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Hypoxia Fetal Changes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089456/placental-erythropoietin-expression-is-upregulated-in-growth-restricted-fetuses-with-abnormal-umbilical-artery-doppler-findings-a-case-control-study-of-monochorionic-twins
#1
Yao-Lung Chang, An-Shine Chao, Hsiu-Huei Peng, Shuenn-Dyh Chang, Kuan-Ju Chen, Po-Jen Cheng, Tzu-Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that fetal plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations are significantly increased in growth-restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. During hypoxia in an ovine model, the primary site of fetal EPO synthesis was switched from the kidneys to the placenta. Therefore, we designed this study to evaluate human placental EPO gene expression and the correlation to fetal serum EPO concentration in growth-restricted fetuses in a monochorionic (MC) twin model...
August 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089028/porcine-fetal-derived-fibroblasts-alter-gene-expression-and-mitochondria-to-compensate-for-hypoxic-stress-during-culture
#2
Bethany R Mordhorst, Stephanie L Murphy, Martin Schauflinger, Shirley Rojas Salazar, Tieming Ji, Susanta K Behura, Kevin D Wells, Jonathan A Green, Randall S Prather
The Warburg effect is characterized by decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increased glycolytic flux in adequate oxygen. The preimplantation embryo has been described to have characteristics of the Warburg effect, including similar changes in gene expression and mitochondria, which are more rudimentary in appearance. We hypothesized hypoxia would facilitate anaerobic glycolysis in fibroblasts thereby promoting gene expression and media metabolite production reflecting the Warburg effect hallmarks in early embryos...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075587/maternal-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-increases-subsequent-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-risk-a-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#3
Chih-Chieh Yang, Pei-Ling Tang, Po-Yen Liu, Wei-Chun Huang, Ying-Yao Chen, Hsiao-Ping Wang, Jenn-Tzong Chang, Li-Te Lin
The utero-placental ischemia induced by pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) could lead to fetal hypoxia and proinflammatory cytokine release, which are associated with the development of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, a few studies have investigated the relationship between PIH and neonatal NEC and have produced controversial results. Therefore, we attempted to assess the relationship between PIH and the subsequent neonatal NEC risk and identify predictive risk factors.Patients with newly diagnosed PIH were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025088/ascorbate-suppresses-vegf-expression-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#4
David W Sant, Vladimir Camarena, Sushmita Mustafi, Yiwen Li, Zachary Wilkes, Derek Van Booven, Rong Wen, Gaofeng Wang
Purpose: To investigate the impact of ascorbate, via DNA hydroxymethylation, on VEGF expression in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods: Dot-blot and hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing were applied to evaluate the impact of ascorbate on DNA hydroxymethylation in ARPE-19 cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was carried out to analyze the transcriptome. Quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA were conducted to examine the transcription and secretion of VEGF from cultured cells...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976968/dobutamine-treatment-reduces-inflammation-in-the-preterm-fetal-sheep-brain-exposed-to-acute-hypoxia
#5
Nadine Brew, Shinji Nakamura, Nadia Hale, Aminath Azhan, Grace I Davies, Ilias Nitsos, Suzanne L Miller, David W Walker, Flora Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebral autoregulation in preterm infants makes circulatory management important to avoid cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. Dobutamine is frequently used as inotropic treatment in preterm neonates, but its effects on the brain exposed to cerebral hypoxia are unknown. We hypothesized that dobutamine would protect the immature brain from cerebral hypoxic injury. METHODS: In preterm (0.6 gestation) fetal sheep, dobutamine (Dob, 10 μg/kg/min) or saline (Sal) was infused intravenously for 74 h...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953976/chronically-hypoxic-fetal-lambs-supported-by-an-extra-uterine-device-exhibit-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-elevations-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha
#6
Avery C Rossidis, Heron D Baumgarten, Kendall M Lawrence, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Haiying Li, Grace Hwang, Kathleen Young, William H Peranteau, Marcus G Davey, J William Gaynor, Alan W Flake
INTRODUCTION: We have recently developed an extra-uterine environment for neonatal development (EXTEND) capable of supporting premature fetal lambs and have been able to replicate hypoxic in utero conditions by controlling fetal oxygen delivery. In this study, we investigated the fetal mitochondrial response to hypoxia. METHODS: Eight premature fetal lambs were delivered via hysterotomy and transitioned to extra-uterine support for 3 weeks. The lambs were divided into 2 groups: normoxic fetuses which maintained physiologic oxygen delivery and hypoxic fetuses in which oxygen delivery was significantly reduced...
