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Primary Prevention Of Cancer

Eric J Yang, Kristen M Beck, Melody Maarouf, Vivian Y Shi
The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has prioritized skin cancer prevention efforts in 2018, as photoprotection measures adopted by the general public remain suboptimal. A large proportion of patients lack understanding of primary prevention methods for skin cancer, and mistruths in advertising may contribute significantly to this deficit. Sunscreen labels are often stacked with multiple claims of seemingly high significance, making it difficult for patients to differentiate their validity when selecting a sunscreen...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Preeti Kanikarla-Marie, Scott Kopetz, Ernest T Hawk, Steven W Millward, Anil K Sood, Paolo Gresele, Michael Overman, Kenneth Honn, David G Menter
Platelets can serve as "first responders" in cancer and metastasis. This is partly due to bioactive lipid metabolism that drives both platelet and cancer biology. The two primary eicosanoid metabolites that maintain platelet rapid response homeostasis are prostacyclin made by endothelial cells that inhibits platelet function, which is counterbalanced by thromboxane produced by platelets during activation, aggregation, and platelet recruitment. Both of these arachidonic acid metabolites are inherently unstable due to their chemical structure...
August 15, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Susannah Spratt, Margaret Stewart, Samantha R Paige, Michael Stellefson
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a preventable infection that can lead to chronic HBV and liver cancer without timely detection and treatment. The Hepatitis B Foundation is a national organization that helps coordinate local coalitions that work at the community level. The Hepatitis B Foundation website ( ) serves as an interactive, educational website for patients, informal caregivers (e.g., family members), physicians, and community stakeholders such as local/regional health organizations and community coalitions...
August 15, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Chantal M den Bakker, Johannes R Anema, AnneClaire G N M Zaman, Henrika C W de Vet, Linda Sharp, Eva Angenete, Marco E Allaix, Rene H J Otten, Judith A F Huirne, Hendrik J Bonjer, Angela G E M de Boer, Frederieke G Schaafsma
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is diagnosed progressively in employed patients due to screening programs and increasing retirement age. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work and work disability in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: The research protocol was published at PROSPERO with registration number CRD42017049757. A systematic review of cohort and case-control studies in colorectal cancer patients above 18 years, who were employed when diagnosed, and who had a surgical resection with curative intent were included...
2018: PloS One
Hongbo Liu, Hao Liang, Hu Meng, Xiaobing Deng, Xiaoling Zhang, Luhua Lai
I kappa B kinase β (IKKβ) is one of the primary targets to regulate canonical NF-κB activity. The misregulation of NF-κB is associated with various diseases, including chronic inflammation and cancers. Most of the known IKKβ inhibitors target its active form and suffer from poor selectivity. In the present study, we aim to design inhibitors that can bind to the IKKβ inactive form and block its activation. We identified a potential allosteric site between the kinase domain (KD) and ubiquitin-like domain (ULD) of human IKKβ and used it to virtually screen a chemical library for allosteric inhibitors...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Minal S Kale, Deborah Korenstein
Overdiagnosis, is defined as the diagnosis of a condition that, if unrecognized, would not cause symptoms or harm a patient during his or her lifetime, and it is increasingly acknowledged as a consequence of screening for cancer and other conditions. Because preventive care is a crucial component of primary care, which is delivered to the broad population, overdiagnosis in primary care is an important problem from a public health perspective and has far reaching implications. The scope of overdiagnosis as a result of services delivered in primary care is unclear, though overdiagnosis of indolent breast, prostate, thyroid, and lung cancers is well described and overdiagnosis of chronic kidney disease, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is also recognized...
August 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Takuya Saito, Kohei Yasui, Shintaro Kurahashi, Kenichi Komaya, Seiji Ishiguro, Takashi Arikawa, Shunichiro Komatsu, Kenitiro Kaneko, Masahiko Miyachi, Tsuyoshi Sano
BACKGROUND: Intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia (IPDH), defined as prolapse of the abdominal viscera into the pericardium, is a rare clinical condition. This case illustrates the possibility of IPDH after esophagectomy with antethoracic alimentary reconstruction, although such hernias are extremely rare. IPDH often presents with symptoms of bowel obstruction such as abdominal discomfort or vomiting. If not properly treated, life-threatening necrosis and/or perforation of the herniated contents may occur...
