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Computer and Visual

Chang Young Lee, Harley Chan, Hideki Ujiie, Kosuke Fujino, Tomonari Kinoshita, Jonathan C Irish, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: We developed thoracoscopic surgical navigation system with real-time augmented image guidance to assess the potential benefits for minimally invasive resection of chest wall tumors. The accuracy of localization of tumor and resection margin, and the effect on task workload and confidence were evaluated in a chest wall tumor phantom. METHODS: After scanning a realistic tumor phantom by cone beam computed tomography and registering CT data into the system, three-dimensional contoured tumor and resection margin was displayed...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
In this chapter, we provide an overview of the principles of active inference. We illustrate how different forms of short-term memory are expressed formally (mathematically) through appealing to beliefs about the causes of our sensations and about the actions we pursue. This is used to motivate an approach to active vision that depends upon inferences about the causes of 'what I have seen' and learning about 'what I would see if I were to look there'. The former could manifest as persistent 'delay-period' activity - of the sort associated with working memory, while the latter is better suited to changes in synaptic efficacy - of the sort that underlies short-term learning and adaptation...
August 18, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Logan Chariker, Robert Shapley, Lai-Sang Young
We studied mechanisms for cortical gamma-band activity in the cerebral cortex and identified neurobiological factors that affect such activity. This was done by analyzing the behavior of a previously-developed, data-driven, large-scale network model that simulated many visual functions of monkey V1 cortex [Chariker et al 2016]. Gamma activity was an emergent property of the model. The model's gamma activity, like that of the real cortex, was 1) episodic, 2) variable in frequency and phase, and 3) graded in power with stimulus variables like orientation...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Neda Zamani Tajeddin, Babak Mohammadzadeh Asl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Melanoma is one of the most dangerous forms of skin cancer, but it has a high survival rate if diagnosed on time. The first diagnostic approach in melanoma recognition is to visually assess the lesion through dermoscopic images. Computer-aided diagnosis systems for melanoma recognition has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade and proved to be helpful in that area. Methods for skin lesions analysis usually involves three main steps: lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and features classification...
September 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Narjes Benameur, Enrico Gianluca Caiani, Martino Alessandrini, Younes Arous, Nejmeddine Ben Abdallah, Foued Saadaoui, Tarek Kraiem
BACKGROUND: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the commonly used technique for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. Apart manually or semi-automatically contouring LV boundaries for quantification of By visual interpretation of cine images, assessment of regional wall motion is performed by visual interpretation of cine images, thus relying on an experience-dependent and subjective modality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to describe a novel algorithm based on the computation of the monogenic amplitude image to be utilized in conjunction with conventional cine-MRI visualization to assess LV motion abnormalities and to validate it against gold standard expert visual interpretation...
August 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Yonghui Liu, Qingguo Wei, Zongwu Lu
The number of selectable targets is one of the main factors that affect the performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI). Most existing code modulated visual evoked potential (c-VEP) based BCIs use a single pseudorandom binary sequence and its circularly shifting sequences to modulate different stimulus targets, making the number of selectable targets limited by the length of modulation codes. This paper proposes a novel paradigm for c-VEP BCIs, which divides the stimulus targets into four target groups and each group of targets are modulated by a unique pseudorandom binary code and its circularly shifting codes...
2018: PloS One
Theodore Alexandrov, Nina Golyandina, David Holloway, Alex Shlemov, Alexander Spirov
Spatial pattern formation of the primary anterior-posterior morphogenetic gradient of the transcription factor Bicoid (Bcd) has been studied experimentally and computationally for many years. Bcd specifies positional information for the downstream segmentation genes, affecting the fly body plan. More recently, a number of researchers have focused on the patterning dynamics of the underlying bcd messenger RNA (mRNA) gradient, which is translated into Bcd protein. New, more accurate techniques for visualizing bcd mRNA need to be combined with quantitative signal extraction techniques to reconstruct the bcd mRNA distribution...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
J Parrish, K S Lim, K Baer, G J Hooper, T B F Woodfield
Traditional 2D monolayer cell cultures and submillimeter 3D tissue construct cultures used widely in tissue engineering are limited in their ability to extrapolate experimental data to predict in vivo responses due to their simplistic organization and lack of stimuli. The rise of biofabrication and bioreactor technologies has sought to address this through the development of techniques to spatially organize components of a tissue construct, and devices to supply these tissue constructs with an increasingly in vivo-like environment...
August 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Yujin Chen, Ruizhi Chen, Mengyun Liu, Aoran Xiao, Dewen Wu, Shuheng Zhao
Indoor localization is one of the fundamentals of location-based services (LBS) such as seamless indoor and outdoor navigation, location-based precision marketing, spatial cognition of robotics, etc. Visual features take up a dominant part of the information that helps human and robotics understand the environment, and many visual localization systems have been proposed. However, the problem of indoor visual localization has not been well settled due to the tough trade-off of accuracy and cost. To better address this problem, a localization method based on image retrieval is proposed in this paper, which mainly consists of two parts...
August 16, 2018: Sensors
Janine Schniering, Li Guo, Matthias Brunner, Roger Schibli, Shuang Ye, Oliver Distler, Martin Béhé, Britta Maurer
BACKGROUND: Given the need for early detection of organ involvement in systemic sclerosis, we evaluated 99m Tc-rhAnnexin V-128 for the detection of early stages of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in respective animal models using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). METHODS: In bleomycin (BLM)-challenged mice, fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) transgenic (tg) mice and respective controls, lung injury was evaluated by analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Sirius red staining, with semi-quantification of fibrosis by the Ashcroft score...
