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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30554100/psychobiological-response-to-an-anger-induction-task-in-schizophrenia-the-key-role-of-anxiety
#1
Marien Gadea, Neus Herrero, Alfonso Picó, Raúl Espert, Alicia Salvador, Julio Sanjuán
In this study an anger induction laboratory task was applied to men with schizophrenia, and resulted in significant changes in different psychophysiological parameters that were measured in a pre-post design. We observed a significantly greater self-reported anger mood and negative affection, lower self-reported positive affection, an increase in cardiovascular reactivity (with blood pressure in deeper affection compared to controls), higher salivary testosterone levels, lower salivary cortisol levels, and an increase in right ear items reported in dichotic listening...
December 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552041/effects-of-nicotine-and-atomoxetine-on-brain-function-during-response-inhibition
#2
Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Nadine Petrovsky, Pia-Magdalena Schmidt, Peter Trautner, Bernd Weber, Birgitta Sträter, Ulrich Ettinger
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine and the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor atomoxetine are widely studied substances due to their propensity to alleviate cognitive deficits in psychiatric and neurological patients and their beneficial effects on some aspects of cognitive functions in healthy individuals. However, despite growing evidence of acetylcholine-noradrenaline interactions, there are only very few direct comparisons of the two substances. Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine and atomoxetine on response inhibition in the stop-signal task and we characterised the neural correlates of these effects using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T...
December 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551023/subtypes-of-aggression-in-intermittent-explosive-disorder
#3
Jennifer R Fanning, Morgan Coleman, Royce Lee, Emil F Coccaro
Research in aggression has distinguished two major subtypes of aggressive behavior: hostile and instrumental. Previous research has examined these subtypes in healthy individuals and forensic samples but not in intermittent explosive disorder (IED), a disorder characterized by recurrent and severe aggressive behavior. We examined aggression subtypes in individuals with IED, healthy subjects, and psychiatric control subjects. We also considered the relationship between aggression subtypes and measures of trait anger and impulsivity to evaluate whether the hostile/instrumental dichotomy adequately captures the heterogeneity of aggressive behavior in this sample...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550329/-same-but-different-associations-between-multiple-aspects-of-self-regulation-cognition-and-academic-abilities
#4
Margherita Malanchini, Laura E Engelhardt, Andrew D Grotzinger, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Self-regulation describes the ability to control both behaviors and internal states against a backdrop of conflicting or distracting situations, drives, or impulses. In the cognitive psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are commonly measured with performance-based tests of executive functioning, whereas in the personality psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are typically assessed with report-based measures of impulse control, sustained motivation, and perseverance...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549328/impulsivity-trait-and-proactive-cognitive-control-an-fmri-study
#5
Gioele Gavazzi, Arianna Rossi, Stefano Orsolini, Stefano Diciotti, Fabio Giovannelli, Emilia Salvadori, Leonardo Pantoni, Mario Mascalchi, Maria Pia Viggiano
The ability to flexibly regulate our behavior is a fundamental feature of human cognition and requires efficient functioning of cognitive control. During movement preparation, proactive inhibitory control plays a crucial role in regulating the excitatory activity carried out by alertness. The balance between alertness and proactive inhibition could be altered in people with motor impulsivity trait, determining the typical failure in the inhibition of prepotent motor responses. To test this hypothesis, thirty-six young adults were administered the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale to assess motor impulsivity trait and underwent fMRI acquisition during the execution of an event-related Go/Nogo task...
December 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547696/computerized-cognitive-training-for-adhd-as-an-add-on-treatment-to-stimulants-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Virginia de Oliveira Rosa, Carlos Renato Moreira-Maia, Flávia Wagner, André Simioni, Caroline de Fraga Bassotto, Guilherme R Moritz, Marcelo Schmitz, Luis Augusto Paim Rohde
OBJECTIVE: Computerized cognitive training (CCT) as add-on treatment to stimulants for ADHD core symptoms is scarcely investigated. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of CCT in a randomized controlled clinical trial for ADHD in children and adolescents treated with stimulants. METHOD: Fifty-three participants aged 6 to 13 years receiving stimulant treatment and presenting ADHD residual symptoms were randomized either to a CCT ( n = 29) or to a controlled nonactive condition ( n = 24) for four sessions/week during 12 weeks...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546847/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-narrative-discourse-in-older-adults
#7
Rafael Coelho, Paulo Mattos, Rosemary Tannock
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) encompasses other symptoms besides inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, such as language problems. ADHD can have a non-remitting course and is also found in older individuals, although there are no studies on language problems in elderly individuals with the disorder. Objective: To investigate the presence of language impairment in older adults with ADHD. Methods: Language impairment was investigated in three older ADHD adults, and compared with two matched control subjects using a narrative discourse task...
