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Fatty liver children

Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, María Correa-Rodríguez, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Emilio González-Jiménez, Katherine González-Jiménez
This study had two main objectives: To examine the association between body fat distribution and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fat content, and to determine whether the relationship between NAFLD and regional body fat distribution, with respect to liver fat content in youths with excess adiposity, is independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and a healthy diet. Liver fat content (controlled attenuation parameter (CAP)), body fat distribution (body mass index (BMI) z -score, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, fat mass/height, body fat percentage, total fat mass, android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and lean mass index, determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), CRF (20-m shuttle-run test), and healthy diet (adherence to the Mediterranean diet by KIDMED questionnaire) were measured in 126 adolescents (66% girls) aged between 11 and 17 years...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jacopo Troisi, Federica Belmonte, Antonella Bisogno, Olga Lausi, Francesca Marciano, Pierpaolo Cavallo, Salvatore Guercio Nuzio, Annamaria Landolfi, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
BACKGROUND: The pediatric obesity epidemic calls for the noninvasive detection of individuals at higher risk of complications. AIMS: To investigate the diagnostic role of combined salivary uric acid (UA), glucose and insulin levels to screen noninvasively for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Medical history, clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory data including serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin, HOMA, HDL-cholesterol, and UA levels of 23 obese children (15 with [St+] and 8 without [St-] ultrasonographic hepatic steatosis) and 18 normal weight controls were considered...
November 17, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Roy Chris Skinner, Derek C Warren, Soofia N Lateef, Vagner A Benedito, Janet C Tou
Apple pomace, which is a waste byproduct of processing, is rich in several nutrients, particularly dietary fiber, indicating potential benefits for diseases that are attributed to poor diets, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD affects over 25% of United States population and is increasing in children. Increasing fruit consumption can influence NAFLD. The study objective was to replace calories in standard or Western diets with apple pomace to determine the effects on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and on risk of NAFLD...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Sara Karjoo
Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) evaluated by ultrasound are non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis. Increased cIMT in adults has been correlated to early vascular damage. Several studies show similar correlations of elevated cIMT in children with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, several articles have correlated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with elevated cIMT, indicating early atherosclerosis. It is alarming that these vascular changes may be seen in children as young as 10 years of age...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Renya Rodriguez Mortera, Yasmin Bains, Alejandro Gugliucci
In this review, we highlight the specific metabolic effects of fructose consumption that are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with obesity. The specifics effects of fructose on the liver are particularly germane to the development of a vicious cycle that starts with liver steatosis driving insulin resistance. These effects include 1) increased de novo lipogenesis, 2) increased liver fat, 3) dyslipidemia 4) increased uric acid production which feeds back on increased fructose metabolism and, 5) increased methylglyoxal and Maillard reaction that may affect adenosyl-monophosphate-dependent kinase Fructose increases cortisol activation especially in visceral fat...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Ron S Newfield, Carrie L Graves, Robert O Newbury, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, James A Proudfoot, Daphne S Say, Ariel E Feldstein
BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH). In children with T2D and liver biopsies we investigated correlations between NAFLD/NASH and transaminase activity, A1c, lipids, and histologic changes in repeat biopsies. METHODS: Liver histology of children with T2D was evaluated using the NASH CRN scoring system and NAFLD activity score (NAS). We included results ≤ 6 months from biopsy and A1c nearest biopsy...
November 22, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Christian A Hudert, Heiko Tzschätzsch, Birgit Rudolph, Hendrik Bläker, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Peter Müller, Stephan Henning, Philip Bufler, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Susanna Wiegand, Ingolf Sack, Jing Guo
OBJECTIVES: Today, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults alike. Yet, the noninvasive evaluation of disease severity remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we apply multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (mMRE) for the quantification of liver steatosis and fibrosis in adolescents with NAFLD. METHODS: Fifty adolescents (age range, 10-17 years; mean BMI, 33.9 kg/m; range, 21.4-42.1 kg/m) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in this prospective study...
November 15, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Christian A Hudert, Silvia Selinski, Birgit Rudolph, Hendrik Bläker, Christoph Loddenkemper, Ria Thielhorn, Nikolaus Berndt, Klaus Golka, Cristina Cadenas, Jörg Reinders, Stephan Henning, Philip Bufler, Peter L M Jansen, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, David Meierhofer, Jan G Hengstler, Susanna Wiegand
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents today. In comparison to adult disease, pediatric NAFLD may show a periportal localization, which is associated with advanced fibrosis. This study aimed to assess the role of genetic risk variants for histologic disease pattern and severity in childhood NAFLD. METHODS: We studied 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a cohort of 70 adolescents with biopsy-proven NAFLD...
