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Fatty liver children

Lucija Ruzman, Ivana Mikolasevic, Kristina Baraba Dekanic, Sandra Milic, Goran Palcevski
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver diseases (CLD) present important clinical problem in children with various age-dependent causes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with its increasing prevalence is a major problem with regard to its timely recognition and the need for long-term disease monitoring. At present, a perfect non-invasive method for the evaluation of liver fibrosis is not available. METHODS: A non-systematic literature search was performed to summarize the current knowledge about transient elastography (TE) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in children with CLD...
October 10, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Erin E Elbel, Joel E Lavine, Michael Downes, Mark Van Natta, Ruth Yu, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Cynthia Behling, Elizabeth M Brunt, James Tonascia, Ronald Evans
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adults. This study examined the relationship between hepatic nuclear receptor (NR) expression and histologic features of NAFLD. Drugs targeting a variety of NRs for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are in clinical trials. Liver messenger RNA was isolated from 40 children (10-19 years) undergoing end-of-treatment biopsy in the Treatment of NAFLD in Children (TONIC) trial. High-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction assayed NR messenger RNA...
October 2018: Hepatology Communications
Sara Kathryn Smith, Emily R Perito
Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in children. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis. Obesity rates in children continue to rise and, as a result, NAFLD in children is becoming more prevalent. The pathophysiology, natural history, and progression of disease are still being elucidated but NAFLD/NASH in children may represent a more severe phenotype that will benefit from early identification and management...
November 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
Anika Nier, Annette Brandt, Ina Barbara Conzelmann, Yelda Özel, Ina Bergheim
The role of nutrition and diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not fully understood. In the present study, we determined if dietary pattern and markers of intestinal permeability differ between overweight children with and without NAFLD. In addition, in a feasibility study, we assessed the effect of a moderate dietary intervention only focusing on nutrients identified to differ between groups on markers of intestinal barrier function and health status. Anthropometric data, dietary intake, metabolic parameters, and markers of inflammation, as well as of intestinal permeability, were assessed in overweight children ( n = 89, aged 5⁻9) and normal-weight healthy controls ( n = 36, aged 5⁻9)...
September 19, 2018: Nutrients
Zeqi Guo, Miaomiao Li, Bing Han, Xingshun Qi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases. The relationship of NAFLD with thyroid function parameters and hypothyroidism remains controversial. AIM: To clarify the effect of thyroid function parameters and hypothyroidism on the development of NAFLD and progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were searched. Study quality was assessed...
August 23, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Natalia Wasilewska, Anna Bobrus-Chociej, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Małgorzata Wojtkowska, Adrian Chabowski, Dariusz M Lebensztejn
BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipid accumulation is closely related to the development of insulin resistance, which is regarded as one of the most significant risk factors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact molecular pathway leading to impaired insulin signaling has not been definitively established, ceramides are suspected mediators of lipid induced hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the serum ceramides concentration in obese children with NAFLD...
September 12, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Claudio Maffeis, Anita Morandi
Insulin resistance is a condition of gluco-metabolic sufferance that may hesitate in the further development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The development of insulin resistance is mostly associated with the accumulation of excessive fat in the body. The epidemic impact of obesity in the youngest promoted an increase of the prevalence of insulin resistance also in children and adolescents. Increased fat accumulation in the peri-visceral area of the abdomen, occurring preferably at and after puberty, and in the liver, as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, plays a role in the process...
September 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michelle T Long, Ellen B Gurary, Joseph M Massaro, Jiantao Ma, Udo Hoffmann, Raymond T Chung, Emelia J Benjamin, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known regarding the risk of hepatic steatosis (HS) among adult children of affected parents. We examined the association between parental and offspring HS in the multigenerational Framingham Heart Study, which characterized HS using computed tomography. METHODS: We performed multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, alcohol use, and body mass index to generate the odds of HS according to parental HS. We determined the proportion of participants with HS according to parental HS and the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 )...
September 4, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Zobair Younossi, Frank Tacke, Marco Arrese, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Ibrahim Mostafa, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Yusuf Yilmaz, Jacob George, Jiangao Fan, Miriam B Vos
Over the past 2 decades, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has grown from a relatively unknown disease to the most common cause of CLD in the world. In fact, 25% of the world's population is currently thought to have NAFLD. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the subtype of NAFLD that can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. NAFLD and NASH are found in not only adults-there is a high prevalence in children and adolescents. Due to NAFLD's close association with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity, the latest models predict the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH will increase, causing a tremendous clinical and economic burden and poor patient-reported outcomes...
September 4, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Peter R Baker, Jacob E Friedman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global epidemic in obese children and adults, and the onset might have fetal origins. A growing body of evidence supports the role of developmental programming, whereby the maternal environment affects fetal and infant development, altering the risk profile for disease later in life. Human and nonhuman primate studies of maternal obesity demonstrate that risk factors for pediatric obesity and NAFLD begin in utero. The pathologic mechanisms for NAFLD are multifactorial but have centered on altered mitochondrial function/dysfunction that might precede insulin resistance...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jay Shah, Toluwalase Okubote, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a form of chronic liver disease that is characterized by excessive fatty infiltration of the liver in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. As in the adult population, the etiology of NAFLD in children has been attributed to genetic predilection, insulin resistance, and obesity. The prevalence of NAFLD in the pediatric population has consistently increased over the past few decades, and it is currently considered the most common chronic liver disease in children...
