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Primary Prevention Of Cancer

Lingfeng Chen, Hongjin Chen, Pengqin Chen, Wenxin Zhang, Chao Wu, Chuchu Sun, Wu Luo, Lulu Zheng, Zhiguo Liu, Guang Liang
Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), an essential adapter protein used by toll-like receptors (TLR), is a promising target molecule for the treatment of respiratory inflammatory diseases. Previous studies explored the activities of novel 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole analogue (6) in inflammation-induced cancer, and identified the analogue as an inhibitor of MyD88 toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) homology domain dimerization. Here, we describe the synthesis of 47 new analogues by modifying different sites on this lead compound and assessed their anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (MPMs)...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Philip Joseph, Prem Pais, Antonio L Dans, Jackie Bosch, Denis Xavier, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Khalid Yusoff, Anwar Santoso, Shamim Talukder, Habib Gamra, Karen Yeates, Paul Camacho Lopez, Jessica Tyrwhitt, Peggy Gao, Koon Teo, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that in individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), but at increased CVD risk, a 50% to 60% reduction in CVD risk could be achieved using fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy (usually comprised of multiple blood-pressure agents and a statin [with or without aspirin]) in a single "polypill". However, the impact of a polypill in preventing clinical CV events has not been evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial. METHODS: TIPS-3 is a 2x2x2 factorial randomized controlled trial that will examine the effect of a FDC polypill on major CV outcomes in a primary prevention population...
August 2, 2018: American Heart Journal
Thomas C Randall, Catherine Sauvaget, Richard Muwonge, Edward L Trimble, Jose Jeronimo
Treatment of preinvasive lesions is critical to the success of secondary prevention of cervical cancer. In many settings, however, excision or ablation of preinvasive lesions can prove challenging. Thermal ablation (TA) is a form of treatment for cervical precancer that may present fewer logistical challenges in resource limited settings. In 2013, Dolman and colleagues wrote a meta-analysis of publications reporting cure rates from TA. This included only one article from a low or middle-income country (LMIC)...
October 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marta A Moresco, Laura Raccosta, Gianfranca Corna, Daniela Maggioni, Matias Soncini, Silvio Bicciato, Claudio Doglioni, Vincenzo Russo
Recent evidence indicates that immune cells contribute to the formation of tumor metastases by regulating the pre-metastatic niche. Whether tumor-derived factors involved in primary tumor formation play a role in metastasis formation is poorly characterized. Oxysterols act as endogenous regulators of lipid metabolism through the interaction with the nuclear Liver X Receptors-(LXR)α and LXRβ. In the context of tumor development, they establish a pro-tumor environment by dampening antitumor immune responses, and by recruiting pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Miklos Szabo, Laszlo Hajba, Renáta Kuhn, András Guttman, Eszter Csánky
Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of mortality among cancer patients worldwide and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also high in death statistics. In addition, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have high risk for developing primary lung cancer. Prevention, risk estimation and a non-invasive diagnostics are essential to decrease COPD and lung cancer mortality. Therefore, better and more accurate molecular diagnostic markers (biomarkers) are needed for the early differential diagnosis of these lung diseases to help clinicians making better therapeutic decisions...
October 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Cindy Canivet, Sophie Gourgou-Bourgade, Bertrand Napoléon, Laurent Palazzo, Nicolas Flori, Pierre Guibert, Guillaume Piessen, Dominique Farges-Bancel, Jean-François Seitz, Eric Assenat, Véronique Vendrely, Stéphanie Truant, Geoffroy Vanbiervliet, Philippe Berthelémy, Stéphane Garcia, Anne Gomez-Brouchet, Louis Buscail, Barbara Bournet
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for pancreatic cancer remains poor despite diagnostic advances and treatments with new chemotherapeutic regimens. The five year survival rate remains below 3%. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new treatments to significantly improve the prognosis. In addition, there is a big gap in terms of the screening, early diagnosis and prevention of pancreatic cancer the incidence of which is increasing dramatically. METHODS: Design: the BACAP cohort is a prospective multicenter pancreatic cancer cohort (pancreatic ductal carcinoma) with clinical and multiple biological samples; Participating centers: 15 French academic and private hospitals; Study Population: any cytologically and/or histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma regardless of the stage (resectable, borderline, locally advanced or metastatic) or treatment (surgery, palliative chemotherapy, best supportive care)...