June 28, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882596/effects-of-ketamine-on-the-fetal-transcriptomic-response-to-umbilical-cord-occlusion-comparison-with-hypoxic-hypoxia-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#7
Miguel A Zarate, Eileen I Chang, Charles E Wood
KEY POINTS: The cerebral response to fetal asphyxia is characterized by an upregulation of nucleic acid and chromatin modification processes, as well as a downregulation of metabolic processes at 1 h post-umbilical cord occlusion (UCO). Twenty-four hours post UCO, there was an upregulation of metabolic processes and protein modifications. UCO did not alter bacterial gene expression levels, nor did it produce a robust inflammatory response compared to maternal hypoxia. The administration of ketamine produced minimal effects on the fetal response to UCO in the cerebral cortex...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867539/revisiting-the-role-of-trp-orai-and-asic-channels-in-the-pulmonary-arterial-response-to-hypoxia
#8
REVIEW
Roberto V Reyes, Sebastián Castillo-Galán, Ismael Hernandez, Emilio A Herrera, Germán Ebensperger, Aníbal J Llanos
The pulmonary arteries are exquisitely responsive to oxygen changes. They rapidly and proportionally contract as arterial PO2 decrease, and they relax as arterial PO2 is re-established. The hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is intrinsic since it does not require neural or endocrine factors, as evidenced in isolated vessels. On the other hand, pulmonary arteries also respond to sustained hypoxia with structural and functional remodeling, involving growth of smooth muscle medial layer and later recruitment of adventitial fibroblasts, secreted mitogens from endothelium and changes in the response to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799630/fetal-heart-rate-short-term-variation-during-labor-in-relation-to-scalp-blood-lactate-concentration
#9
Ke Lu, Malin Holzmann, Fahrad Abtahi, Kaj Lindecrantz, Pelle G Lindqvist, Lennart Nordstrom
INTRODUCTION: Fetal heart rate short term variation (STV) decreases with severe chronic hypoxia in the antenatal period. However, only limited research has been done on STV during labor. We have tested a novel algorithm for a valid baseline estimation and calculated STV. To explore the value of STV during labor, we compared STV with fetal scalp blood (FBS) lactate concentration, an early marker in the hypoxic process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Software was developed which estimates baseline frequency using a novel algorithm and thereby calculates STV according to Dawes and Redman in up to four 30-minute blocks prior to each FBS...
May 25, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753694/physiological-adaptation-of-the-growth-restricted-fetus
#10
REVIEW
Karel Maršál
The growth-restricted fetus in utero is exposed to a hostile environment and suffers undernutrition and hypoxia. To cope with the stress, the fetus changes its physiological functions. These adaptive changes aid intrauterine survival; however, they can lead to permanent functional and structural changes that can contribute to the development of serious chronic diseases later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are an important part of the pathophysiological processes behind this "developmental origin of adult diseases...
May 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753320/adverse-effects-of-hif1a-mutation-and-maternal-diabetes-on-the-offspring-heart
#11
Radka Cerychova, Romana Bohuslavova, Frantisek Papousek, David Sedmera, Pavel Abaffy, Vladimir Benes, Frantisek Kolar, Gabriela Pavlinkova
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, the precise mechanisms for the underlying penetrance and disease predisposition remain poorly understood. We examined whether hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, in combination with exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment, influences the function and molecular structure of the adult offspring heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a mouse model, we demonstrated that haploinsufficient (Hif1a+/- ) offspring from a diabetic pregnancy developed left ventricle dysfunction at 12 weeks of age, as manifested by decreased fractional shortening and structural remodeling of the myocardium...
