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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228518/childhood-trauma-is-associated-with-poorer-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#1
Andrew J Petkus, Eric J Lenze, Meryl A Butters, Elizabeth W Twamley, Julie Loebach Wetherell
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma is common and associated with both worse cognitive performance and disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in younger adults. The extent to which these associations persist into older adulthood remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported childhood trauma in relation to cognitive performance, and the extent to which cortisol explained this association, in 2 independent samples of older adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants in the discovery sample (N = 76) consisted of older adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (N = 57) and age-equated psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects (N = 19) who were referred largely through primary care clinics between 2004-2006...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228517/cost-effectiveness-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-bulimia-nervosa-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Hunna J Watson, Nicole McLagan, Stephanie C Zerwas, Ross D Crosby, Michele D Levine, Cristin D Runfola, Christine M Peat, Markus Moessner, Benjamin Zimmer, Sara M Hofmeier, Robert M Hamer, Marsha D Marcus, Cynthia M Bulik, Scott J Crow
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) compared to face-to-face delivery of CBT-BN. METHODS: This study is a planned secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 179 adults (98% female, mean age = 28 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa who were randomized to group face-to-face or group Internet-based CBT-BN for 16 sessions during 20 weeks...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228510/left-behind-and-left-out-the-impact-of-the-school-environment-on-young-people-with-continence-problems
#3
Katie Whale, Helen Cramer, Carol Joinson
OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the secondary school environment on young people with continence problems. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. METHODS: We interviewed 20 young people aged 11-19 years (11 female and nine male) with continence problems (daytime wetting, bedwetting, and/or soiling). Interviews were conducted by Skype (n = 11) and telephone (n = 9). Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228447/ethical-and-medico-legal-remarks-on-uterus-transplantation-may-it-solve-uterine-factor-infertility
#4
S Zaami, E Marinelli, N M di Luca, G Montanari Vergallo
Uterus transplantation was firstly tested with animal trials sixty-five years ago. Despite several successful attempts in human subjects, the different procedures still lay at the experimental stage, in need of further studies and investigations before they can be considered as standard clinical practices. Uterus transplant cannot be regarded as a life-saving procedure, but rather a method to restore woman ability to procreate, when lost, thus improving her quality of life. Uterus transplant is a complex surgical procedure and presents significant health threats...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228416/dental-health-in-patients-affected-by-alcohol-use-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
P F Manicone, C Tarli, A Mirijello, L Raffaelli, G A Vassallo, M Antonelli, M M Rando, C Mosoni, A Cossari, L Lavorgna, F Caputo, A D'Addona, A Gasbarrini, G Addolorato
OBJECTIVE: Chronic alcohol abuse represents a risk factor for oral diseases, in particular, oral cancer. Periodontal disease has been showed to be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and liver steatosis. The role of chronic alcohol consumption on periodontitis is still controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on oral health. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three alcohol use disorders (AUD) patients and twenty-three healthy social drinkers underwent an oral examination by trained oral clinicians in order to evaluate oral and dental health...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228400/informal-care-and-sleep-disturbance-among-caregivers-in-paid-work-longitudinal-analyses-from-a-large-community-based-swedish-cohort-study
#6
Lawrence B Sacco, Constanze Leineweber, Loretta G Platts
Study objectives: To examine cross-sectionally and prospectively whether informal caregiving is related to sleep disturbance among caregivers in paid work. Methods: Participants (N=21 604) in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sleeping problems were measured with a validated scale of sleep disturbance (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire). Random-effects modelling was used to examine the cross-sectional association between informal caregiving (self-reports: none, up to 5h per week, over 5h per week) and sleep disturbance...
