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Fatty liver children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074574/macrophage-markers-are-poorly-associated-with-liver-histology-in-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Konstantin Kazankov, Anna Alisi, Holger Jon Møller, Rita De Vito, Søren Rittig, Birgitte Mahler, Valerio Nobili, Henning Grønbæk
OBJECTIVES: We have previously demonstrated associations between the macrophage activation marker soluble (s)CD163 and histology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults, and elevated sCD163 levels in obese children with NAFLD. However, macrophage activation has not been investigated in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, which was the objective of the present study. METHODS: We used in-house ELISAs to measure sCD163 and the novel macrophage marker soluble mannose receptor (sMR) in a cross-sectional (n = 155) pediatric NAFLD cohort, and a cohort of NAFLD children (n = 36) undergoing a randomized trial by the probiotic VSL#3...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063751/expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-its-receptor-in-the-liver-of-children-with-biopsy-proven-nafld
#2
Anna Alisi, Valentina Pampanini, Cristiano De Stefanis, Nadia Panera, Annalisa Deodati, Valerio Nobili, Stefano Cianfarani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the major complications of obesity, occurring already in pediatric age. Insulin like growth factor-I has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent for its beneficial effect in experimental liver fibrosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I and its receptor in the liver of children with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and relate it to liver histological features...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041934/assessment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-in-children-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Marialena Mouzaki, Andrew T Trout, Ana Catalina Arce-Clachar, Kristin Bramlage, Pierce Kuhnell, Jonathan R Dillman, Stavra Xanthakos
OBJECTIVE: To assess liver disease progression using paired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of liver fat fraction (FF) and stiffness. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who had undergone repeat MRI studies. Descriptive statistics were used, as well as Pearson or Spearman correlation when appropriate. Mixed model analyses were used to determine relationships between liver FF/stiffness and predictor variables...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039844/the-association-of-lrp6-rs2302685-v1062i-polymorphism-with-the-risk-of-hyperlipidemia-in-iranian-children-and-adolescents
#4
Nima Montazeri-Najafabady, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Rajeeh Mohammadian Amiri
Wnt signaling/LRP6 plays a critical role in metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, and variation in this pathway may lead to hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and coronary artery disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of LRP6 rs2302685 (V1062I) on hyperlipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents. The population in this study consisted of 200 children (101 boys, 99 girls) aged 9-18 years old. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), non-HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038468/liver-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis-in-children
#5
Hyun Joo Shin, Haesung Yoon, Myung-Joon Kim, Seok Joo Han, Hong Koh, Seung Kim, Mi-Jung Lee
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters and the degree of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in children. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The children (≤ 18 years) who underwent liver IVIM DWI with 8 b -values under the suspicion of hepatic steatosis or fibrosis from February 2013 to November 2016 were included. Subjects were divided into normal, fatty liver (FAT), and fibrotic liver (FIB) groups...
July 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038464/pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescence-from-two-hit-theory-to-multiple-hit-model
#6
REVIEW
Yan-Lan Fang, Hong Chen, Chun-Lin Wang, Li Liang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the dominant form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents with the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. NAFLD represents a wide spectrum of conditions, ranging from fatty liver - which generally follows a benign, non-progressive clinical course - to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a subset of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease or liver carcinoma. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of "pediatric" NAFLD remains unclear, although it is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance...
July 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019598/does-nox2-over-activate-in-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Lorenzo Loffredo, Anna Maria Zicari, Ludovica Perri, Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben, Antonella Mosca, Salvatore Zaffina, Nadia Panera, Anna Alisi, Marzia Duse, Francesco Violi, Valerio Nobili
It is unknown whether Nox2 activation is early associated with endotoxemia and liver damage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To address this issue, we evaluated Nox2 activation, oxidative stress, gut permeability and lipolysaccharide (LPS) serum levels in 67 children with biopsy proven NAFLD and 73 controls. Compared to controls, NAFLD patients had higher Nox2 activity, isoprostanes, zonulin and LPS levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that triglycerides, HDL, HOMA-IR, LPS and isoprostanes were independently associated with sNox2-dp levels...