October 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Susan J Curry, Alex H Krist, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, David C Grossman, Alex R Kemper, Martha Kubik, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng, John B Wong
Importance: More than 35% of men and 40% of women in the United States are obese. Obesity is associated with health problems such as increased risk for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, gallstones, and disability. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk for death, particularly among adults younger than 65 years. Objective: To update the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2012 recommendation on screening for obesity in adults...
September 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Brendan F Boyce, Jinbo Li, Lianping Xing, Zhenqiang Yao
Skeletal health is maintained by bone remodeling, a process in which microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone, which is laid down by osteoblasts. This normal process can be disturbed in a variety of pathologic processes, including localized or generalized inflammation, metabolic and endocrine disorders, primary and metastatic cancers, and during aging as a result of low-grade chronic inflammation. Osteoclast formation and activity are promoted by factors, including cytokines, hormones, growth factors, and free radicals, and require expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) by accessory cells in the bone marrow, including osteoblastic and immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Farkhad Manapov, Lukas Käsmann, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Maurice Dantes, Nina-Sophie Schmidt-Hegemann, Claus Belka, Chukwuka Eze
Over 10% of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have brain metastases (BM) at initial diagnosis; more than 50% will develop BM within 2 years. BM are detected in up to 80% of all patients at autopsy. After primary treatment, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been established as standard of care in SCLC patients responding to initial therapy. Based on level I evidence, PCI significantly decreases the risk of intracranial relapse and shows a modest survival benefit after 3 years. However, the role of PCI in defined patient subgroups such as resected SCLC, elderly and extensive stage patients with access to magnetic resonance imaging surveillance and stereotactic radiotherapy is yet to be fully clarified...
2018: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Elin Collins, Annika Strandell, Gabriel Granåsen, Annika Idahl
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the fallopian tubes have been found to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Therefore, bilateral salpingectomy at the time of hysterectomy has been proposed as a preventive procedure, but with scarce scientific evidence to support the efficiency and safety. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to evaluate the risk of surgical complications and menopausal symptoms performing bilateral salpingectomy in addition to benign hysterectomy...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kent F Hoskins, Silvia Tejeda, Ganga Vijayasiri, Ifeanyi Beverly Chukwudozie, Mylene H Remo, Hiral A Shah, Ivy E Abraham, Lara E Balay, Tara K Maga, Ericka R Searles, Veena J Korah, Alana Biggers, Melinda R Stolley, Richard B Warnecke
BACKGROUND: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) endorses routine screening for genetic risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer as a component of primary health care. Implementation of this recommendation may prove challenging, especially in clinics serving disadvantaged communities. METHODS: The authors tested the feasibility of implementing the USPSTF mandate at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) to identify women who were eligible for genetic counseling (GC)...
October 15, 2018: Cancer
Jens Hoebel, Lars E Kroll, Julia Fiebig, Thomas Lampert, Alexander Katalinic, Benjamin Barnes, Klaus Kraywinkel
Most chronic diseases follow a socioeconomic gradient with higher rates in lower socioeconomic groups. A growing body of research, however, reveals cancer to be a disease group with very diverse socioeconomic patterning, even demonstrating reverse socioeconomic gradients for certain cancers. To investigate this matter at the German national level for the first time, this study examined socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence in Germany, both for all cancers combined as well as for common site-specific cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Agustin Lage, Teresa Romero
Cancer control is a wider concept than oncology, and includes comprehensive actions for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, services organization, and education, aiming to modify hard indicators such as incidence, mortality rates, and survival at a population scale. Based on these concepts, organized national cancer programs appeared in several countries in the second half of the 20th century. But at the same time, scientific efforts began to modify the landscape of cancer control. Evidence of mortality reductions began to appear, cancer-driving mutations became measurable, many novel drugs were registered, the methodology of clinical trials spread through health systems, targeted drugs and immunotherapy entered into the mainstream of therapeutics, and treatment goals started to shift from cure to chronic control...
