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Primary Prevention Of Cancer

S K Ranamukhaarachchi, R N Modi, A Han, D O Velez, A Kumar, A J Engler, S I Fraley
Collagen I is the primary extracellular matrix component of most solid tumors and influences metastatic progression. Collagen matrix engineering techniques are useful for understanding how this complex biomaterial regulates cancer cell behavior and for improving in vitro cancer models. Here, we establish an approach to tune collagen fibril architecture using PEG as an inert molecular crowding agent during gelation and cell embedding. We find that crowding produces matrices with tighter fibril networks that are less susceptible to proteinase mediated degradation, but does not significantly alter matrix stiffness...
December 5, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Robin L Anderson, Theo Balasas, Juliana Callaghan, R Charles Coombes, Jeff Evans, Jacqueline A Hall, Sally Kinrade, David Jones, Paul S Jones, Rob Jones, John F Marshall, Maria Beatrice Panico, Jacqui A Shaw, Patricia S Steeg, Mark Sullivan, Warwick Tong, Andrew D Westwell, James W A Ritchie
Most cancer-related deaths are a result of metastasis, and thus the importance of this process as a target of therapy cannot be understated. By asking 'how can we effectively treat cancer?', we do not capture the complexity of a disease encompassing >200 different cancer types - many consisting of multiple subtypes - with considerable intratumoural heterogeneity, which can result in variable responses to a specific therapy. Moreover, we have much less information on the pathophysiological characteristics of metastases than is available for the primary tumour...
December 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Jaemin Lee, Tae Heung Kang, Wonbeak Yoo, Hyunji Choi, Seongyea Jo, Kyungsu Kong, Sang-Rae Lee, Sun-Uk Kim, Ji-Su Kim, Duck Cho, Janghwan Kim, Jeong-Yoon Kim, Eun-Soo Kwon, Seokho Kim
Natural killer (NK) cells are primary immune cells that target cancer cells and can be used as a therapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer (PC). Despite their usefulness, NK-cell therapy is limited by tumor cell inhibition of NK-cell homing to tumor sites, thereby preventing a sustained antitumor immune response. One approach to successful cancer immunotherapy is to increase trafficking of NK cells to tumor tissues. Here, we developed an antibody-based NK cell-homing protein, named NK cell-recruiting protein-conjugated antibody (NRP-body)...
December 4, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Marilena Petrera, Laura Paleari, Matteo Clavarezza, Matteo Puntoni, Silvia Caviglia, Irene Maria Briata, Massimo Oppezzi, Eva Mihajlovic Mislej, Borut Stabuc, Michael Gnant, Thomas Bachleitner-Hofmann, Wilfried Roth, Dominique Scherer, Walter-E Haefeli, Cornelia M Ulrich, Andrea DeCensi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies and cardiovascular prevention trials have shown that low-dose aspirin can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, including inhibition of distant metastases. Metformin has also been associated with decreased colon adenoma recurrence in clinical trials and lower CRC incidence and mortality in epidemiological studies in diabetics. While both drugs have been tested as single agents, their combination has not been tested in cancer prevention trials...
December 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Marc Carrier, Karim Abou-Nassar, Ranjeeta Mallick, Vicky Tagalakis, Sudeep Shivakumar, Ariah Schattner, Philip Kuruvilla, Danny Hill, Silvana Spadafora, Katerine Marquis, Mateya Trinkaus, Anna Tomiak, Agnes Y Y Lee, Peter L Gross, Alejandro Lazo-Langner, Robert El-Maraghi, Glenwood Goss, Gregoire Le Gal, David Stewart, Timothy Ramsay, Marc Rodger, Debra Witham, Philip S Wells
BACKGROUND: Patients with active cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The Khorana score (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of venous thromboembolism) has been validated to identify patients with cancer at elevated risk for this complication and may help select those who could benefit from thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of apixaban (2...
December 4, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Hui Xie, Jinping Liu, Shiyou Yu, Yiding Chen, Min Zheng, Yongchuan Deng, Shu Wang, Jun Jiang, Yafen Li, Huiping Li, Hua Kang, Chunhui Zhang, Guo-Jun Zhang, Fengxi Su, Aiqun Cheng, Shui Wang
INTRODUCTION: Adjuvant docetaxel-based chemotherapy is frequently used in the treatment of operable early breast cancer (EBC). This study investigated patterns of docetaxel use in patients with EBC in real-world clinical practice in China. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of Chinese women with operable breast cancer in tier 1 non-oncology-specific hospitals and other city hospitals in China. Adult Chinese female patients (≥ 18 years) with newly diagnosed breast cancer who underwent surgery and received docetaxel-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were eligible for inclusion...