July 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009050/dyslipidemia-and-fatty-liver-disease-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#8
Asma Deeb, Salima Attia, Samia Mahmoud, Ghada Elhaj, Abubaker Elfatih
Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide concern. It is associated with morbidity such as dyslipidemia and liver disease. Childhood obesity has dramatically increased, particularly in the Gulf region. We aim to assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and fatty liver disease (FLD) in overweight and obese children and analyze the association between different anthropometric measures with dyslipidemia and fatty liver disease. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted on children referred with obesity...
2018: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998462/hepatic-steatosis-is-highly-prevalent-across-the-paediatric-age-spectrum-including-in-pre-school-age-children
#9
J Dhaliwal, G B Chavhan, E Lurz, A Shalabi, N Yuen, B Williams, I Martincevic, A Amirabadi, P W Wales, W Lee, S C Ling, M Mouzaki
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is 8% in the general population, and 34% in the context of obesity. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hepatic steatosis in healthy children in Ontario. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of hepatic steatosis using abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans in a cohort of previously healthy children across the paediatric age spectrum in Ontario, Canada, and to determine association between measures of abdominal adiposity and hepatic steatosis...
July 11, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992039/a-randomized-controlled-crossover-pilot-study-of-losartan-for-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Miriam B Vos, Ran Jin, Juna V Konomi, Rebecca Cleeton, Jessica Cruz, Saul Karpen, Dellys Soler Rodriguez, Jennifer K Frediani, Courtney McCracken, Jean Welsh
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in children, and currently, there are no FDA-approved therapies. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is elevated in children with NAFLD and associated with increased disease severity. Losartan potassium (losartan) is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) that reduces PAI-1 production and improves insulin sensitivity that has been proposed as a treatment for pediatric NAFLD but has not previously been tested...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976192/normal-serum-alanine-aminotransferase-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-among-korean-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study-using-data-from-knhanes-2010-2015
#11
Yunkoo Kang, Sowon Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complicated disease and increasing worldwide. Previously, many studies of NALFD prevalences have used alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of > 40 U/L to define NAFLD, although that is too high to be reliable among adolescents. This study aimed to define the upper normal limit of ALT among Korean adolescents, and use it to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD, based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)...
July 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29965973/long-term-metabolic-effects-of-malnutrition-liver-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-following-early-life-protein-restriction
#12
Prasad S Dalvi, Steven Yang, Nathan Swain, Junsoo Kim, Senjuti Saha, Celine Bourdon, Ling Zhang, Rose Chami, Robert H J Bandsma
Early postnatal-life malnutrition remains prevalent globally, and about 45% of all child deaths are linked to malnutrition. It is not clear whether survivors of childhood malnutrition suffer from long-term metabolic effects, especially when they are later in life exposed to a fat and carbohydrate rich obesogenic diet. The lack of knowledge around this dietary "double burden" warrants studies to understand the long-term consequences of children previously exposed to malnutrition. We hypothesized that an early-life nutritional insult of low protein consumption in mice would lead to long-term metabolic disturbances that would exacerbate the development of diet-induced insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963467/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-identifying-the-disease-burden-in-sri-lanka
#13
REVIEW
Anuradha S Dassanayake
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming one of the most important causes for chronic liver disease and also hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Sri Lanka. This tendency is also recognized worldwide. More than half of the middle-aged and elderly adults in urban Sri Lanka have ultrasonic evidence of NAFLD. The NAFLD is also identified in population from rural areas of Sri Lanka and also in children. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis is the most common cause of referral for liver transplantation in Sri Lankans...
January 2018: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905409/l-fabp-and-il-6-as-markers-of-chronic-kidney-damage-in-children-after-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#14
Katarzyna Lipiec, Piotr Adamczyk, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Katarzyna Ziora, Maria Szczepańska
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy, in the course of which some patients may develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). From a clinical point of view, it is important to search for markers that allow for early identification of patients at risk of a poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the serum and urine levels of liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 29 children with a history of HUS...
