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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259610/neurotrophic-factors-in-enteric-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#1
REVIEW
Sumei Liu
Neurotrophic factors are traditionally recognized for their roles in differentiation, growth, and survival of specific neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. Some neurotrophic factors are essential for the development and migration of the enteric nervous system along the fetal and post-natal gut. Over the last two decades, several non-developmental functions of neurotrophic factors have been characterized. In the adult gastrointestinal tract, neurotrophic factors regulate gut sensation, motility, epithelial barrier function, and protect enteric neurons and glial cells from damaging insults in the microenvironment of the gut...
October 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250972/monoamines-in-the-enteric-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Winfried Neuhuber, Jürgen Wörl
Recent advances in neurogastroenterology have extended and refined our knowledge on the roles monoamines play in physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine noradrenaline, as the primary transmitter of postganglionic sympathetic neurons, orchestrates motility and secretory reflexes and controls arterial perfusion as well as immune functions. The catecholamine dopamine is produced by a subpopulation of enteric neurons which possibly use it as transmitter. Serotonin, largely produced by enterochromaffin cells and to a small extent by enteric neurons profoundly affects gut motility, enteric neuron development and is also involved in immunomodulation...
September 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240125/improved-imaging-of-zebrafish-motility
#3
REVIEW
Adam Rich
Zebrafish larvae are transparent and the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract is easily visualized. Application of a new image analysis technique is reported in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (Neurogastroenterol Motil., 2018, volume 30, e13351). The technique quantifies movement in images collected in a timed sequence, and characterizes smooth muscle contractions based on contraction distance and frequency. The technique also reports the contraction amplitude, or the distance moved. This technique, and current spatiotemporal mapping techniques, are essential tools enabling characterization of GI motility patterns in intact physiological settings...
September 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198327/mind-the-gut-probiotics-in-paediatric-neurogastroenterology
#4
S Salvatore, L Pensabene, O Borrelli, M Saps, N Thapar, D Concolino, A Staiano, Y Vandenplas
The gut-brain axis has recently emerged as a key modulator of human health and the intestinal microbiome has a well-recognised pivotal role in this strong connection. The aim of this narrative review is to update and summarise the effect and clinical applicability of probiotics in paediatric neurogastroenterology. The Cochrane Database and PubMed were searched using keywords relating to different subtypes of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and their symptoms, those relating to the CNS and related neurological or behavioural dysfunction as well as 'probiotic' OR 'probiotics'...
September 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041284/understanding-neurogastroenterology-from-neuroimaging-perspective-a-comprehensive-review-of-functional-and-structural-brain-imaging-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Michiko Kano, Patrick Dupont, Qasim Aziz, Shin Fukudo
This review provides a comprehensive overview of brain imaging studies of the brain-gut interaction in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Functional neuroimaging studies during gut stimulation have shown enhanced brain responses in regions related to sensory processing of the homeostatic condition of the gut (homeostatic afferent) and responses to salience stimuli (salience network), as well as increased and decreased brain activity in the emotional response areas and reduced activation in areas associated with the top-down modulation of visceral afferent signals...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605976/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-korea-2017-revised-edition
#6
REVIEW
Kyung Ho Song, Hye-Kyung Jung, Hyun Jin Kim, Hoon Sup Koo, Yong Hwan Kwon, Hyun Duk Shin, Hyun Chul Lim, Jeong Eun Shin, Sung Eun Kim, Dae Hyeon Cho, Jeong Hwan Kim, Hyun Jung Kim
In 2011, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (KSNM) published clinical practice guidelines on the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) based on a systematic review of the literature. The KSNM planned to update the clinical practice guidelines to support primary physicians, reduce the socioeconomic burden of IBS, and reflect advances in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. The present revised version of the guidelines is in continuity with the previous version and targets adults diagnosed with, or suspected to have, IBS...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603510/esophageal-provocation-tests-are-they-useful-to-improve-diagnostic-yield-of-high-resolution-manometry
#7
REVIEW
D A Carlson, S Roman
High resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility disorders but has some limitations. The inclusion of provocative tests might enhance the diagnostic yield of HRM. These tests are easy to perform and to add to the regular manometry protocol. Multiple rapid swallows (MRS; 5 2-mL swallows) is useful to assess the contractile reserve and deglutitive inhibition. The optimal number of MRS to perform might be 3 as suggested by Mauro et al. in this issue of Neurogastroenterology & Motility...