October 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545813/examining-the-effects-of-mindful-eating-training-on-adherence-to-a-carbohydrate-restricted-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-the-delish-study-protocol
#8
Ashley E Mason, Laura Saslow, Patricia J Moran, Sarah Kim, Hiba Abousleiman, Alison Hartman, Robert Richler, Samantha Schleicher, Wendy Hartogensis, Elissa S Epel, Frederick Hecht
BACKGROUND: Diet patterns have a profound influence on glycemic control for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and craving-related eating is an important obstacle to dietary adherence. A growing body of research suggests that carbohydrate-restricted (CR) diets can improve glycemic control and reduce medication dependence in T2DM. However, limited data speak to the effects of long-term adherence to CR diets. Mindful eating training has been shown to reduce craving-related eating in overweight populations but has yet to be examined as a behavioral support for dietary adherence in T2DM...
September 19, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544869/spatiotemporal-and-kinetic-determinants-of-sprint-acceleration-performance-in-soccer-players
#9
Munenori Murata, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Ryu Nagahara
We aimed to elucidate spatiotemporal and kinetic determinants of sprint acceleration performance in soccer players. Thirty-seven male soccer players performed 60-m sprints. The spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction impulses were calculated over a 50-m distance. When controlling the influence of stature and body mass, change in running speed was correlated with the step length at the 1st⁻4th step section (r = 0.695), step frequency from the 9th to 20th step sections (r = 0.428 to 0.484), braking impulse during the 17th⁻20th step section (r = 0...
December 9, 2018: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544842/small-airway-disease-in-pulmonary-hypertension-additional-diagnostic-value-of-multiple-breath-washout-and-impulse-oscillometry
#10
Frederik Trinkmann, Joshua Gawlitza, Monique Künstler, Julia Schäfer, Michele Schroeter, Julia D Michels, Ksenija Stach, Christina Dösch, Joachim Saur, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin
Airways obstruction is frequent in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Small airway disease (SAD) was identified as a major contributor to resistance and symptoms. However, it is easily missed using current diagnostic approaches. We aimed to evaluate more elaborate diagnostic tests such as impulse oscillometry (IOS) and SF₆-multiple-breath-washout (MBW) for the assessment of SAD in PH. Twenty-five PH patients undergoing body-plethysmography, IOS and MBW testing were prospectively included and equally matched to pulmonary healthy and non-healthy controls...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544001/videos-look-faster-as-children-grow-up-sense-of-speed-and-impulsivity-throughout-primary-school
#11
Eleonora Zuliani, Marcella Caputi, Simona Scaini, Claudio de'Sperati
Previous research has documented systematic biases when adult observers judge the original speed of real-life video clips. What does the unfolding of events in videos-an increasingly pervasive "substitute reality"-look like as children grow up? The current study investigated the sense of speed during childhood and the relation with a number of performance and personality indexes. A group of 142 children aged 6-10 years adjusted the speed of video clips representing various scenes until reaching the apparent right speed...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541866/age-and-time-course-of-long-term-motor-and-nonmotor-complications-in-parkinson-disease
#12
Stéphane Prange, Teodor Danaila, Chloé Laurencin, Catherine Caire, Elise Metereau, Hélène Merle, Emmanuel Broussolle, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Stéphane Thobois
OBJECTIVE: To determine the time course of hazard for motor and nonmotor milestones of Parkinson disease (PD) in the long term and to investigate whether risk scales nonlinearly with time is instrumental in identifying changes in pathological processes and evaluating disease-modifying therapies in PD. METHODS: Outpatients with PD at the Lyon University Movement Disorders Center were evaluated for 7 clinical milestones in this retrospective cohort study, encompassing 4 domains of PD progression: (1) motor (motor fluctuations, dyskinesias); (2) axial (postural instability and falls, freezing of gait); (3) neuropsychiatric (impulse control disorders, hallucinations); and (4) cognitive (dementia) complications...
December 12, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541503/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-implications-of-das-naglieri-cognitive-assessment-system-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Ling Qin, Hairun Liu, Hong Zhang, Yanhong Fu, Dandan Li
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental characterized by attention deficit, hyperactivity, emotional impulses and difficulty with cognitive functions. The Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN: CAS), as a theory-driven assessment kit, was explored based on Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive Theory (PASS). Recent researches have tried to explore the sensitivity and specificity of DN: CAS in diagnosing ADHD; nevertheless, these studies were performed in a small study population...
