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Drug-resistant tuberculosis in 2017

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092867/-i-didn-t-know-so-many-people-cared-about-me-support-for-patients-who-interrupt-drug-resistant-tb-treatment
#1
L Snyman, E Venables, L Trivino Duran, E Mohr, V D Azevedo, X Harmans, P Isaakidis
SETTING: Early interventions for patients who interrupt their treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are rarely reported and assessed. A novel, patient-centred intervention for patients at risk of loss to follow-up (LTFU) from DR-TB treatment was implemented in Khayelitsha, South Africa, in September 2013. OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences and perceptions of patients, key support persons, health care workers (HCWs) and programme managers of a patient-centred model...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087741/tuberculosis-in-the-prisons-in-the-republic-of-macedonia-2008-2017
#2
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Karolina Pilovska-Spasovska, Ljiljana Simonovska, Vladimir Mitreski
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in penitentiary institutions (prisons), and its prevalence was reported to be multiple times higher compared to that of the general population. Conditions such as overcrowding, malnutrition and limited access to medical care which often exist in prisons increase the risk of reactivation, transmission and poor prognosis of tuberculosis disease among inmates. AIM: The main objective of this study was to present the epidemiological situation of TB in the prisons from 2008 till 2017 in the Republic of Macedonia (RM)...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084673/innovative-strategies-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-tuberculosis-a-patent-review-2014-2017
#3
Tulshidas S Patil, Ashwini S Deshpande
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused due to an infection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M TB) bacilli affecting millions of people worldwide. It is a 9th leading cause of death and ranks above the HIV/AIDS. The unique intracellular life-cycle, more dangerous drug-resistant forms of bacilli, and insufficient investments in the TB research & development hindered the occurrence of optimum diagnostic, preventive, and treatment strategy against this disease. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide an update and overview of the current trends in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the disease...
August 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060785/direct-susceptibility-testing-on-mgit-960-tb-system-a-rapid-method-for-detection-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
Nadia Tayyab, Gohar Zaman, Luqman Satti, Aamer Ikram, Adeel Hussain Gardezi, Muhammad Tahir Khadim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate direct drug susceptibility testing on MGIT 960 system for detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis from smear positive pulmonary specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2016 to September 2017. METHODOLOGY: Smear positive specimens were pretreated according to guidelines and then tested on MGIT 960 TB system for direct drug susceptibility testing (DST) of isoniazid and rifampin...
August 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942536/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-determinants-and-treatment-outcome
#5
REVIEW
Tadele Girum, Ebrahim Muktar, Kifle Lentiro, Habtamu Wondiye, Misgun Shewangizaw
Introduction: The emergence of MDR-TB remained a major public health threat particularly in developing countries. With increased prevalence and complexity of treatment, the burden of MDR-TB challenged the country. It is of an important; the epidemiology of drug resistant TB is not well understood. There are few studies conducted to assess the prevalence, determinants and treatment outcome of MDR-TB with inconclusive finding. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on Epidemiology of MDR-TB in Ethiopia, So that policy makers and other stalk holders could have pooled evidence on the problem to make a decision...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933862/cost-effectiveness-of-decentralised-care-model-for-managing-mdr-tb-in-india
#6
Denny John, Prabir Chatterjee, Shruti Murthy, Ramesh Bhat, Baba Maiyaki Musa
BACKGROUND: In India, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients are usually treated in hospitals. Decentralised care model, however, has been suggested as a possible alternative by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the "End TB Strategy", the WHO highlights, as one of the key targets for 2035, that 'no TB-affected families should face catastrophic hardship due to the tuberculosis'. Removal of financial barriers to health-care access and mitigation of catastrophic expenditures are therefore considered vital to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goal...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928135/association-between-tobacco-smoking-and-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#7
REVIEW
Ming-Gui Wang, Wei-Wei Huang, Yu Wang, Yun-Xia Zhang, Miao-Miao Zhang, Shou-Quan Wu, Andrew J Sandford, Jian-Qing He
Background: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis but little is known about the relationship between tobacco smoking and drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between DR-TB and tobacco smoking. Methods: We searched for relevant studies in the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG, and WEIPU data-bases from inception to September 1, 2017...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920858/the-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-the-rural-balimo-region-of-papua-new-guinea
#8
Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, Patricia Graves, Robert Dowi, Bisato Gula, David Plummer, Emma McBryde, Daniel Pelowa, Peter Siba, William Pomat, Jeffrey Warner
OBJECTIVE: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has an emerging tuberculosis (TB) epidemic which has become a national public health priority. In Western Province, there are few data about TB outside Daru and the South Fly District. This study describes the epidemiology of TB diagnosed at Balimo District Hospital (BDH) in the Middle Fly District of Western Province, PNG. METHODS: All patients (n = 1614) diagnosed with TB at BDH from April 2013 to February 2017 were recorded. Incidence of reported new cases was calculated for the combined Balimo Urban and Gogodala Rural local level government areas...