April 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577508/curriculum-for-neurogastroenterology-and-motility-training-a-report-from-the-joint-anms-esnm-task-force
#8
REVIEW
C P Gyawali, E Savarino, A Lazarescu, S Bor, A Patel, R Dickman, A Pressman, A M Drewes, J Rosen, V Drug, M Saps, L Novais, M Vazquez-Roque, D Pohl, M A L van Tilburg, A Smout, S Yoon, J Pandolfino, G Farrugia, G Barbara, S Roman
Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders are some of the most frequent disorders encountered by practicing gastroenterologists, a structured competency-based training curriculum developed by NGM experts is lacking. The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society (ANMS) and the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (ESNM) jointly evaluated the components of NGM training in North America and Europe. Eleven training domains were identified within NGM, consisting of functional gastrointestinal disorders, visceral hypersensitivity and pain pathways, motor disorders within anatomic areas (esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, anorectum), mucosal disorders (gastro-esophageal reflux disease, other mucosal disorders), consequences of systemic disease, consequences of therapy (surgery, endoscopic intervention, medications, other therapy), and transition of pediatric patients into adult practice...
September 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575415/gastrointestinal-dysmotility-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-journey-from-symptom-onset-to-diagnosis
#9
K Twist, J Ablett, A Wearden, P Paine, D Vasant, S Lal, S Peters
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysmotility (GID) covers a spectrum of disorders disrupting enteric neuromuscular co-ordination which, when severe, causes intractable gastrointestinal symptoms and malnutrition and is a recognized cause of chronic intestinal failure. To date, no study has provided an in-depth account of the experiences of patients with severe GID and their psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore patients' experiences from symptom onset and the process of seeking and receiving a diagnosis...
March 25, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468816/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-revisited
#10
REVIEW
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341448/beneficial-actions-of-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites
#11
REVIEW
J J Galligan
Tryptophan is an important dietary amino acid and it is the precursor for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the nervous system and by enterochromaffin cells in the gut mucosa. Tryptophan is also metabolized by enzymes in the gut mucosa and also by enzymes produced by the gut microbiome. Diet and the microbiome can contribute to metabolic disease in part by causing intestinal inflammation and increased permeability. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Jennis et al. test the hypothesis that indole tryptophan metabolites produced by gut bacteria might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects of the gut microbiome and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for weight loss by obese patients...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184183/optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-techniques-for-neurogastroenterology
#12
REVIEW
Werend Boesmans, Marlene M Hao, Pieter Vanden Berghe
Optogenetics and chemogenetics comprise a wide variety of applications in which genetically encoded actuators and indicators are used to modulate and monitor activity with high cellular specificity. Over the past 10 years, development of these genetically encoded tools has contributed tremendously to our understanding of integrated physiology. In concert with the continued refinement of probes, strategies to target transgene expression to specific cell types have also made much progress in the past 20 years...
January 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178261/an-anms-naspghan-consensus-document-on-esophageal-and-antroduodenal-manometry-in-children
#13
REVIEW
R Rosen, J M Garza, N Tipnis, S Nurko
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in children are common and motility disorders are considered in the differential diagnosis. High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) has revolutionized the study of esophageal physiology, and the addition of impedance has provided new insights into esophageal function. Antroduodenal motility has provided insight into gastric and small bowel function. PURPOSE: This review highlights some of the recent advances in pediatric esophageal and antroduodenal motility testing including indications, preparation, performance, and interpretation of the tests...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140124/apprenticeship-based-training-in-neurogastroenterology-and-motility
#14
Dipesh H Vasant, Amol Sharma, Jigar Bhagatwala, Lavanya Viswanathan, Satish S C Rao
Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders affect 50% of patients seen in clinics, many gastroenterologists receive limited NGM training. One-month apprenticeship-based NGM training has been provided at ten centers in the USA for a decade, however, outcomes of this training are unclear. Our goal was to describe the effectiveness of this program from a trainees perspective. Areas covered: We describe the training model, learning experiences, and outcomes of one-month apprenticeship-based training in NGM at a center of excellence, using a detailed individual observer account and data from 12 consecutive trainees that completed the program...