January 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho, Geórgia de Assis Dias Alves, Marina Ortiz Lovatto, Iuri França Bonilha, Fernanda Barbisan, Ivana Beatrice Manica da Cruz, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Roselei Fachinetto, Gizele Scotti do Canto, Melânia Palermo Manfron
Ultraviolet B radiation represents 10% of the total UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, being the primary responsible for the biological effects related to skin cancer and photoaging. Ilex Paraguariensis A. St. Hil., known as Yerba mate (YM), is a native tree of South America whose polyphenols in its leaves are described to exhibit photochemoprotective effect and are employed in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, the polyphenols are used to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce the UV-induced damage, which ultimately decreases the oxidative stress...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Nitya V Sharma, Kathryn L Pellegrini, Veronique Ouellet, Felipe O Giuste, Selvi Ramalingam, Kenneth Watanabe, Eloise Adam-Granger, Lucresse Fossouo, Sungyong You, Michael R Freeman, Paula Vertino, Karen Conneely, Adeboye O Osunkoya, Dominique Trudel, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, John A Petros, Fred Saad, Carlos S Moreno
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced or recurrent prostate cancer typically undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but the benefits are often short-lived and the responses variable. ADT failure results in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which inevitably leads to metastasis. We hypothesized that differences in tumor transcriptional programs may reflect differential responses to ADT and subsequent metastasis. RESULTS: We performed whole transcriptome analysis of 20 patient-matched Pre-ADT biopsies and 20 Post-ADT prostatectomy specimens, and identified two subgroups of patients (high impact and low impact groups) that exhibited distinct transcriptional changes in response to ADT...
October 11, 2018: Cancers
Shinya Toyokuni
Cancer is the primary cause of human mortality in most countries. This tendency has increased as various medical therapeutics have advanced, which suggests that we cannot escape carcinogenesis, although the final outcome may be modified by exposomes and statistics. Cancer is classified by its cellular differentiation. Mesothelial cells are distinct in that they line somatic cavities, facilitating the smooth movement of organs, but are not exposed to the external environment. Malignant mesothelioma, or simply mesothelioma, develops either in the pleural, peritoneal or pericardial cavities, or in the tunica vaginalis testes...
October 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Raman Kumar, Nidhi Gupta, Himani, Alpana Sharma
Shelterin complex and its associated molecules are imperative for proper functioning and maintenance of human telomeres. These molecules in association with human telomerase have been found altered in most cancers including multiple myeloma thereby proposed them as suitable therapeutic targets. Further, due to aggressive and recurring behavior of myeloma novel, efficacious and safe therapeutic agents for disease prevention are primary requirements for treatment of this disease. This maiden attempt evaluated the anti-proliferative properties of tanshinone I (TanI) alone or in combination with lenalidomide (Len) on myeloma cancer cell lines (RPMI8226 and U226)...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Miho Kono, Takeo Fujii, Naoko Matsuda, Kenichi Harano, Huiqin Chen, Chetna Wathoo, Aron Y Joon, Debu Tripathy, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Naoto T Ueno
Background: Bone is the most common site of metastasis of breast cancer. Biological mechanisms of metastasis to bone may be different from mechanisms of metastasis to non-bone sites, and identification of distinct signaling pathways and somatic mutations may provide insights on biology and rational targets for treatment and prevention of bone metastasis. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast somatic mutations, clinicopathologic characteristics, and survival in breast cancer patients with bone-only versus non-bone sites of first metastasis...
2018: Journal of Cancer
J Athene Lane, Vanessa Er, Kerry N L Avery, Jeremy Horwood, Marie Cantwell, Gema P Caro, Alan Crozier, George Davey Smith, Jenny L Donovan, Liz Down, Freddie C Hamdy, David Gillatt, Jeff Holly, Rhiannon Macefield, Hilary Moody, David E Neal, Eleanor Walsh, Richard M Martin, Chris Metcalfe
Epidemiological studies suggest that diet can alter prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of dietary modification in men at increased risk of prostate cancer. Men were invited with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of 2.0-2.95 ng/mL or 3.0-19.95 ng/mL with negative prostate biopsies. Randomization (3x3 factorial design) to daily green tea and lycopene: green tea drink (3 cups, unblinded) or capsules (blinded, 600 mg flavan-3-ol ()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or placebo) and lycopene-rich foods (unblinded) or capsules (blinded, 15 mg lycopene or placebo) for six months...
October 11, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Gabriella Cifu, Hannah Arem
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Many lifestyle factors have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer incidence and mortality. An index-based approach to analyzing adherence to American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines as a whole may better explain associations between lifestyle variables and breast cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: We created an index based on American Cancer Society-specific guidelines, including body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol intake, tobacco use, daily time spent watching television, and certain dietary habits...
September 18, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
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