December 8, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228383/oral-fungal-bacterial-biofilm-models-in-vitro-a-review
#7
Marlene Chevalier, Stephane Ranque, Isabelle Prêcheur
Inclusion of fungi as commensals in oral biofilm is an important innovation in oral biology, and this work aimed to review the literature on the available biofilm and related disease in vitro models. Actually, thousands of bacterial and around one hundred of fungal phylotypes can colonize the oral cavity. Taxonomic profiling combined with functional expression analysis has revealed that Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and prominent periodontopathogens are not always present or numerically important in candidiasis, caries, or periodontitis lesions...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228293/providing-mental-health-care-for-the-complex-older-veteran-implications-for-social-work-practice
#8
Gayle Clark, Susan Rouse, Heather Spangler, Jennifer Moye
Mental health conditions are underdiagnosed and undertreated in older veterans, as with all older adults. Social workers bring an important perspective to the interdisciplinary team for the care of older veterans with mental health conditions. In this study authors assessed 50 older veterans referred for mental health treatment (mean age = 74.52 years, SD = 6.48) with standardized measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and cognitive impairment. At initial assessment, 24 percent had moderate depression, 30 percent had PTSD, and 62 percent (n = 31) had (mostly mild) cognitive impairment based on cut scores...
December 8, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228289/clinical-practice-guideline-for-physical-therapy-assessment-and-treatment-in-patients-with-nonspecific-neck-pain
#9
Jasper D Bier, Wendy G M Scholten-Peeters, J Bart Staal, Jan Pool, Maurits W van Tulder, Emmylou Beekman, Jesper Knoop, Guus Meerhoff, Arianne P Verhagen
The Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) issued a clinical practice guideline for physical therapists that addresses the assessment and treatment of patients with nonspecific neck pain, including cervical radiculopathy, in Dutch primary care. Recommendations were based on a review of published systematic reviews.During the intake, the patient is screened for serious pathologies and corresponding patterns. Patients with cervical radiculopathy can be included or excluded through corresponding signs and symptoms and possibly diagnostic tests (Spurling test, traction/distraction test, and Upper Limb Tension Test)...
December 4, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228281/the-intriguing-evolution-of-effect-sizes-in-biomedical-research-over-time-smaller-but-more-often-statistically-significant
#10
Paul Monsarrat, Jean-Noel Vergnes
Background: In medicine, effect sizes (ESs) allow the effects of independent variables (including risk/protective factors, or treatment interventions) on dependent variables (e.g., health outcomes) to be quantified. Given that many public health decisions and health care policies are based on ES estimates, it is important to assess how ESs are used in the biomedical literature and to investigate potential trends in their reporting over time. Results: Through a big data approach, the text mining process automatically extracted 814 120 ESs from 13 322 754 PubMed abstracts...
December 6, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228207/effectiveness-of-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-preventing-amoxicillin-prescribing-in-preschool-children-a-self-controlled-case-series-study
#11
Pia Hardelid, Yonas Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Heather Whitaker, Greta Rait, Ruth Gilbert, Irene Petersen
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in reducing amoxicillin prescribing in preschool children in primary care. Patients and methods: We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large primary care database from the United Kingdom. We included children aged 2 to 4 years old at the start of either the 2013/14 or the 2014/15 winter season, with at least one amoxicillin prescription between September and May, irrespective of LAIV vaccination status...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228174/cardiovascular-risk-in-early-psychosis-relationship-with-inflammation-and-clinical-features-6-months-after-diagnosis
#12
Molero M F Barcones, K S MacDowell, B García Bueno, M Bioque, L Gutiérrez-Galve, A González Pinto, M J Parellada, J Bobes, M Bernardo, A Lobo, J C Leza
Background: We aimed to investigate the state of cardiovascular risk/protection factors in early psychosis patients. Methods: 119 subjects were recruited during the first year after their first episode of psychosis (FEP). 85 of these subjects were followed during the next 6 months. Cardiovascular risk/protection factors were measured in plasma and co-variated by sociodemographic/clinical characteristics. Multiple linear regression models detected the change of each biological marker from baseline to follow-up in relation to clinical scales, antipsychotic medication and pro/anti-inflammatory mediators...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228160/effect-of-financial-incentives-on-breastfeeding-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Clare Relton, Mark Strong, Kate J Thomas, Barbara Whelan, Stephen J Walters, Julia Burrows, Elaine Scott, Petter Viksveen, Maxine Johnson, Helen Baston, Julia Fox-Rushby, Nana Anokye, Darren Umney, Mary J Renfrew
Importance: Although breastfeeding has a positive effect on an infant's health and development, the prevalence is low in many communities. The effect of financial incentives to improve breastfeeding prevalence is unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of an area-level financial incentive for breastfeeding on breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nourishing Start for Health (NOSH) trial, a cluster randomized trial with 6 to 8 weeks follow-up, was conducted between April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016, in 92 electoral ward areas in England with baseline breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum less than 40%...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228143/accountable-care-at-the-frontlines-of-a-health-system-bridging-aspiration-and-reality
#14
Ishani Ganguli, Timothy G Ferris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228107/the-impact-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-long-term-care-nursing-home-admission-and-death-among-dementia-patients
#15
Michael Nerius, Kristina Johnell, Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Maria Eriksdotter, Britta Haenisch, Gabriele Doblhammer
Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are commonly treated with antipsychotic drugs (APDs), which have been associated with adverse health effects. We examine the effect of APDs on long-term care (LTC), nursing home admission (NH), and death of dementia patients. Methods: We used health claims data of the largest German health insurer from 2004 to 2010 and followed newly-diagnosed dementia patients aged 60 years and older into LTC, NH, and until death...
