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Impulsive control

Adam T Brockett, Heather J Pribut, Daniela Vázquez, Matthew R Roesch
Addiction has long been characterized by diminished executive function, control, and impulsivity management. In particular, these deficits often manifest themselves as impairments in reversal learning, delay discounting, and response inhibition. Understanding the neurobiological substrates of these behavioral deficits is of paramount importance to our understanding of addiction. Within the cycle of addiction, periods during and after withdrawal represent a particularly difficult point of intervention in that the negative physical symptoms associated with drug removal and drug craving increase the likelihood that the patient will relapse and return to drug use in order to abate these symptoms...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
Andrea Mike, T László Tamás
Dizziness is one of the most common causes of medical visits. Management of the dizzy patient may be challenging both for the general practitioner, in emergency departments, and special clinics, as behind a seemingly homogeneous clinical presentation several very different etiologies may occur. Research of the last two century enriched our knowledge about physiology and pathophysiology of the vestibular system. Much knowledge is now available about the labyrinth being able to sense head motions and gravity, processing of afferent vestibular stimuli, reflectory oculomotor and postural control, or recovery of the vestibular system...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Anastasia M Sorokina, Michael Saul, Tassia M Goncalves, Joseph V Gogola, Petra Majdak, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, Justin S Rhodes
Despite the prevalence and high heritability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), genetic etiology remains elusive. Clinical evidence points in part to reduced function of the striatum, but which specific genes are differentially expressed and how they sculpt striatal physiology to predispose ADHD are not well understood. As an exploratory tool, a polygenic mouse model of ADHD was recently developed through selective breeding for high home cage activity. Relative to the Control line, the High-Active line displays hyperactivity and motor impulsivity which are ameliorated with amphetamine...
2018: PloS One
Sarah L Stuebing, Andrew T Marshall, Ashton Triplett, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Impulsive choice has been implicated in substance abuse, gambling, obesity, and other maladaptive behaviors. Deficits in interval timing may increase impulsive choices, and therefore, could serve as an avenue through which suboptimal impulsive choices can be moderated. Temporal interventions have successfully attenuated impulsive choices in male rats, but the efficacy of a temporal intervention has yet to be assessed in female rats. As such, this experiment examined timing and choice behavior in female rats, and evaluated the ability of a temporal intervention to mitigate impulsive choice behavior...
August 14, 2018: Animal Cognition
Thania Balducci, Jorge J González-Olvera, Diego Angeles-Valdez, Isabel Espinoza-Luna, Eduardo A Garza-Villarreal
Background: Borderline personality disorder is present in 19% of cocaine dependence cases; however, this dual pathology is poorly understood. We wished to characterize the dual pathology and find its functional connectivity correlates to better understand it. Methods: We recruited 69 participants divided into 4 groups: dual pathology ( n = 20), cocaine dependence without borderline personality disorder ( n = 19), borderline personality without cocaine dependence ( n = 10) and healthy controls ( n = 20). We used self-reported instruments to measure impulsivity and emotional dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Fausto Caruana, Marzio Gerbella, Pietro Avanzini, Francesca Gozzo, Veronica Pelliccia, Roberto Mai, Rouhollah O Abdollahi, Francesco Cardinale, Ivana Sartori, Giorgio Lo Russo, Giacomo Rizzolatti
The cingulate cortex is a mosaic of different anatomical fields, whose functional characterization is still a matter of debate. In humans, one method that may provide useful insights on the role of the different cingulate regions, and to tackle the issue of the functional differences between its anterior, middle and posterior subsectors, is intracortical electrical stimulation. While previous reports showed that a variety of integrated behaviours could be elicited by stimulating the midcingulate cortex, little is known about the effects of the electrical stimulation of anterior and posterior cingulate regions...
August 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Shuguang Wei, Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Weine Dai, Jinxiu Sun, Haiyan Wu, Xun Liu
Converging evidence supports that addiction involves the pathological usurpation of normal reward processes. However, the nature and direction of reward processing dysfunction in substance abusers remain unclear. The current study explored the electrophysiological responses associated with different stages of reward processing in methamphetamine (MA) use disordered individuals. Electroencephalography recording was used to compare responses of 21 MA use disordered individuals and 22 healthy controls (HC) while participants engaged in a simple gambling task...