June 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879908/mortality-and-associated-factors-of-patients-with-extensive-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-an-emerging-public-health-crisis-in-china
#9
Chengli Bei, Manjiao Fu, Yao Zhang, Hebin Xie, Ke Yin, Yanke Liu, Li Zhang, Bangruan Xie, Fang Li, Hua Huang, Yuhong Liu, Li Yang, Jing Zhou
BACKGROUND: Limited treatment options of extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have led to its high mortality worldwide. Relevant data about mortality of XDR-TB patients in literature are limited and likely underestimate the real situation in China, since the majority of patients with XDR-TB are lost to follow-up after discharge from TB hospitals. In this study, we sought to investigate the mortality and associated risk factors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-negative patients with XDR-TB in China...
June 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808119/is-chemoprophylaxis-for-child-contacts-of-drug-resistant-tb-patients-beneficial-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
C Padmapriyadarsini, Mrinalini Das, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Mahalakshmi Rajendran, Richard Kirubakaran, Sarabjit Chadha, Prathap Tharyan
Background: Preventive therapy for child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients is poorly studied, and no consensus about the role and the rationale of chemoprophylaxis has been reached. Objective: To conduct systematic review with an aim to determine the effectiveness of TB preventive therapy in reducing the incidence of TB disease in pediatric contacts of MDR-TB patients. Methods: We conducted a literature search for randomized control trials, cohort studies, and case reports of chemoprophylaxis for pediatric contacts of MDR-TB patients in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, and other clinical registries through March 2017, using appropriate search strategy...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779917/antimicrobial-resistance-among-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Laura B Nellums, Hayley Thompson, Alison Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Jonathan A Otter, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland, Sally Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings...
July 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724920/delamanid-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-study-from-south-africa
#12
Erika Mohr, Jennifer Hughes, Anja Reuter, Laura Trivino Duran, Gabriella Ferlazzo, Johnny Daniels, Virginia De Azevedo, Yulene Kock, Sarah Jane Steele, Amir Shroufi, Serge Ade, Natavan Alikhanova, Guido Benedetti, Jeffrey Edwards, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
Experience with delamanid (Dlm) is limited, particularly among HIV-positive individuals. We describe early efficacy and safety data from a programmatic setting in South Africa.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving Dlm-containing treatment regimens between November 2015 and August 2017. We report 12-month interim outcomes, sputum culture conversion (SCC) by months 2 and 6, serious adverse events (SAEs) and QT intervals corrected using the Frederica formula (QTcF).Overall, 103 patients were initiated on Dlm; 79 (77%) were HIV positive...
June 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703425/effect-of-generalised-access-to-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-and-targeted-mass-drug-administration-on-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-eastern-myanmar-an-observational-study-of-a-regional-elimination-programme
#13
Jordi Landier, Daniel M Parker, Aung Myint Thu, Khin Maung Lwin, Gilles Delmas, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Potentially untreatable Plasmodium falciparum malaria threatens the Greater Mekong subregion. A previous series of pilot projects in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam suggested that mass drug administration was safe, and when added to provision of early diagnosis and treatment, could reduce the reservoir of P falciparum and interrupts transmission. We examined the effects of a scaled-up programme of this strategy in four townships of eastern Myanmar on the incidence of P falciparum malaria...
