensions were obtained and half of them were submitted to pH-cycling to promote initial enamel caries lesions...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Xiaotian Zhong, Weijun Ma, Caryl L Meade, Amy S Tam, Eliza Llewellyn, Richard Cornell, Kaffa Cote, John J Scarcelli, Jeffrey K Marshall, Boriana Tzvetkova, Bruno Figueroa, Dana DiNino, Annette Sievers, Christopher Lee, Jane Guo, Evan Mahan, Christopher Francis, Khetemenee Lam, Aaron M D'Antona, Richard Zollner, Hongli L Zhu, Ron Kriz, Will Somers, Laura Lin
Large-scale transient expression in mammalian cells is a rapid protein production technology often used to shorten overall timelines for biotherapeutics drug discovery. In this study we demonstrate transient expression in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host (ExpiCHO-S™) cell line capable of achieving high recombinant antibody expression titers, comparable to levels obtained using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. For some antibodies, ExpiCHO-S™ cells generated protein materials with better titers and improved protein quality characteristics (i...
October 9, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Travis Browning, Sura Giri, Ron Peshock, Julia Fielding
Determining the clinical impact of imaging exams at the enterprise level is problematic, as radiology reports historically have been created with the content meant primarily for the referring provider. Structured reporting can establish the foundation for enterprise monitoring of imaging outcomes without manual review providing the framework for assessment of utilization and quality. Ultrasound (US) for deep vein thrombosis evaluation (DVT) is an ideal testbed for assessing this functionality. The system standard template for Doppler US for extremity venous evaluation for DVT was updated with a discrete fixed picklist of impression options and implemented system wide...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Feng Yu, Xiao-Yang Yang, Meng-Jie Wan, Mei-Qing Lei, Ling-Feng Sun, Xu Han, Wen-Jin Li, Fang-Ping Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of synthetic long-chain polyphosphate on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. METHODS: The effect of artificial synthetic long chain poly phosphate on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation was detected by coagulation tests, coagulation factor activity detection and platelet aggregation test, and its mechanism was explored by ELISA, flow cytometry and high content imaging system. RESULTS: The long chain polyphosphates prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased coagulation factor FⅧ, FⅨ, FⅪ and FⅫ activity, blocked ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and decreased the concentration of calcium and TXA2 in platelet...
October 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Ji-Hong Chen, Sean P Parsons, Mitra Shokrollahi, Andrew Wan, Alexander D Vincent, Yuhong Yuan, Maham Pervez, Wu Lan Chen, Mai Xue, Kailai K Zhang, Arshia Eshtiaghi, David Armstrong, Premsyl Bercik, Paul Moayyedi, Eric Greenwald, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Jan D Huizinga
Simultaneous pressure waves (SPWs) in manometry recordings of the human colon have been associated with gas expulsion. Our hypothesis was that the SPW might be a critical component of most colonic motor functions, and hence might act as a biomarker for healthy colon motility. To that end, we performed high-resolution colonic manometry (HRCM), for the first time using an 84-sensor (1 cm spaced) water-perfused catheter, in 17 healthy volunteers. Intraluminal pressure patterns were recorded during baseline, proximal and rectal balloon distention, after a meal and following proximal and rectal luminal bisacodyl administration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Paul G Weightman Potter, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Josephine L Robb, John K Chilton, Ritchie Williamson, Andrew D Randall, Kate L J Ellacott, Craig Beall
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hypoglycaemia is a major barrier to good glucose control in type 1 diabetes. Frequent hypoglycaemic episodes impair awareness of subsequent hypoglycaemic bouts. Neural changes underpinning awareness of hypoglycaemia are poorly defined and molecular mechanisms by which glial cells contribute to hypoglycaemia sensing and glucose counterregulation require further investigation. The aim of the current study was to examine whether, and by what mechanism, human primary astrocyte (HPA) function was altered by acute and recurrent low glucose (RLG)...