March 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#15
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106029/development-content-validity-and-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-real-time-symptom-assessment-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
L Vork, D Keszthelyi, Z Mujagic, J W Kruimel, C Leue, I Pontén, H Törnblom, M Simrén, A Albu-Soda, Q Aziz, M Corsetti, L Holvoet, J Tack, S S Rao, J van Os, E G Quetglas, D A Drossman, A A M Masclee
BACKGROUND: End-of-day questionnaires, which are considered the gold standard for assessing abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are influenced by recall and ecological bias. The experience sampling method (ESM) is characterized by random and repeated assessments in the natural state and environment of a subject, and herewith overcomes these limitations. This report describes the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) based on the ESM principle, taking into account content validity and cross-cultural adaptation...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052972/impaired-intestinal-barrier-function-and-relapsing-digestive-disease-lessons-from-a-porcine-model-of-early-life-stress
#17
REVIEW
A L Ziegler, A T Blikslager
Within this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, an article by Pohl et al highlights new insights from a powerful porcine model of the link between early life adversity and relapsing functional gastrointestinal disorders. Early weaning stress closely mimics the early life psychosocial stressors that have been linked to adult onset gastrointestinal dysfunction. This early weaning model provides reproducible and highly translatable outcomes in young stress-challenged pigs. Due to the convincingly comparable neurological and gastroenterological anatomy and physiology between pigs and human beings, gastrointestinal stress and injury studies utilizing swine models will provide invaluable insights to improve our understanding and treatment of gastrointestinal disease in human beings...
November 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992677/nationwide-multicenter-study-for-overlaps-of-common-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-korean-patients-with-constipation
#18
Kyung Sik Park, Sam Ryong Jee, Bong Eun Lee, Kyoung Sup Hong, Jeong Eun Shin, Soo-Young Na, Joong Goo Kwon, Suck Chei Choi, Yong Sung Kim, Hyun Seok Lee, Tae Hee Lee, Kyeong Ok Kim, Jongkyoung Choi, Hee Seok Moon, Yeon Soo Kim, Moo In Park, Soo Jung Park, Seon-Young Park, Sung Noh Hong
Background/Aims: In spite of increased concerns about the overlaps among the various functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), studies for the overlap between constipation and other common FGIDs are rare. Therefore, we investigated the patterns of overlaps between constipation and other common FGIDs. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective nationwide multi-center questionnaire study using Rome III questionnaires for functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and functional constipation (FC), as well as various questionnaires about patients' information, degree of symptoms, and quality of life...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709172/irritable-bowel-syndrome-%C3%A2-dissection-of-a-disease-a-13-steps-polemic
#19
Paul Enck, Thomas Frieling, Michael Schemann
The last 35 years (since about 1985) have produced a vast amount of scientific publications with respect to the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but no real progress: The etiology and pathogenesis of IBS is still incompletely understood, and diagnosis and therapy is left to the individual understanding of the treating physicians in general medicine, gastroenterology and psychosomatic/psychiatry. In this gloss, three prominent representatives of neurogastroenterology in Germany assess their own contributions and those of their colleagues and lament the huge gap between ambitions and reality in clinical and basic science in IBS...
July 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703341/esophageal-function-testing-billing-and-coding-update
#20
A Khan, B Massey, S Rao, J Pandolfino
Esophageal function testing is being increasingly utilized in diagnosis and management of esophageal disorders. There have been several recent technological advances in the field to allow practitioners the ability to more accurately assess and treat such conditions, but there has been a relative lack of education in the literature regarding the associated Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and methods of reimbursement. This review, commissioned and supported by the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Council, aims to summarize each of the CPT codes for esophageal function testing and show the trends of associated reimbursement, as well as recommend coding methods in a practical context...
January 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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