May 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717932/gestational-hypoxia-and-developmental-plasticity
#12
Charles A Ducsay, Ravi Goyal, William J Pearce, Sean Wilson, Xiang-Qun Hu, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is one of the most common and severe challenges to the maintenance of homeostasis. Oxygen sensing is a property of all tissues, and the response to hypoxia is multidimensional involving complicated intracellular networks concerned with the transduction of hypoxia-induced responses. Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. Hypoxia during gestation impacts both the mother and fetal development through interactions with an individual's genetic traits acquired over multiple generations by natural selection and changes in gene expression patterns by altering the epigenetic code...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621921/temporal-and-quantitative-associations-of-electronic-fetal-heart-rate-monitoring-patterns-and-neonatal-outcomes-%C3%A2
#13
Dotun Ogunyemi, Andrew Jovanovski, Perry Friedman, Brittany Sweatman, Ichchha Madan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the associations of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) patterns and adverse neonatal outcomes Study design: From 2013 to 2016; 12,067 term, singleton deliveries in labor ≥2 h with abnormal EFM defined as absent accelerations, variable, late or prolonged decelerations, tachycardia, bradycardia, or minimal variability were analyzed as any documentation during labor, in first hour and last hour of labor. Outcomes were composite neonatal adverse outcomes, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, neonatal hypoxia, neonatal hypoglycemia, umbilical artery pH, and base excess...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604064/altered-autonomic-control-of-heart-rate-variability-in-the-chronically-hypoxic-fetus
#14
C J Shaw, B J Allison, N Itani, K J Botting, Y Niu, C C Lees, D A Giussani
KEY POINTS: Fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) has long been recognised as a powerful predictor of fetal wellbeing, and a decrease in FHRV is associated with fetal compromise. However, the mechanisms by which FHRV is reduced in the chronically hypoxic fetus have yet to be established. The sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate mature at different rates throughout fetal life, and can be assessed by time domain and power spectral analysis of FHRV. In this study of chronically instrumented fetal sheep in late gestation, we analysed FHRV daily over a 16 day period towards term, and compared changes between fetuses of control and chronically hypoxic pregnancy...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604062/saving-the-brain-one-heartbeat-at-a-time
#15
Martin G Frasch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527911/alcohol-and-fetoplacental-vasoconstrictor-reactivity
#16
V Jakoubek, V Hampl
Alcohol abuse during pregnancy is a well-known factor in fetal morbidity, including smaller fetal size. We have shown that chronic hypoxia, considered the main pathogenetic factor in intrauterine growth restriction, elevates fetoplacental vascular resistance (and vasoconstrictor reactivity) and thus, presumably, reduces placental blood flow. We thus hypothesized that alcohol may affect the fetus - in addition to other mechanisms - by altering fetoplacental vascular resistance and/or reactivity. Using isolated, double-perfused rat placenta model, we found that maternal alcohol intake in the last third of gestation doubled the vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II but did not affect resting vascular resistance...
July 17, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486854/pregestational-diabetes-increases-fetoplacental-vascular-resistance-in-rats
#17
Olga Vajnerova, Petr Kafka, Tereza Kratzerova, Karel Chalupsky, Vaclav Hampl
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a well-known risk factor in pregnancy. Because maternal diabetes involves oxidative stress that is also induced by chronic hypoxia and can alter vascular function, we sought to determine the effects of chronic maternal hyperglycemia on the fetoplacental vasculature in rats and to compare it with the effects of chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in female rats by a streptozotocin injection at a neonatal age. When these animals reached adulthood, their hyperglycemia was confirmed and they were inseminated...
March 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406989/excessive-fetal-movements-are-a-sign-of-fetal-compromise-which-merits-further-examination
#18
Alexander E P Heazell, Tomasina Stacey, Louise M O'Brien, Edwin A Mitchell, Jane Warland
Changes in fetal movement are associated with increased risk of stillbirth after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The majority of studies have focussed on maternal perception of reduced fetal movements, which is associated with stillbirth via placental dysfunction. Recent studies have also described an association between a single episode of excessive fetal movements and late stillbirth. We present a hypothesis that a sudden episode of excessive fetal activity indicates fetal compromise relating to underlying disturbance of the in utero environment, which if it persists can lead to fetal death...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357521/intermittent-hypoxia-in-utero-damages-postnatal-growth-and-cardiovascular-function-in-rats
#19
Ling Chen, Zahra Heidari Zadi, Jin Zhang, Steven M Scharf, Eung-Kwon Pae
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in pregnancy and may compromise fetal and even postnatal development. We developed an animal model to determine if maternal OSA could have lasting effects in offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to reduced ambient O2 from 21 to 4-5%, approximately once per minute [chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)] for 8 h/day during gestation days 3-19. Similarly handled animals exposed to ambient air served as controls (HC). Offspring were studied for body growth and cardiovascular function for 8 postnatal weeks...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351577/effects-of-excess-thromboxane-a2-on-placental-development-and-nutrient-transporters-in-a-mus-musculus-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#20
Karen J Gibbins, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Ashley S Brown, Matthew Wieben, Richard C Law, Camille M Fung
Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) with placental insufficiency is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the developed world. Despite the known negative consequences of HDP both to the mother and fetus, little is known about the longitudinal placental changes that occur as HDP progresses in pregnancy. This is because longitudinal sampling of human placentae during each gestation is impossible. Therefore, using a mouse model of thromboxane A2-analog infusion to mimic human HDP in the last trimester, we calculated placental efficiencies based on fetal and placental weights; quantified spongiotrophoblast and labyrinth thicknesses and vascular density within these layers; examined whether hypoxia signaling pathway involving vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contributed to vascular change; and examined nutrient transporter abundance including glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1, GLUT3), neutral amino acid transporters 1, 2, and 4 (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4), fatty acid transporters 2 and 4 (FATP2, FATP4), and fatty acid translocase (CD36) from embryonic day 15...
May 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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