August 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Hiroki Shikanai, Nobuhiro Oshima, Hidekazu Kawashima, Shin-Ichi Kimura, Sachiko Hiraide, Hiroko Togashi, Kenji Iizuka, Kazue Ohkura, Takeshi Izumi
AIM: We previously reported that stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat/Ezo (SHRSP/Ezo) has high validity as an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) animal model, based on its behavioral phenotypes, such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Fronto-cortical dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD/HD. In this study, we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in SHRSP/Ezo rats by electrophysiological methods and radioreceptor assay. METHODS: We recorded excitatory postsynaptic potential in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC by intracellular recording method to assess synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP)...
June 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Brandy Solheim, Alexander Olsen, Håvard Kallestad, Knut Langsrud, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Michael Gradisar, Trond Sand
Difficult early morning awakening is one of the defining symptoms of delayed sleep-wake phase disorder. It is accompanied by low cognitive arousal and drowsiness resulting in difficulty concentrating and focusing attention upon awakening. We designed the current study to quantitate cognitive performance (i.e. omissions, commissions, reaction time [average and variability]) and cognitive domains (i.e. focused attention, sustained attention, impulsivity and vigilance) with Conners' Continuous Performance Test II during both habitual and conventional (00:00-07:00 hr) sleep-wake schedule in young adult patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (n = 20, mean age = 24...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Emma O'Donoghue, Abigail Clark, Matthew Richardson, John Hodsoll, Sunil Nandha, Eric Morris, Fergus Kane, Deirdre O'Keeffe, Lucy Butler, Suzanne Jolley
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a chronic and disabling psychiatric condition, characterised by recurrent episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. It places a heavy burden on sufferers and families, with high societal and healthcare costs. Many service users with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder also experience prominent psychotic symptoms, with differential diagnoses of schizoaffective disorder, and relapses characterised by repeated manic psychotic episodes and grandiosity. Such presentations require specific adaptations to standard bipolar disorder interventions in order to address their psychosis, alongside mood regulation, with a particular emphasis on impulsivity, irritability, disinhibition and elation...
August 13, 2018: Trials
Miriam C Chernoff, Barbara Laughton, Mmule Ratswana, Itziar Familiar, Lee Fairlie, Tichaona Vhembo, Portia Kamthunzi, Enid Kabugho, Celeste Joyce, Bonnie Zimmer, J L Ariansen, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Michael J Boivin
Introduction: Western-constructed neuropsychological tests have been used in low and middle income countries to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS and other chronic illnesses. We explore using such instruments cross-culturally in a sub-Saharan Africa setting. Methods: IMPAACT P1104S was a two-year observational study carried out at six clinical sites (South Africa- 3 sites, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe) to assess and compare neuropsychological outcomes in three cohorts of children 5-11 years of age: HIV-infected (HIV), HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed and uninfected (HU)...
September 2018: Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Ertan Yılmaz, Lut Tamam
Objective: Data which indicate a greater role of the central nervous system in the etiology of fibromyalgia are increasing. The goal of the present study is to determine the link between fibromyalgia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and, in addition, to reveal the relevance of impulsivity dimension. Methods: The study included 78 females with fibromyalgia who applied to a physical medicine and rehabilitation polyclinic in Ceyhan State Hospital and 54 healthy females...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Aleksandra M Herman, Hugo D Critchley, Theodora Duka
Binge drinking is associated with increased impulsivity and altered emotional processing. The current study investigated, in a group of university students who differed in their level of binge drinking, whether the ability to inhibit a pre-potent response and to delay gratification is disrupted in the presence of emotional context. We further tested whether functional connectivity within intrinsic resting-state networks was associated with alcohol use. Higher incidence of binge drinking was associated with enhanced activation of the lateral occipital cortex, angular gyrus, the left frontal pole during successful response inhibition irrespective of emotional context...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jun Ho Hong, In Wook Hwang, Myung Ho Lim, Ho Jang Kwon, Han Jun Jin
It is well known that dopaminergic genes affect the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in various populations. Many studies have shown that variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) located within the 3'-untranslated region of DAT1 and in exon 3 of DRD4 are associated with ADHD development; however, these results were inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the genetic association between two VNTRs and ADHD in Korean children. We determined the VNTRs using PCR. We examined genotype and allele frequency differences between the experimental and control groups, along with the odds ratios, using Chi square and exact tests...