August 16, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
David K Yoo, Maurizio Zompatori, Annapina Barrile, Giorgia Rossi, Dejanira D'Amato, Gianluigi Sergiacomi, Paola Rogliani, Marco Mura
BACKGROUND: Associated pulmonary hypertension (APH) is frequently observed in fibrosing interstitial pneumonias (FIP), such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). APH is associated with worse prognosis, but it remains unclear whether it is associated with greater functional impairment. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) is widely used to assess functional capacity in pulmonary hypertension and FIP. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if APH independently contributes to exercise intolerance in FIP, irrespective of the extent of underlying fibrosis...
August 16, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Safi, Mohammad Pooyan, Ali Motie Nasrabadi
The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has received increasing attention in recent years. The present study proposes a new method for recognition based on system identification. The method relies on modeling the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using the Box-Jenkins model. In this approach, the recorded EEG signal is considered as a combination of an SSVEP signal evoked by periodic visual stimulation and a background EEG signal whose components are modeled by a moving average (MA) process and an auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) process, respectively...
August 11, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Gregory Celine, Vanessa Cho, Alexandr Kogan, Robert Anthonappa, Nigel King
OBJECTIVES: To determine, using eye-tracking technology, what children notice the most when they look at the dentist. METHODS: A total of 41 children viewed 10 images of dentists of different genders and ethnicities, and wearing different attires, on a computer screen. Due to calibration issues with the eye tracking equipment, data from one child was excluded thus resulting in a final sample of 40 children (21 females; 19 males). Participants were aged 4-12 years...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Giovanni Montesano, Susan R Bryan, David P Crabb, Paolo Fogagnolo, Francesco Oddone, Allison M McKendrick, Andrew Turpin, Paolo Lanzetta, Andrea Perdicchi, Chris A Johnson, David F Garway-Heath, Paolo Brusini, Luca M Rossetti
PURPOSE: To evaluate relative diagnostic precision and test retest variability of two devices, the Compass (CMP, CenterVue, Italy) fundus perimeter and the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA, Zeiss, Dublin), in detecting glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). DESIGN: Multicentre cross-sectional case-control study. SUBJECTS: We sequentially enrolled 499 glaucoma patients and 444 normal subjects to analyse relative precision. A separate group of 44 glaucoma patients and 54 normal subjects was analysed to assess test - retest variability...
August 13, 2018: Ophthalmology
Linda Bowns
When humans (or robots) move through a scene, the scene can be represented as an optic flow (optical flow) field that contains vectors representing all of the movement within the scene projected onto a two-dimensional sensor. A simultaneous sample of these resulting vectors contain a good deal of information. A general model of motion estimation of local vectors would therefore be valuable. This paper addresses the estimation of motion vectors with uniform motion over a fixed time period. Previous reported attempts at computing motion estimation have been dominated by the machine vision community, however, these attempts are not specifically concerned with biological plausibility...
August 13, 2018: Vision Research
Michael M Bornstein, Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Ray Tanaka, Thomas von Arx, Reinhilde Jacobs, Pek-Lan Khong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the health or pathology of bilateral maxillary sinuses using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with a low-dose protocol, and to analyze potential influencing factors. The study included only CBCT scans with complete visualization of bilateral maxillary sinuses. The scans were taken using a medium to large field of view and a low-dose protocol, as indicated by the manufacturer. CBCT images were analyzed with regard to the morphology of the sinus membrane and surrounding bone twice by one observer...
September 2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Kjersti Tunströmer, Lars Faxälv, Niklas Boknäs, Tomas L Lindahl
Imaging methods based on time-lapse microscopy are important tools for studying the dynamic events that shape thrombus formation upon vascular injury. However, there is a lack of methods to translate the vast amount of visual data generated in such experiments into quantitative variables describing platelet movements that can be subjected to systematic analysis. In this study, we developed experimental and computational protocols allowing for a detailed mathematical analysis of platelet movements within a developing thrombus...
August 15, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Arash Abiri, Yichen Ding, Parinaz Abiri, René R Sevag Packard, Vijay Vedula, Alison Marsden, C-C Jay Kuo, Tzung K Hsiai
While virtual reality (VR) has potential in enhancing cardiovascular diagnosis and treatment, prerequisite labor-intensive image segmentation remains an obstacle for seamlessly simulating 4-dimensional (4-D, 3-D + time) imaging data in an immersive, physiological VR environment. We applied deformable image registration (DIR) in conjunction with 3-D reconstruction and VR implementation to recapitulate developmental cardiac contractile function from light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM). This method addressed inconsistencies that would arise from independent segmentations of time-dependent data, thereby enabling the creation of a VR environment that fluently simulates cardiac morphological changes...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Anaïs Mottaz, Tiffany Corbet, Naz Doganci, Cécile Magnin, Pierre Nicolo, Armin Schnider, Adrian G Guggisberg
Synchronization of neural activity as measured with functional connectivity (FC) is increasingly used to study the neural basis of brain disease and to develop new treatment targets. However, solid evidence for a causal role of FC in disease and therapy is lacking. Here, we manipulated FC of the ipsilesional primary motor cortex in ten chronic human stroke patients through brain-computer interface technology with visual neurofeedback. We conducted a double-blind controlled crossover study to test whether manipulation of FC through neurofeedback had a behavioral effect on motor performance...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ehsan Hekmatian, Mitra Karbasi Kheir, Hossein Fathollahzade, Mahnaz Sheikhi
Background: Vertical root fractures (VRFs) can significantly reduce dental prognosis. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers better visualization of VRF than conventional radiography. However, gutta-percha creates artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT) images and reduces the diagnosis quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of CBCT in detection of VRF in presence and absence of gutta-percha in canals. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 extracted mandibular premolars were selected...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
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