October 6, 2018: Diabetologia
Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Menghour Huy, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Péter Bakonyi, Guangyin Zhen, Takuro Kobayashi, Kai Qin Xu, Nándor Nemestóthy, Soon Woong Chang
This study investigated the effect of light intensity on three various microalga consortia collected from natural ecological water bodies (named A, B and C) towards their fatty acid profiling and fractions, carbohydrate and protein production at different light intensities of 100, 200 and 300 μmol m-2  s-1 . The results indicating that increasing light intensity positively correlated with the lipid production than carbohydrate and protein. Irrespective to the solids (Total and Volatile Solid) content, lipids and carbohydrate has varied significantly...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Pascal S Kälin, Florian A Huber, Qeumars M Hamie, Lydia S Issler, Nadja A Farshad-Amacker, Erika J Ulbrich, Roman Guggenberger
BACKGROUND: Quantitative MRI allows assessment of shoulder rotator cuff (RC) muscles by Dixon MR sequences with calculation of fractional fat content (FF%) maps and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) including tractography. PURPOSE: To compare FF% and DTI derived parameters among visually intact RC muscles, to compare 2D with 3D DTI measurements and to establish normative values. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Forty patients aged >18 years undergoing shoulder MR arthrography were included...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jing-Xian Xie, Jian-Hong You, Xiao-Kang Chen, Yi-Ming Su, Jin-Rong Liu, Shan-Shan Su, Min Hou, Guo-Rong Lv
PURPOSE: To obtain three-dimensional ultrasonic (3D US) structural details and biometrics of the fetal cerebellar vermis and evaluate the value of developmental and malformation identification. METHODS: The 3D US minute structure of the fetal cerebellar vermis in mid-sagittal view was detected in normal fetuses (n = 438; 16-41 weeks). Biometric sizes were measured to establish the stage-specific norms and reproducibility analysis. Additionally, 28 fetuses with suspected abnormal posterior fossa contents were assessed to analyze the clinical value...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Hossein Mojaddadi Rizeei, Omer Saud Azeez, Biswajeet Pradhan, Hayder Hassan Khamees
Groundwater hazard assessments involve many activities dealing with the impacts of pollution on groundwater, such as human health studies and environment modelling. Nitrate contamination is considered a hazard to human health, environment and ecosystem. In groundwater management, the hazard should be assessed before any action can be taken, particularly for groundwater pollution and water quality. Thus, pollution due to the presence of nitrate poses considerable hazard to drinking water, and excessive nutrient loads deteriorate the ecosystem...
October 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Franziska Walter, Aisling O'Brien, Caoimhín G Concannon, Heiko Düssmann, Jochen Hm Prehn
In response to an accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen, three ER transmembrane signalling proteins, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), are activated. These proteins initiate a signalling and transcriptional network termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), which re-establishes cellular proteostasis. When this restoration fails, however, cells undergo apoptosis. To investigate cross-talk between these different UPR enzymes, here we developed a high-content live cell screening platform to image fluorescent UPR reporter cell lines derived from human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in which different ER stress signalling proteins were silenced through lentivirus-delivered shRNA constructs...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wen-Chin Weng, Chia-Wei Lin, Hui-Chung Shen, Chien-Cheng Chang, Po-Hsiang Tsui
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) results in loss of ambulation for the patients. Ultrasound attenuation correlates with fat content in muscles, resulting in changes in signal frequency. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) allows time-frequency analysis with high time-frequency resolution. This study explored the feasibility of using the instantaneous frequency (IF) obtained from the HHT to diagnose the walking function of patients with DMD. Eighty-five participants (12 control and 73 patients with DMD) underwent a standard-care ultrasound examination of the gastrocnemius to acquire raw image data for ultrasound B-mode and IF calculations, which were compared with the DMD stage using Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses...
September 20, 2018: Ultrasonics
Marcel Harpaintner, Natalie M Trumpp, Markus Kiefer
The relation of abstract concepts to the modality-specific systems is discussed controversially. According to classical approaches, the semantic content of abstract concepts can only be coded by amodal or verbal-symbolic representations distinct from the sensory and motor systems, because abstract concepts lack a clear physical referent. Grounded cognition theories, in contrast, propose that abstract concepts do not depend only on the verbal system, but also on a variety of modal systems involving perception, action, emotion and internal states...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mohamed H M Ali, Fazle Rakib, Essam M Abdelalim, Andreas Limbeck, Raghvendra Mall, Ehsan Ullah, Nasrin Mesaeli, Donald McNaughton, Tariq Ahmed, Khalid Al-Saad
Objective: Stroke is the main cause of adult disability in the world, leaving more than half of the patients dependent on daily assistance. Understanding the post-stroke biochemical and molecular changes are critical for patient survival and stroke management. The aim of this work was to investigate the photo-thrombotic ischemic stroke in male rats with particular focus on biochemical and elemental changes in the primary stroke lesion in the somatosensory cortex and surrounding areas, including the corpus callosum...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
William M Wooten, Lynn E T Shaffer, Lisa A Hamilton
OBJECTIVES: Chest radiography has been the preferred imaging study to assess pulmonary congestion. However, chest radiography interpretation is influenced by the level of expertise and high interobserver variability. Lung ultrasound (US) may produce more objective findings through evaluation of vertical comet tail artifacts known as B-lines, which are created by a decrease in the ratio of alveolar air to fluid pulmonary content. Few studies have directly compared chest radiography to bedside US against a reference standard for the diagnosis of pulmonary edema...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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