August 13, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Alison T Brenner, Teri L Malo, Marjorie Margolis, Jennifer Elston Lafata, Shynah James, Maihan B Vu, Daniel S Reuland
Importance: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that shared decision making (SDM) involving a thorough discussion of benefits and harms should occur between clinicians and patients before initiating lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose computed tomography. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services require an SDM visit using a decision aid as a prerequisite for LCS coverage. However, little is known about how SDM about LCS occurs in practice. Objective: To assess the quality of SDM about the initiation of LCS in clinical practice...
August 13, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Caroline C Billingsley, David E Cohn, Aleia K Crim, Quan Li, David M O'Malley, Laura J Havrilesky
BACKGROUND: There is recent evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of same-day dosing of pegfilgrastim in patients undergoing chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of pegfilgrastim on day 1 (D1) versus day 2 (D2) for primary prevention of neutropenia in women receiving chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-utility model was designed comparing standard D2 versus D1 administration of pegfilgrastim to ovarian cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with an intermediate risk (10-15%) of febrile neutropenia (FN)...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Thomas B Silverman, Alejandro Vanegas, Awilda Marte, Jennie Mata, Margaret Sin, Juan Carlos Rodriguez Ramirez, Wei-Yann Tsai, Katherine D Crew, Rita Kukafka
BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations confer a substantial breast risk of developing breast cancer to those who carry them. For this reason, the United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended that all women be screened in the primary care setting for a family history indicative of a mutation, and women with strong family histories of breast or ovarian cancer be referred to genetic counseling. However, few high-risk women are being routinely screened and fewer are referred to genetic counseling...
August 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Seham Skah, Nina Richartz, Eva Duthil, Karin M Gilljam, Christian Bindesbøll, Elin Hallan Naderi, Agnete B Eriksen, Ellen Ruud, Marta M Dirdal, Anne Simonsen, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff
Autophagy is important in regulating the balance between cell death and survival, with the tumor suppressor p53 as one of the key components in this interplay. We have previously utilized an in vitro model of the most common form of childhood cancer, B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), to show that activation of the cAMP signaling pathway inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage in both cell lines and primary leukemic cells. The present study reveals that cAMP-mediated survival of BCP-ALL cells exposed to DNA damaging agents, involves a critical and p53-independent enhancement of autophagy...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Florence Van Ryckeghem, Chloë Haverbeke, Wim Wynendaele, Guy Jerusalem, Luc Somers, Anke Van den Broeck, Sofie Vingerhoedt, Simon Van Belle
PURPOSE: To prevent febrile neutropenia (FN), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) guidelines recommend primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (PPG) for patients at high risk (≥ 20%) of FN. In Belgium, the use of PPG is restricted by specific reimbursement criteria. The impact of these criteria on PPG use and adherence to guidelines is unknown. METHODS: This multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study aimed to describe PPG use by FN risk category in breast cancer patients who were scheduled to receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy in outpatient clinics in Belgium during a 2-week period between 13 October and 12 December 2014...