July 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hermine I Brunner, Gaurav Gulati, Marisa S Klein-Gitelman, Kelly A Rouster-Stevens, Lori Tucker, Stacey P Ardoin, Karen B Onel, Rylie Mainville, Jessica Turnier, Pinar Ozge Avar Aydin, David Witte, Bin Huang, Michael R Bennett, Prasad Devarajan
OBJECTIVES: To delineate urine biomarkers that reflect kidney structural damage and predict renal functional decline in pediatric lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: In this prospective study, we evaluated kidney biopsies and urine samples of 89 patients with pediatric LN. Urinary levels of 10 biomarkers [adiponectin, ceruloplasmin, kidney injury molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß), vitamin-D binding protein, liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP), and transferrin] were measured...
August 29, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Adaeze C Ayuk, Vivian U Muoneke, Ngozi R Mbanefo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children contributes to the global health burden. The focus on using novel biomarkers to predict the onset and progression of the disease has increased tremendously over the past decade. Discovery of these biomarkers offers prospects for the early anticipation of the late stages of CKD, slowing down disease progression, and achieving better disease outcomes. The aim of this article is to classify and highlight the utility of these novel biomarkers in predicting disease-onset and progression...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Vikrant Sood, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Shvetank Sharma, Seema Alam, Shiv Kumar Sarin
OBJECTIVE: To find association of pediatric NAFLD with metabolic risk factors, and Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene polymorphism. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pediatric Hepatology unit of a tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Overweight/obese children (<18 years) with (69 patients) or without (30 patients) NAFLD (ultrasonography based), and their parents. INTERVENTION: Metabolic screening, PNPLA3 gene polymorphism, and transient elastography...
July 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Idoia Labayen, Jonatan R Ruiz, Lide Arenaza, María Medrano, Ignacio Tobalina, Luis Gracia-Marco, Francisco B Ortega, Beatriz Rodriguez-Vigil
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatic fat content on bone mineral density (BMD), and to investigate whether the relationship between NAFLD and BMD is independent of lifestyle factors related to BMD. METHODS: Hepatic fat content (magnetic resonance imaging), BMD, lean mass index, total and abdominal fat mass (dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry), and calcium and vitamin D intake (two 24 h recalls) were measured in 115 children with overweight/obesity aged 10...
August 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi, Zhipeng Liu, Tiebing Liang, Annalisa Crudele, Massimiliano Raponi, Jingmei Lin, Naga P Chalasani, Wanqing Liu
BACKGROUND: FADS1 gene encodes delta 5 desaturase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Minor alleles of FADS1 locus polymorphisms are associated with reduced FADS1 expression and intra-hepatic fat accumulation. However, the relationship between FADS1 expression and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk remains to be explored. METHODS: We analyzed FADS1 transcription levels and their association with intra-hepatic fat and histology in children, and we performed pathway enrichment analysis on transcriptomic profiles associated with FADS1 polymorphisms...
August 4, 2018: Pediatric Research
Grace Hatton, Tommaso Alterio, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common disorder that has complex pathophysiology and unquantified clinical significance. Though there have been major advances in the field, there is much yet to be understood. Areas covered: PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched for articles related to pediatric NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) between January 1998 and January 2018. The areas considered to be 'unmet needs' were the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and perinatal events, clinical event risk stratification, and mechanisms underlying portal inflammation...
August 21, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Konstantin Kazankov, Anna Alisi, Holger Jon Møller, Rita De Vito, Søren Rittig, Birgitte Mahler, Valerio Nobili, Henning Grønbæk
OBJECTIVES: We have previously demonstrated associations between the macrophage activation marker soluble (s)CD163 and histology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults, and elevated sCD163 levels in obese children with NAFLD. However, macrophage activation has not been investigated in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, which was the objective of the present study. METHODS: We used in-house ELISAs to measure sCD163 and the novel macrophage marker soluble mannose receptor (sMR) in a cross-sectional (n = 155) pediatric NAFLD cohort, and a cohort of NAFLD children (n = 36) undergoing a randomized trial by the probiotic VSL#3...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Anna Alisi, Valentina Pampanini, Cristiano De Stefanis, Nadia Panera, Annalisa Deodati, Valerio Nobili, Stefano Cianfarani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the major complications of obesity, occurring already in pediatric age. Insulin like growth factor-I has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent for its beneficial effect in experimental liver fibrosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I and its receptor in the liver of children with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and relate it to liver histological features...
2018: PloS One
Marialena Mouzaki, Andrew T Trout, Ana Catalina Arce-Clachar, Kristin Bramlage, Pierce Kuhnell, Jonathan R Dillman, Stavra Xanthakos
OBJECTIVE: To assess liver disease progression using paired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of liver fat fraction (FF) and stiffness. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who had undergone repeat MRI studies. Descriptive statistics were used, as well as Pearson or Spearman correlation when appropriate. Mixed model analyses were used to determine relationships between liver FF/stiffness and predictor variables...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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