December 3, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Carolina Espina, Isabelle Soerjomataram, David Forman, Jose M Martín-Moreno
Through the application of science to public health practice, National Cancer Control Programmes provide the framework for the development of policies on cancer control, with the ultimate goal of reducing cancer morbidity and mortality, and improving quality of life. In the last decade, a substantial number of Member States in the European Union (EU) have formulated and/or updated their National Cancer Control Programmes, Plans or Strategies including primary prevention (health promotion and environmental protection), secondary prevention (screening and early detection), integrated care and organization of services, and palliative care as main elements...
December 2018: Journal of Cancer Policy
Ting Shuai, Li-Juan Yi, Xu Tian, Wei-Qing Chen, Hui Chen, Xiu-E Li
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal mucositis is considered to be an inevitable and the most troubling side effect of head and neck irradiation, which is caused by the direct toxic action of radiation on oral mucosa. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the efficacy of zinc sulfate in prevention of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. However, the definite conclusions have not been confirmed. The systematic review and meta-analysis will be performed to comprehensively evaluate whether zinc sulfate is effective in prevention of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jean Jacques Grob, Claus Garbe, Paolo Ascierto, James Larkin, Reinhard Dummer, Dirk Schadendorf
It is important to differentiate between two concepts of adjuvant therapy in melanoma-what we have come to call late adjuvant and early adjuvant therapy. Early adjuvant therapy is defined as a medical intervention that is done after resection of a primary melanoma to eradicate possible undetectable minimal residual disease, whereas late adjuvant therapy is done when an overt metastatic disease (nodal or visceral) has been completely resected, to control disease better than if the same treatment were given at a later time, in the presence of multiple metastases...
December 2018: Lancet Oncology
Behnoosh Momin, Alexander J Millman, Danielle Beauchesne Nielsen, Michelle Revels, C Brooke Steele
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma, a type of primary liver cancer, and are most prevalent in people born 1945-1965. Relatively little information is available for liver cancer prevention, compared to other cancers. In this review, we provide a summary of current promising public health practices for liver cancer prevention from the literature, as well as liver cancer-related initiatives in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP)...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Oğuzhan Çelik, Cem Çil, Bülent Özlek, Eda Özlek, Volkan Doğan, Özcan Başaran, Erkan Demirci, Lütfü Bekar, Macit Kalçık, Osman Karaarslan, Mücahit Yetim, Tolga Doğan, Vahit Demir, Sedat Kalkan, Buğra Özkan, Şıho Hidayet, Gökay Taylan, Zafer Küçüksu, Yunus Çelik, Süleyman Çağan Efe, Onur Aslan, Murat Biteker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the current status of aspirin use and the demographic characteristics of patients on aspirin for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: The Appropriateness of Aspirin Use in Medical Outpatients: A Multicenter, Observational Study (ASSOS) trial was a multicenter, cross-sectional, and observational study conducted in Turkey. The study was planned to include 5000 patients from 14 cities in Turkey...
December 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Valentina Gambardella, Francisco Gimeno-Valiente, Noelia Tarazona, Carolina Martinez Ciarpaglini, Desamparados Roda, Tania Fleitas, Pablo Tolosa, Juan Miguel Cejalvo, Marisol Huerta, Susana Roselló, Josefa Castillo, Andres Cervantes
PURPOSE: Despite the clinical advantage of the combination of trastuzumab and platinum-based chemotherapy in HER2-amplified tumors, resistance will eventually develop. The identification of molecular mechanisms related to primary and acquired resistance is needed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We generated lapatinib- and trastuzumab-resistant clones deriving from two different HER2-amplified GC cell lines. Molecular changes such as protein expression and gene expression profile were evaluated to detect alterations which could be related to resistance...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Yanhua Gao, Ira Bergman
BACKGROUND: Late developing breast cancer metastases are common and lethal despite treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy at the time of primary tumor excision. Stimulation of an antitumor immune response is an alternative strategy for preventing this devastating development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-positive mammary cancer was used to compare the antitumor memory T-cell response following tumor cure by viral oncolytic immunotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical excision, or surgical excision plus virus infection...