August 11, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
I Witzel, E Laakmann, R Weide, T Neunhöffer, T-J Park-Simon, M Schmidt, P A Fasching, T Hesse, A Polasik, S Mohrmann, F Würschmidt, C Schem, C Bechtner, R Würstlein, T Fehm, V Möbus, N Burchardi, S Loibl, V Müller
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BMs) have a major impact on life expectancy and quality of life for many breast cancer patients. Knowledge about treatment patterns and outcomes is limited. METHODS: We analysed clinical data of 1712 patients diagnosed with BMs from breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2016 at 80 institutions. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis of BMs was 56 years (22-90 years). About 47.8% (n = 732) of patients had HER2-positive, 21...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jordan A Holmes, Roger F Anderson, Leroy G Hoffman, Timothy N Showalter, Mohit Kasibhatla, Sean P Collins, Michael A Papagikos, Brittany D Barbosa, Lori J Stravers, Zahra Mahbooba, Andrew Z Wang, Ronald C Chen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer survivors who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. They require coordinated care between cancer specialist and primary care physicians (PCPs) to monitor for cancer control and manage cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 103 men receiving ADT with radiotherapy from 7 institutions to assess cardiovascular risk factors and survivorship care. Medical records, fasting labs, and patient-reported outcomes using a validated instrument were assessed at baseline (pre-treatment) and 1 year post-RT...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Cristina Aguirre-Portolés, Jaime Feliu, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina
At the time of diagnosis, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with metastasis. Among individuals with primary lesions, 50% of them will develop distant tumors with time. Therefore, early diagnosis and prediction of aggressiveness is crucial for therapy design and disease prognosis. Tumoral cells must undergo significant changes in energy metabolism to meet increased structural and energetic demands for cell proliferation, and metabolic alterations are considered to be a hallmark of cancer. Here, we present ABCA1, a regulator of cholesterol transport, as a new marker for invasion and colorectal cancer survival...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Belal A Muhammad, Sheema Almozyan, Roya Babaei-Jadidi, Emenike K Onyido, Anas Saadeddin, Seyed Hossein Kashfi, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Mohammad Ilyas, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Axel Behrens, Abdolrahman Shams Nateri
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a critical role during development of both normal and malignant colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. Phosphorylation of β-catenin protein alters its trafficking and function. Such conventional allosteric regulation usually involves a highly specialized set of molecular interactions, which may specifically turn on a particular cell phenotype. This study identifies a novel transcription modulator with an FLYWCH/Zn-finger DNA-binding domain, called "FLYWCH1". Using a modified yeast-2-hybrid based Ras-Recruitment system, it is demonstrated that FLYWCH1 directly binds to unphosphorylated (nuclear) β-catenin efficiently suppressing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that cannot be rescued by TCF4...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
M Janaki Ramaiah, S Vaishnave
BMI-1 (B-lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1) is a key protein partner in polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) that helps in maintaining the integrity of the complex. It is also a key player in ubiquitination of histone H2A which affects gene expression pattern involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, growth, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence. In many cancers, Overexpression of BMI1correlates with advanced stages of disease, aggressive clinicopathological behavior, poor prognosis resistance to radiation and chemotherapy...
August 7, 2018: Gene
Barbara J Walkosz, David Buller, Mary Buller, Allan Wallis, Richard Meenan, Gary Cutter, Peter Andersen, Michael Scott
OBJECTIVE: Occupational skin cancer prevention is a priority because outdoor workers are exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation, the primary risk factor for skin cancer. METHODS: A two-year follow-up assessment of the impact of Sun Safe Workplaces (SSW), a workplace sun safety program that promoted policy adoption and education, on employee sun safety behavior was conducted. 63 of 98 local government organizations from the original study participated. RESULTS: Outdoor workers (n = 1724) completed surveys on personal sun protection practices...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Olga Martínez Arroyo, Yolanda Andreu Vaíllo, Paula Martínez López, María José Galdón Garrido
PURPOSE: Cancer patient survival rates are rapidly growing, and further data are needed on the impact of the disease beyond diagnosis and treatment phases. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and sociodemographic and medical risk factors of clinical distress. Additionally, we also explore the relationship between unmet psychosocial needs and both clinical distress and subgroups of survival periods. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 450 women who at least 1 month before had completed the primary treatment for breast cancer was conducted...
August 9, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Willem J A Witlox, Bram L T Ramaekers, Jaap D Zindler, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Judith G M van Loon, Lizza E L Hendriks, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Dirk K M De Ruysscher
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients frequently develop brain metastases (BM), even though the initial imaging with brain CT or MRI was negative. Stage III patients have the highest risk to develop BM, with an incidence of approximately 30%. BM can lead to neurocognitive disorders, loss of quality of life (QoL), and they are the most important factors influencing patient's overall survival (OS). Although a radical local treatment of BM may be possible with primary radiosurgery or after resection, the prognosis often remains poor...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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