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Computer and Visual

Amna Riaz, Anser Maxood, Saeeda Abdullah, Kiran Saba, Shahab Ud Din, Shahreen Zahid
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pain of single versus multiple visit endodontic treatment after obturation in teeth with necrotic pulps and infected canals. METHODS: The randomized controlled study was conducted from January to June 2016 at Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Dental patients aged 18-60 years of either gender were selected who were subjected to computer-generated randomisation. Both maxillary and mandibular single rooted teeth till second premolar were included...
October 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Stephanie F Polites, Meera Kotagal, Lyndy J Wilcox, Alessandro de Alarcon, Dan T Benscoter, Daniel von Allmen
BACKGROUND: Tracheomalacia is the most common congenital abnormality of the trachea. Posterior tracheopexy to alleviate posterior intrusion contributing to dynamic tracheal collapse has been reported using thoracotomy or median sternotomy. Here we describe the minimally invasive operative technique of thoracoscopic posterior tracheopexy with bronchoscopic guidance. OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE: After preoperative computed tomography and bronchoscopy, a right thoracoscopic approach is utilized...
November 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Xizhong Zhu, Liu Yang, Xiaojun Duan
Symptomatic cystic lesions of the talus are rare. The traditional operations usually do not provide visualization to reveal the deep structure of the lesion and could cause cartilage damage or other severe traumatic injury. We report an operative technique to reach the cystic lesion without talar cartilage damage, remove the lesion, and fill defect with a bone graft assisted by anterior arthroscopy and evaluate its safety and reliability for future study. Seven cases of talar bone cyst were included. The patients were placed in the supine position after anesthesia induction and noninvasive ankle traction was applied...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Lukas T Rotkopf, Wolfgang G Kunz, Felix G Meinel, Annika Plate, Sönke Langner, Matthias Klein, Kolja M Thierfelder
BACKGROUND: Anton's syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by a combination of visual anosognosia and confabulation of visual experience, most often seen after bilateral ischemic damage to the posterior occipital cortex. CASE REPORT: Wereport the first case of an acute synchronous P2 occlusion as confirmed by multiparametric computed tomography (CT) including perfusion. After the administration of Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), Anton's syndrome completely resolved...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Omid Rezai, Pinar Boyraz Jentsch, Bryan Tripp
Neurons in the primate middle temporal area (MT) encode information about visual motion and binocular disparity. MT has been studied intensively for decades, so there is a great deal of information in the literature about MT neuron tuning. In this study, our goal is to consolidate some of this information into a statistical model of the MT population response. The model accepts arbitrary stereo video as input. It uses computer-vision methods to calculate known correlates of the responses (such as motion velocity), and then predicts activity using a combination of tuning functions that have previously been used to describe data in various experiments...
September 21, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Houqiang Yu, Mingyue Ding, Xuming Zhang, Jinbo Wu
Speckle reduction remains a critical issue for ultrasound image processing and analysis. The nonlocal means (NLM) filter has recently attached much attention due to its competitive despeckling performance. However, the existing NLM methods usually determine the similarity between two patches by directly utilizing the gray-level information of the noisy image, which renders it difficult to represent the structural similarity of ultrasound images effectively. To address this problem, the NLM method based on the simple deep learning baseline named PCANet is proposed by introducing the intrinsic features of image patches extracted by this network rather than the pixel intensities into the pixel similarity computation...
2018: PloS One
Nathaniel J Miska, Leonidas Ma Richter, Brian A Cary, Julijana Gjorgjieva, Gina G Turrigiano
Brief (2-3d) monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period induces a profound loss of responsiveness within binocular (V1b) and monocular (V1m) regions of rodent primary visual cortex. This has largely been ascribed to long-term depression (LTD) at thalamocortical synapses, while a contribution from intracortical inhibition has been controversial. Here we used optogenetics to isolate and measure feedforward thalamocortical and feedback intracortical excitation-inhibition (E-I) ratios following brief MD...
October 12, 2018: ELife
Rudresh Deepak Shirwaikar, Dinesh Acharya U, Krishnamoorthi Makkithaya, Surulivelrajan Mallayaswamy, Leslie Edward Simon Lewis
Neonates who are critically ill are cared for in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for continuous monitoring of their conditions. Physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory wave form, blood oxygen saturation, and body temperature are constantly monitored in the NICU. However, NICUs are not always equipped with a computer system for analyzing such data, identifying critical events, and providing decision support for a neonatologist. Therefore, a specialized computer system, commonly known as a data mart, should be developed for the NICU...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Kei Takase
Recent introduction of multidetector-row computed tomography(MDCT) with more than 64 scanners enabled high-speed scanning in wide range of the body. Electrocardiogram (ECG) gated scanning and 4-dimensional imaging provides precise evaluation of cardiac and vascular diseases. Fine vascular structures such as the artery of Adamkiewicz can be visualized due to improved spatial and temporal resolution of CT and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Interventional radiology also plays important roles in combination with surgical treatment...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
M R Amans, H Haraldsson, E Kao, S Kefayati, K Meisel, R Khangura, J Leach, N D Jani, F Faraji, M Ballweber, W Smith, D Saloner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case reports demonstrate that coiling of a sigmoid sinus diverticulum can treat pulsatile tinnitus. We hypothesized that MR imaging 4D flow and computational fluid dynamics would reveal distinct blood flow patterns in the venous outflow tract in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with pulsatile tinnitus of suspected venous etiology underwent MR imaging at 3T, using venous phase contrast-enhanced MR angiography, 4D flow, and 2D phase contrast...