December 2018: Anticancer Research
Katherine Y Wojcik, Loraine A Escobedo, Ashley Wysong, Julia E Heck, Beate Ritz, Ann S Hamilton, Joel Milam, Myles G Cockburn
BACKGROUND: Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is the second most common cancer diagnosed before age 30. Little is known about potentially modifiable or intervenable risk factors specific to developing melanoma at a young age. The objective was to determine if high birth weight or higher early life ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure would be associated with increased risk of melanoma in young patients. METHODS: Population-based, case-control study of 1,396 cases of melanoma diagnosed before age 30 in 1988-2013 and 27,920 controls, obtained by linking cancer registry data to birth records in California...
November 29, 2018: Epidemiology
Sherko Kümmel, Aylin Kümmel, Friederike Hagemann, Anna Rüland, Christine Dittmer-Grabowski, Suzan Botzenhardt, Jens-Uwe Blohmer, Mattea Reinisch
Introduction: One of the goals of breast cancer surgery is to preserve the breast. However, where this is not possible, various breast reconstructive procedures are available. The most common procedure is the immediate insertion of a subpectoral implant after removing the breast tissue. A significant challenge involving subpectoral implants is the deformation of the breast upon contraction of the pectoral muscle causing elevation of the breast and development of wrinkles or ripples in the caudal and cranial quadrants (jumping breast), especially in slim patients with a thin subcutaneous fat layer...
October 2018: Breast Care
Achim Wöckel, Michael P Lux, Wolfgang Janni, Andreas D Hartkopf, Naiba Nabieva, Florin-Andrei Taran, Friedrich Overkamp, Peyman Hadji, Hans Tesch, Johannes Ettl, Diana Lüftner, Volkmar Müller, Manfred Welslau, Erik Belleville, Sara Y Brucker, Florian Schütz, Peter A Fasching, Tanja N Fehm, Andreas Schneeweiss, Hans-Christian Kolberg
In primary early breast cancer, the aim of treatment planning is to obtain an increasingly better understanding of the disease. The identification of patients with an excellent prognosis could help this group avoid unnecessary treatments. Furthermore, the planning of treatment is becoming increasingly patient-focussed. There is a growing understanding of those patients who benefit particularly from chemotherapy, as well as of those who could benefit from immunotherapy. Studies conducted on immunotherapies will be published shortly...
November 2018: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Chi Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guanzhao Liang, Xianshang Zeng, Weiguang Yu, Zhidao Jiang, Jie Ma, Mingdong Zhao, Min Xiong, Keke Gui, Fenglai Yuan, Weiping Ji
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of denosumab or zoledronic acid (ZA) using symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) as the primary endpoint in Asian postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. METHODS: Asian postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer receiving subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg Q4W, or intravenous ZA 4 mg Q4W until the primary analysis cut-off date were retrospectively analysed in the Hong Kong Practice-Based Cancer Research Center(HKCRC) from March 2011 to March 2013...
November 30, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Iva Kinkorová Luňáčková, Ondřej Májek
Carcinoma of the uterine cervix belongs to significant malignancy in the Czech Republic. The goal of organized national cervical cancer screening program is to decrease incidence and mortality of this disease. Discovery of casual relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer together with modern examinations methods pushed forward possibilities of primary and secondary prevention worldwide. In the article, there are mentioned basic statistical data of cervical cancer screening in the Czech Republic (the annual coverage of the target population, incidence, prevalence, mortality etc...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Adrián González-Marrón, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Àurea Cartanyà-Hueso, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Carmen Vidal, Montse García, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
Background Lung cancer mortality accounts for over 266,000 deaths in the European Union (EU) every year, most of them attributed to smoking. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the adult population at high risk of developing lung cancer in the EU in 2014. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. We used data from the Special Eurobarometer 429 (n = 27,801). The fieldwork was conducted between November-December 2014. High risk of lung cancer was defined using the criteria of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) and the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NELSON)...
November 26, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Xiaoqing Zheng, Yifan Chen, Man Bai, Yuxi Liu, Binyuan Xu, Ruoxuan Sun, Huihui Zeng
Treating cancer metastasis is of vital importance to prolong patients' survival. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is overexpressed in many cancer types and has been recognized as an anti-cancer target. The organoselenium compound ethaselen (BBSKE) has been proved to be a TrxR inhibitor and inhibit various types of tumor growth. However, whether BBSKE could inhibit tumor metastasis remains unclear. In this study, we aim to explore the antimetastatic effect of BBSKE and underlying mechanisms. BBSKE was found to dose-dependently suppress migration and invasion of MCF-7 and LoVo cells in vitro...
November 26, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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