December 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228098/association-of-household-opioid-availability-and-prescription-opioid-initiation-among-household-members
#16
Marissa J Seamans, Timothy S Carey, Daniel J Westreich, Stephen R Cole, Stephanie B Wheeler, G Caleb Alexander, Virginia Pate, M Alan Brookhart
Importance: Increases in prescription opioid use in the United States have been attributed to changing prescribing guidelines and attitudes toward pain relief; however, the spread of opioid use within households through drug diversion may also be a contributing factor. Objective: To investigate whether individuals living in a household with a prescription opioid user are more likely to initiate prescription opioids themselves, compared with individuals in households with a prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) user...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228050/birth-preparedness-and-complication-readiness-bpcr-among-pregnant-women-in-hard-to-reach-areas-in-bangladesh
#17
Md Moinuddin, Aliki Christou, Dewan Md Emdadul Hoque, Tazeen Tahsina, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Sk Masum Billah, Lianne Kuppens, Md Ziaul Matin, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication readiness aims to reduce delays in care seeking, promote skilled birth attendance, and facility deliveries. Little is known about birth preparedness practices among populations living in hard-to-reach areas in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVES: To describe levels of birth preparedness and complication readiness among recently delivered women, identify determinants of being better prepared for birth, and assess the impact of greater birth preparedness on maternal and neonatal health practices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228010/nasal-carriage-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-at-a-palliative-care-unit-a-prospective-single-service-analysis
#18
Maria Heckel, Walter Geißdörfer, Franziska A Herbst, Stephanie Stiel, Christoph Ostgathe, Christian Bogdan
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial microorganisms is a particular challenge for the health care systems. Little is known about the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) in patients of palliative care units (PCU). AIM: The primary aim of this study was to determine the carriage of MRSA among patients of a PCU at a German University Hospital and to assess whether the positive cases would have been detected by a risk-factor-based screening-approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227977/red-blood-cell-distribution-width-is-an-independent-predictor-of-aki-and-mortality-in-patients-in-the-coronary-care-unit
#19
Yugang Hu, Huilan Liu, Shuai Fu, Jing Wan, Xiaoning Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the hypothesis that RDW is an independent predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in patients in the coronary care unit (CCU). METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, we screened 412 adults admitted to the CCU at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1, 2014 to June 1, 2015. AKI was defined based on the KDIGO-AKI criteria. The survivors were followed up for up to 2 years after hospital discharge...
December 8, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227955/developing-and-validating-a-perinatal-depression-screening-tool-in-kenya-blending-western-criteria-with-local-idioms-a-mixed-methods-study
#20
Eric P Green, Hawa Tuli, Edith Kwobah, D Menya, Irene Chesire, Christina Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Routine screening for perinatal depression is not common in most primary health care settings. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force only recently updated their recommendation on depression screening to specifically recommend screening during the pre- and postpartum periods. While practitioners in high-income countries can respond to this new recommendation by implementing one of several existing depression screening tools developed in Western contexts, such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) or the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), these tools lack strong evidence of cross-cultural equivalence, validity for case finding, and precision in measuring response to treatment in developing countries...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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