October 11, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Łukasz Wardziak, Mariusz Kruk, Weronika Pleban, Marcin Demkow, Witold Rużyłło, Zofia Dzielińska, Cezary Kępka
BACKGROUND: CTA based FFR, a software based application, enhances diagnostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination. However it remains unknown whether it improves accuracy over the gold standard of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in predicting functionally significant coronary stenosis. The aim of our study was to compare diagnostic accuracies of coronary CTA, CTA based FFR, and ICA, with invasive FFR as the reference standard in patients with intermediate stenosis on CTA...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Carole Fortin, Paul van Schaik, Jean-François Aubin-Fournier, Josette Bettany-Saltikov, Jean-Claude Bernard, Debbie Ehrmann Feldman
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence-based quantitative clinical methods to adequately assess posture. Our team developed a clinical photographic posture assessment tool (CPPAT) and implemented this tool in clinical practice to standardize posture assessment. The objectives were to determine the level of acceptance of the CPPAT and to document predictors as well as facilitators of and barriers to the acceptance of this tool by clinicians doing posture re-education. METHODS: This is a prospective study focussing on technology acceptance...
October 12, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Roberto Opromolla, Giancarmine Fasano, Domenico Accardo
This paper presents a visual-based approach that allows an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to detect and track a cooperative flying vehicle autonomously using a monocular camera. The algorithms are based on template matching and morphological filtering, thus being able to operate within a wide range of relative distances (i.e., from a few meters up to several tens of meters), while ensuring robustness against variations of illumination conditions, target scale and background. Furthermore, the image processing chain takes full advantage of navigation hints (i...
October 10, 2018: Sensors
Takahiro Saito, Kenzo Tsuzuki, Hiroki Nishikawa, Ken Okazaki, Kengo Hashimoto, Masafumi Sakagami
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to verify the usefulness of our proposed nasal symptom questionnaire (NSQ) scoring system and to determine predictors linked to the improvement in nasal symptoms in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-one CRS patients undergoing ESS and 144 volunteers with results of NSQ available were enrolled. The NSQ consists of 10 items. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC), internal consistency, and test-retest reproducibility of the NSQ were analyzed...
October 11, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Saba Ajami, Amin Mahnam, Vahid Abootalebi
Brain-Computer Interfaces based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials are promising communication systems for people with speech and motor disabilities. However, reliable SSVEP response requires user's attention, which degrades over time due to significant eyefatigue when low-frequency visual stimuli (5-15Hz) are used. Previous studies have shown that eye-fatigue can be reduced using high-frequency flickering stimuli (>25Hz). Here, it is quantitatively demonstrated that the performance of a high-frequency SSVEP BCI decreases over time, but this amount of decrease can be compensated effectively by using two proposed adaptive algorithms...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Stelian Nicola, Lacramioara Stoicu-Tivadar
The paper presents new learning support for medical students exemplifying with several 3D applications for training on specific topics in medicine and investigates the impact on medical students. The applications were built using new concepts: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, as environments agreed by young people, and gamification to make learning easy and fun. Leap Motion and the VR headset are the devices to control the applications and provide a better human-computer/mobile phone interaction as compared to the current ones...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Marcello Sega, György Hantal, Balázs Fábián, Pál Jedlovszky
Pytim is a versatile python framework for the analysis of interfacial properties in molecular simulations. The code implements several algorithms for the identification of instantaneous interfaces of arbitrary shape, and analysis tools written specifically for the study of interfacial properties, such as intrinsic profiles. The code is written in the python language, and makes use of the numpy and scipy packages to deliver high computational performances. Pytim relies on the MDAnalysis library to analyze the trajectory file formats of popular simulation packages such as gromacs, charmm, namd, lammps or Amber, and can be used to steer OpenMM simulations...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Guangzhi Wang, Liang Li, Shuwei Xing, Hui Ding
The human-machine interface (HMI) is an essential part of image-guided orthopedic navigation systems. HMI provides a primary platform to merge surgically relevant pre- and intraoperative images from different modalities and 3D models including anatomical structures and implants to support surgical planning and navigation. With the various input-output techniques of HMI, surgeons can intuitively manipulate anatomical models generated from medical images and/or implant models for surgical planning. Furthermore, HMI recreates sight, sound, and touch feedback for the guidance of surgery operations which helps surgeons to sense more relevant information, e...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chidozie H Ewurum, Yingying Guo, Seang Pagnha, Zhao Feng, Xiongbiao Luo
Orthopedic surgery is a widely performed clinical procedure that deals with problems in relation to the bones, joints, and ligaments of the human body, such as musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders. Surgical navigation is generally recognized as the next generation technology of orthopedic surgery. The development of orthopedic navigation systems aims to analyze pre-, intra- and/or postoperative data in multiple modalities and provide an augmented reality 3-D visualization environment to improve clinical outcomes of surgical orthopedic procedures...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Patrizia Carità, Andrea Igoren Guaricci, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Nazario Carrabba, Gianluca Pontone
Coronary stenosis severity is both a powerful and a still debated predictor of prognosis in coronary artery disease. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a noninvasive technique that enables anatomic visualization of coronary artery disease (CAD). CCTA with newer applications, plaque characterization and physiologic/functional evaluation, allows a comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic assessment of otherwise low-intermediate subjects for primary prevention. CCTA measures the overall plaque burden, differentiates plaque subtypes, and identifies high-risk plaque with good reproducibility...
2018: BioMed Research International
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