May 12, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677210/provider-reported-barriers-and-solutions-to-improve-testing-among-tuberculosis-patients-eligible-for-drug-susceptibility-test-a-qualitative-study-from-programmatic-setting-in-india
#14
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Arun M Kokane, Akash Ranjan Singh, Malik Parmar, Manoj Verma, Prabha Desikan, Sheeba Naz Khan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: In a study conducted in Bhopal district (a setting with facility for molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST)) located in central India in 2014-15, we found high levels of pre-diagnosis attrition among patients with presumptive multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)-meaning TB patients who were eligible for DST, were not being tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored the health care provider perspectives into barriers and suggested solutions for improving DST...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670768/assessment-of-anti-tb-drug-nonadherence-and-associated-factors-among-tb-patients-attending-tb-clinics-in-arba-minch-governmental-health-institutions-southern-ethiopia
#15
Addisu Alemayehu Gube, Megbaru Debalkie, Kalid Seid, Kiberalem Bisete, Asfaw Mengesha, Abubeker Zeynu, Freselam Shimelis, Feleke Gebremeskel
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Nonadherence to anti-TB treatment may result in the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB, prolonged infectiousness, and poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Ethiopia is one of the seven countries that reported lower rates of treatment success (84%). This study assessed anti-TB drug nonadherence and associated factors among TB patients in Arba Minch governmental health institutions...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648691/implementing-the-end-tb-strategy-in-the-western-pacific-region-translating-vision-into-reality
#16
REVIEW
Kalpeshsinh Rahevar, Paula I Fujiwara, Shalala Ahmadova, Fukushi Morishita, Lee B Reichman
The End TB Strategy aims to end the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2035 in line with the sustainable development goals targets and has been implemented in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region since 2015. Significant progress has been made in implementing this strategy. However, several challenges still remain. In 2016, an estimated 1.8 million people developed TB in the region, and of these about 20% were missed by national TB programmes. The gap in diagnosis and enrolment as well as treatment completion is greater with drug-resistant TB...
August 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562988/global-programmatic-use-of-bedaquiline-and-delamanid-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#17
V Cox, G Brigden, R H Crespo, E Lessem, S Lynch, M L Rich, B Waning, J Furin
SETTING: The World Health Organization recommended two new drugs, bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid (DLM), for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in 2013 and 2014, respectively. An estimated one third of patients with MDR-TB would benefit from the inclusion of these drugs in their treatment regimens. DESIGN: A convenience sample of 36 countries voluntarily reported monthly data on cumulative programmatic use of new drugs to the Drug-Resistant TB Scale-Up Treatment Action Team between 1 July 2015 and 31 June 2017...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493093/highlights-of-the-2017-european-aids-clinical-society-eacs-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-adult-hiv-positive-persons-version-9-0
#18
L Ryom, C Boesecke, M Bracchi, J Ambrosioni, A Pozniak, J Arribas, G Behrens, Pgm Mallon, M Puoti, A Rauch, J M Miro, O Kirk, C Marzolini, J D Lundgren, M Battegay
BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines have since 2005 provided multidisciplinary recommendations for the care of HIV-positive persons in geographically diverse areas. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: Major revisions have been made in all sections of the 2017 Guidelines: antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Newly added are also a summary of the main changes made, and direct video links to the EACS online course on HIV Management...
May 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486815/implications-of-a-school-outbreak-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-northern-china
#19
Xiaoguang Wu, Yu Pang, Yanhua Song, Wenzhu Dong, Tingting Zhang, Shuan Wen, Hairong Huang, Mengqiu Gao
In this study, we identified a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outbreak in a high school in northern China. The aim of this work was to describe TB transmission, drug resistance and treatment outcomes for this patient cluster. In January 2017, pulmonary TB was identified in a 17-year-old boy in northern China. Subsequently, a total of 11 TB cases were identified during 6-month follow-up of attendees of the same school. Of five students with latent TB infection (LTBI) receiving isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), two pulmonary TB cases (40...
April 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467027/quality-of-reporting-of-outcomes-in-phase-iii-studies-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Laura Jayne Bonnett, Gie Ken-Dror, Geraint Rhys Davies
BACKGROUND: Despite more than 60 years of clinical trials, tuberculosis (TB) still causes a high global burden of mortality and morbidity. Treatment currently requires multiple drugs in combination, taken over a prolonged period. New drugs are needed to shorten treatment duration, prevent resistance and reduce adverse events. However, to improve on current methodology in drug development, a more complete understanding of the existing clinical evidence base is required. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken to summarise outcomes reported in phase III trials of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB...
February 21, 2018: Trials
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