June 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903531/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-new-york-city-an-autopsy-study
#15
Danielle M Fernandes, Vivek Pantangi, Muhammad Azam, Marcela Salomao, Alina C Iuga, Jay H Lefkowitch, James Gill, Raffaella Morotti, Joel E Lavine, Ali A Mencin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) in children in a diverse population sample in New York City. STUDY DESIGN: Liver specimens were examined from children 2-19 years old who died of unexpected causes within 48 hours of medical presentation and underwent autopsy in New York City from 2005 to 2010. Records were reviewed for age, sex, weight, height, and race. Two hepatopathologists evaluated each liver specimen to determine pathologic diagnosis...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901549/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-clinical-and-translational-research-in-pediatric-gastroenterology-from-1970-to-2017
#16
Melanie H Schwimmer, Mary Catherine Sawh, Karen M Heskett, Nidhi P Goyal, Kimberly P Newton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric gastroenterology is a clinical and research discipline principally developed over the past 50 years. Bibliometric methods provide quantitative analysis and identify research trends. Study aims were to characterize the growth and trends in pediatric gastroenterology clinical and translational research using citation analysis. METHODS: Using citations analysis software, a search strategy specific for pediatric gastroenterology was implemented for the years 1970-2017...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891225/acute-kidney-injury-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#17
REVIEW
Shi-Min Yuan
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of pediatric cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Literature of AKI after pediatric cardiac surgery is comprehensively reviewed in terms of incidence, risk factors, biomarkers, treatment and prognosis. The novel RIFLE (pediatric RIFLE for pediatrics), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria have brought about unified diagnostic standards and comparable results for AKI after cardiac surgery...
March 30, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864682/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-severity-and-metabolic-complications-in-obese-children-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#18
Schohraya Spahis, Fernando Alvarez, Nejma Ahmed, Josée Dubois, Ramy Jalbout, Massimiliano Paganelli, Kelly Grzywacz, Edgard Delvin, Noel Peretti, Emile Levy
Although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) revealed promising therapeutic results in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is considered as the most prevalent cause of chronic hepatic disease, inconsistencies are calling for further confirmatory trials to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy and safety. The study, registered as NCT02201160 on www.clinicaltrials.gov, was designed to compare two groups of NAFLD with a different severity, and to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 PUFA supplementation. Twenty young male participants of French Canadian origin with NAFLD were enrolled and classified into moderate (mNAFLD) and severe (sNAFLD) fatty liver groups, according to transaminase levels, ultrasonography, NAFLD Activity Score and Fatty Liver Index (FLI)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860977/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#19
Claudia Della Corte, Salvatore Iasevoli, Andrea Dello Strologo, Mariateresa Sanseviero, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Industrialized Countries in adults and children. It is estimated that NAFLD will become the main indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD is also considered the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome and therefore it is generally associated to the risk of developing some metabolic complications, with negative impact on patient's survival. Today, no pharmacological treatment has been identified for NAFLD, and behavioral approach, based on diet and regular physical exercise, represent the current recommended treatment, even if with disappointing results...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799476/alanine-aminotransferase-as-a-monitoring-biomarker-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-secondary-analysis-using-tonic-trial-data
#20
Idil Arsik, Jennifer K Frediani, Damon Frezza, Wen Chen, Turgay Ayer, Pinar Keskinocak, Ran Jin, Juna V Konomi, Sarah E Barlow, Stavra A Xanthakos, Joel E Lavine, Miriam B Vos
BACKGROUND: Validated noninvasive biomarkers to assess treatment response in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. We aimed to validate alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a monitoring biomarker for change in liver histology. METHODS: A retrospective analysis using data from the TONIC trial. NAFLD histologic assessments were defined by: Fibrosis score, NAFLD activity score (NAS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and a combination of NASH resolution and fibrosis (NASH + fibrosis)...
May 25, 2018: Children
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