December 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538595/borderline-personality-disorder-in-adolescents-prevalence-diagnosis-and-treatment-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Jean Marc Guilé, Laure Boissel, Stéphanie Alaux-Cantin, Sébastien Garny de La Rivière
Using the same Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth version ( DSM-V ) criteria as in adults, borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescents is defined as a 1-year pattern of immature personality development with disturbances in at least five of the following domains: efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable interpersonal relationships, identity disturbance, impulsivity, suicidal and self-mutilating behaviors, affective instability, chronic feelings of emptiness, inappropriate intense anger, and stress-related paranoid ideation...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538087/effects-of-a-theta-sensorimotor-rhythm-neurofeedback-training-protocol-on-measures-of-impulsivity-drug-craving-and-substance-abuse-in-forensic-psychiatric-patients-with-substance-abuse-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Sandra Fielenbach, Franc Cl Donkers, Marinus Spreen, Stefan Bogaerts
BACKGROUND: Forensic psychiatric patients are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders characterized by high levels of impulsivity as well as comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). The combination of psychiatric disorders and SUD increases the risk of future violence. Chronic substance abuse can lead to a structural state of disinhibition, resulting in more drug taking and eventually loss of control over drug intake. When treating SUD, it is crucial to address high levels of impulsivity and lack of inhibitory control...
December 11, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536749/assessment-of-within-breath-impulse-oscillometry-parameters-in-children-with-asthma
#16
In Suk Sol, Yoon Hee Kim, SooYeon Kim, Jong Deok Kim, Sun Ha Choi, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn
BACKGROUND: Impulse oscillometry (IOS) measures respiratory resistance and reactance during tidal breaths and is a convenient tool for evaluation of lung function. Respiratory resistance and reactance can be measured separately during inspiration and expiration (inspiratory-expiratory analysis). OBJECTIVE: We investigated the differences in inspiratory-expiratory measurements obtained using IOS between children with and without asthma. METHODS: We analyzed 819 subjects aged 4-18 years, including asthmatic children (n = 600) and controls (n = 219)...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534585/safety-and-tolerability-of-irl790-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-a-phase-1b-trial
#17
Per Svenningsson, Anders Johansson, Dag Nyholm, Panagiota Tsitsi, Fredrik Hansson, Clas Sonesson, Joakim Tedroff
IRL790 is a novel compound with psychomotor stabilizing properties primarily targeting the dopamine D3 receptor. IRL790 is developed as an experimental treatment for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), impulse control disorder, and psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of IRL790 in PD patients with LID in a randomized controlled trial. PD patients with peak-dose dyskinesia were randomized to placebo or IRL790 treatment (1:3 ratio) for 4 weeks...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534101/validation-of-the-substance-use-risk-profile-scale-surps-with-bulgarian-substance-dependent-individuals
#18
Elizabeth C Long, Svetla Milcheva, Elena Psederska, Georgi Vasilev, Kiril Bozgunov, Dimitar Nedelchev, Nathan A Gillespie, Jasmin Vassileva
Background: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is a 23-item self-report questionnaire that assesses four well-validated personality risk factors for substance misuse (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Hopelessness). While the SURPS has been used extensively with adolescents at risk for substance dependence, its properties with adult substance-dependent populations have been understudied. Further, the validity of the Bulgarian version of the SURPS has not been evaluated. The aims of the present study were to examine the factor structure of the Bulgarian version of the SURPS, its psychometric properties, and its ability to distinguish individuals with substance dependence from healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531858/ventral-striatal-dopamine-transporter-availability-is-associated-with-lower-trait-motor-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults
#19
Christopher T Smith, M Danica San Juan, Linh C Dang, Daniel T Katz, Scott F Perkins, Leah L Burgess, Ronald L Cowan, H Charles Manning, Michael L Nickels, Daniel O Claassen, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, David H Zald
Impulsivity is a transdiagnostic feature of a range of externalizing psychiatric disorders. Preclinical work links reduced ventral striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability with heightened impulsivity and novelty seeking. However, there is a lack of human data investigating the relationship between DAT availability, particularly in subregions of the striatum, and the personality traits of impulsivity and novelty seeking. Here we collected PET measures of DAT availability (BPND ) using the tracer 18 F-FE-PE2I in 47 healthy adult subjects and examined relations between BPND in striatum, including its subregions: caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum (VS), and trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: BIS-11) and novelty seeking (Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: TPQ-NS), controlling for age and sex...
December 7, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530133/psychosocial-complications-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#20
Marte Syvertsen, Kaja Selmer, Ulla Enger, Karl O Nakken, Deb K Pal, Anna Smith, Jeanette Koht
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) constitutes about 10% of all epilepsies. Because of executive dysfunction, people with JME may be prone to impulsivity and risk-taking behavior. Our aim was to investigate whether psychosocial issues associated with impulsivity are more prominent in people with JME than in those with other types of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Patients with GGE were recruited retrospectively through the Drammen Hospital records in Buskerud County, Norway, 1999-2013. They were invited to a semi-structured interview, either at the hospital or at home...
December 7, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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