November 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Marek Rác, Ľubomír Skladaný
Obesity reaches the dimensions of the global epidemic. It directly contributes to an increase in the prevalence of systemic diseases associated with obesity. Obesity and overweight globally cause 3.5 million deaths annually [1]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries and is considered to be a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The extent and burden of the disease are increasing and reaching epidemic proportions because of its close association with the epidemic of obesity and diabetes mellitus type [2]...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Vandana Jain, Manisha Jana, Babita Upadhyay, Nayeem Ahmad, Oshima Jain, Ashish Datt Upadhyay, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Naval K Vikram
Background & objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver, which can progress to inflammation, and cirrhosis, has emerged as an important complication of obesity in adults as well as children. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of NAFLD and its correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters in overweight Indian adolescents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 218 overweight adolescents aged 10 to 16 yr and their parents were included...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Joseph Runde, Ruba K Azzam
Liver disease in children occurs via a multitude of primary illnesses such as autoimmune hepatopathy, biliary atresia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, jaundice, hepatitis, and alterations in liver tests can often be a manifestation of systemic diseases. The liver is involved in many critical functions such as circulation, immunity, toxin clearance, and metabolism; when the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, immune system, or endocrine systems are compromised, the liver will be affected. This article reviews common causes of liver injury as well as highlights key associations that should not be missed when diagnosing and managing children with liver disease...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Inessa Normatov, Shiran Kaplan, Ruba K Azzam
More than one-half of children with chronic liver disease suffer from malnutrition, which leads not only to a poor quality of life and even possibly catastrophic complications, but also to poor outcomes after a liver transplantation. These children have increased metabolic demands but often decreased intake with malabsorption and altered nutrient utilization, all of which make it difficult to keep up with nutritional demands. Assessment of a patient's nutritional status should be timely, and it should be performed routinely and proactively...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Ran Wang, Fan Yang, Li Qing, Rong Huang, Qianqi Liu, Xiaonan Li
Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a newly identified adipokine secreted by brown adipose tissue, is hypothesised to play a crucial role in metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between serum Nrg4 levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with obesity in China. A total of 123 children with obesity were included in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured in all subjects. NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasonography. The serum levels of Nrg4, leptin and adiponectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 8, 2018: Clinical Obesity
Jake P Mann, Anita Vreugdenhil, Piotr Socha, Wojciech Jańczyk, Ulrich Baumann, Sanjay Rajwal, Thomas Casswall, Claude Marcus, Indra van Mourik, Stephen O'Rahilly, David B Savage, Gabriele Noble-Jamieson, Florence Lacaille, Myriam Dabbas, Béatrice Dubern, Deirdre A Kelly, Valerio Nobili, Quentin M Anstee
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in children and has the potential to progress to advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the natural history of the condition is poorly understood and there are no approved treatments. The European Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Registry (EU-PNAFLD) is a multi-centre registry of paediatric NAFLD that will serve as a prospective, observational, natural history study and provide a tractable back-bone to support recruitment into subsequent interventional trials...
November 5, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Bryan Rudolph, Nicole Bjorklund, Nadia Ovchinsky, Debora Kogan-Liberman, Adriana Perez, Mark Liszewski, Terry L Levin, Michelle Ewart, Qiang Liu, Xiaonan Xue, Shankar Viswanathan, Howard D Strickler
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with obesity and is the most common liver disease in the developed world. In children with suspected NAFLD, present guidelines suggest consideration of alternative diagnoses via extensive blood testing, though the yield of this work up is unknown. Furthermore, the gold standard diagnostic test for NAFLD remains liver biopsy, making the development of non-invasive tests critically important. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives are: 1) to determine the accuracy of elastography and multiple serum biomarkers - each assessed individually and as algorithms (including those previously tested in adults) - for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and early fibrosis in children and (2) to examine the utility of extensive testing for rare alternative diagnoses in overweight or obese children with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) suspected to have NAFLD...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Maddalena Parafati, Antonella Lascala, Daniele La Russa, Chiara Mignogna, Francesca Trimboli, Valeria Maria Morittu, Concetta Riillo, Rachele Macirella, Vincenzo Mollace, Elvira Brunelli, Elzbieta Janda
Wrong alimentary behaviors and so-called "junk food" are a driving force for the rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among children and adults. The "junk food" toxicity can be studied in "cafeteria" (CAF) diet animal model. Young rats exposed to CAF diet become obese and rapidly develop NAFLD. We have previously showed that bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau ) flavonoids, in the form of bergamot polyphenol fraction (BPF), effectively prevent CAF diet-induced NAFLD in rats...
November 1, 2018: Nutrients
Marialena Mouzaki, Kristin Bramlage, Ana Catalina Arce-Clachar, Stavra A Xanthakos
Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a biomarker of liver disease severity in adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The objective of this study was to assess whether this is true in pediatric NAFLD. This was a retrospective study of children followed in the Steatohepatitis Center of a tertiary care center (2010-2017). Serum IgA levels, histology and biochemical markers of hepatocellular injury and metabolic dysregulation were collected. Of the 600 children with available serum IgA levels (mean age 14 ± 3 years, 62% boys, 80% non-Hispanic), IgA was elevated in 4%...
November 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Teresa Peccerella, Tatjana Arslic-Schmitt, Sebastian Mueller, Kirstin-Berit Linhart, Devanshi Seth, Helmut Bartsch, Helmut K Seitz
Chronic ethanol consumption is a risk factor for several human cancers. A variety of mechanisms may contribute to this carcinogenic effect of alcohol including oxidative stress with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), formed via inflammatory pathways or as byproducts of ethanol oxidation through cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1). ROS may lead to lipidperoxidation (LPO) resulting in LPO-products such as 4-hydoxynonenal (4-HNE) or malondialdehyde. These compounds can react with DNA bases forming mutagenic and carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rohan K Henry
In addition to its growth promoting role, growth hormone (GH) has a significant effect on intermediary metabolism in the well state. Despite the latter fact, pediatric practitioners are usually focused on the growth promoting aspects of GH as opposed to those metabolic. In recent years various animal and human studies (in adults mainly) and clinical reports in children have repeatedly shown the association of GH deficiency (GHD) and fatty liver disease. Based on this well-identified association, despite a lack of studies involving children, it behooves the pediatric clinician to ensure that not only patients with GHD are appropriately treated but also that adolescents even beyond the period of linear growth should be appropriately transitioned to adult GH therapy should this be appropriate...
October 20, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Reginald Paul Sequeira, Abdelaziz Elamin
AIM: Several drugs have been used for treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study is a network meta-analysis of such drugs. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Randomised clinical trials comparing drug interventions in patients with NAFLD were analysed. OR and weighted mean difference (95 % CI) were the effect estimates for categorical and numerical outcomes, respectively. Random-effects model was used to generate pooled estimates. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank the treatments...
October 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
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