August 11, 2018: Genes & Genomics
Hanna Cisoń, Aleksandra Kuś, Ewa Popowicz, Marta Szyca, Adam Reich
Trichotillomania is a chronic, mental disease of impulse control, characterized by repetitive, compulsive, and self-induced hair pulling. It can occur at any age but is observed more often in adolescents, with a strong predominance in females. Diagnosis of trichotillomania may be difficult, and its effective treatment challenging. The aim of this study is to critically review current literature regarding diagnostic procedures and treatment of trichotillomania, including psychotherapy, N-acetylcysteine, naltrexone, topiramate, atypical neuroleptics, and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors...
August 11, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Michela Figorilli, Patrizia Congiu, Rosa Lecca, Gioia Gioi, Roberto Frau, Monica Puligheddu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to explore the relationship between impulse-control disorders (ICDs) and sleep problems in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) among scientific literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Previously published results are controversial and sometimes inconclusive. ICDs and sleep disruption represent important non-motor features of Parkinson's disease, responsible for reducing quality of life and increasing burden of disease. The relationship between sleep problems and ICDs is complex and bidirectional...
August 11, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Huabin Chen, Peng Shi, Cheng-Chew Lim
This paper considers the problem of the asymptotic synchronization in mean square for stochastic reaction-diffusion complex dynamical networks with infinite delay driven by the Wiener processes in the infinite dimensional space under the pinning impulsive control. Two types of the impulsive controllers are proposed: the first is a single pinning impulsive controller on the first node, and the second is the pinning impulsive controller on a small portion of the network nodes. By using the variation-of-constant formula and the fixed point theorem, the asymptotic behavior of impulsive differential equations with infinite delay is first analyzed...
August 1, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Alexander J Millner, Michael D Lee, Kelly Hoyt, Joshua W Buckholtz, Randy P Auerbach, Matthew K Nock
OBJECTIVE: For over 100 years impulsiveness has been cited as a key factor in why some people that think about killing themselves go on to attempt suicide. Yet prior studies are limited by not using experimental groups that can test this hypothesis and by treating impulsiveness as a unidimensional construct. To overcome these limitations, we compared suicide ideators and suicide attempters on several dimensions of impulsiveness. METHOD: In Study 1 we compared inpatient suicide attempters who made an attempt within the prior two weeks (n = 30), current inpatient suicide ideators (n = 31), and community controls (n = 34) on several dimensions of impulsiveness using self-report and behavioral measures...
August 4, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
Lin Zhang, Yao An
This study employs the Vector Auto-regression model with Generalized Response Impulse Function to analyse the dynamic nexus between economic growth and the industrial environmental pollution intensity for six specific pollutants in Shanxi province of China from 1995 to 2015. The result show there exists bi-directional effects, with stronger impact running from economic development to industrial pollution is stronger. We also find the Shanxi government shows significant capacity in the management of industrial solid waste and waste gas...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Paul Aveyard, Carmen Piernas, Constantinos Koshiaris, Carmelo Velardo, Dario Salvi, Susan A Jebb
BACKGROUND: Though many overweight and obese adults attempt to lose weight without formal support, little is known about the strategies used in self-directed weight loss attempts. We set out to assess cognitive and behavioural strategies for weight loss and their associations with weight change. METHODS: Prospective, web-based cohort study of overweight UK adults (BMI≥25kg/m2) trying to lose weight through behaviour change. Strategy use was assessed using the OxFAB questionnaire and evaluated (1) at the domain level, (2) through exploratory factor analysis, and (3) in a model of strategies deemed a priori to be "essential" to weight management...
2018: PloS One
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