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Sarah J Beesley, Gerhard Weber, Todd Sarge, Sara Nikravan, Colin K Grissom, Michael J Lanspa, Sajid Shahul, Samuel M Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Critical Care Medicine
David T Lubkin, Muath Bishawi, Andrew S Barbas, Todd V Brennan, Allan D Kirk
OBJECTIVES: Extracellular mitochondrial DNA and N-formyl peptides released following tissue damage may contribute to systemic inflammation through stimulation of the innate immune system. In this review, we evaluate existing in vivo human data regarding a role for mitochondrial DNA and N-formyl peptides in producing systemic inflammation in trauma and critical illness, investigate the utility of these molecules in risk prediction and clinical decision support, and provide suggestions for standardization of future research...
August 14, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Jie Yang, Mengru Zhang, Hongshik Ahn, Qing Zhang, Tony B Jin, Ien A Li, Matthew Nemesure, Nandita Joshi, Haoran Jiang, Jeffrey M Miller, Robert Todd Ogden, Eva Petkova, Matthew S Milak, Mary Elizabeth Sublette, Gregory M Sullivan, Madhukar H Trivedi, Myrna Weissman, Patrick J McGrath, Maurizio Fava, Benji T Kurian, Diego A Pizzagalli, Crystal M Cooper, Melvin McInnis, Maria A Oquendo, Joseph John Mann, Ramin V Parsey, Christine DeLorenzo
This study aimed to identify biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD), by relating neuroimage-derived measures to binary (MDD/control), ordinal (severe MDD/mild MDD/control), or continuous (depression severity) outcomes. To address MDD heterogeneity, factors (severity of psychic depression, motivation, anxiety, psychosis, and sleep disturbance) were also used as outcomes. A multisite, multimodal imaging (diffusion MRI [dMRI] and structural MRI [sMRI]) cohort (52 controls and 147 MDD patients) and several modeling techniques-penalized logistic regression, random forest, and support vector machine (SVM)-were used...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Devon J Boyne, Alexis T Mickle, Darren R Brenner, Christine M Friedenreich, Winson Y Cheung, Karen L Tang, Todd A Wilson, Diane L Lorenzetti, Matthew T James, Paul E Ronksley, Doreen M Rabi
Cardiovascular disease has been identified as one of the late complications of cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the long-term risk of cardiovascular mortality among lymphoma survivors relative to that of the general population. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Articles were identified in November 2016 by searching EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases. Observational studies were included if they assessed cardiovascular mortality in patients with lymphoma who survived for at least 5 years from time of diagnosis or if they had a median follow-up of 10 years...
August 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Christopher P Cifarelli, John A Vargo, Todd Tenenholz, Joshua D Hack, Grenaville Guthrie, Jeffrey S Carpenter
Background Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) remains a critical intervention in the long-term management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). For planning a treatment, identification of the nidus is essential, and it is dependent on high-resolution blood flow imaging, usually in the form of a traditional angiogram. The development of dynamic 320-slice computed tomography (CT) angiography has offered a noninvasive alternative to intra-arterial fluoroscopic imaging, and it is capable of providing equivalent temporal resolution...
June 11, 2018: Curēus
Shameem Z Jaumdally, Lindi Masson, Heidi E Jones, Smritee Dabee, Donald R Hoover, Hoyam Gamieldien, Nontokozo Langwenya, Landon Myer, Catherine S Todd, Jo-Ann S Passmore
Measurement of cytokines in the lower female genital tract offer insight into risk for HIV infection and reproductive complications. However, few studies have systematically compared mucosal collection methods or whether collection order matters. We compared longitudinal cytokine profiles in matched genital samples collected from women living with HIV using menstrual cup (MC), endocervical swabs (ECS) and swab-enriched cervicovaginal lavage (eCVL). Samples were collected at enrollment [MC:ECS:eCVL], 3-months (ECS:eCVL:MC) and 6-months (eCVL:MC:ECS) and concentrations of 28 cytokines determined by Luminex...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Wang, Shijie Liu, Todd Heallen, James F Martin
The Hippo-YAP (Yes-associated protein) pathway is an evolutionarily and functionally conserved regulator of organ size and growth with crucial roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This pathway has great potential for therapeutic manipulation in different disease states and to promote organ regeneration. In this Review, we summarize findings from the past decade revealing the function and regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway in cardiac development, growth, homeostasis, disease, and regeneration...
August 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Alice S Chen-Plotkin, Roger Albin, Roy Alcalay, Debra Babcock, Vikram Bajaj, Dubois Bowman, Alex Buko, Jesse Cedarbaum, Daniel Chelsky, Mark R Cookson, Ted M Dawson, Richard Dewey, Tatiana Foroud, Mark Frasier, Dwight German, Katrina Gwinn, Xuemei Huang, Catherine Kopil, Thomas Kremer, Shirley Lasch, Ken Marek, Jarrod A Marto, Kalpana Merchant, Brit Mollenhauer, Anna Naito, Judith Potashkin, Alyssa Reimer, Liana S Rosenthal, Rachel Saunders-Pullman, Clemens R Scherzer, Todd Sherer, Andrew Singleton, Margaret Sutherland, Ines Thiele, Marcel van der Brug, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, David Vaillancourt, David Walt, Andrew West, Jing Zhang
The recent advent of an "ecosystem" of shared biofluid sample biorepositories and data sets will focus biomarker efforts in Parkinson's disease, boosting the therapeutic development pipeline and enabling translation with real-world impact.
August 15, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Todd D Gruber, Chithra Krishnamurthy, Jonathan B Grimm, Michael R Tadross, Laura M Wysocki, Zev J Gartner, Luke D Lavis
The utility of small molecules to probe or perturb biological systems is limited by the lack of cell-specificity. 'Masking' the activity of small molecules using a general chemical modification and 'unmasking' it only within target cells overcomes this limitation. To this end, we have developed a selective enzyme-substrate pair consisting of engineered variants of E. coli nitroreductase (NTR) and a 2 nitro-N-methylimidazolyl (NM) masking group. To discover and optimize this NTR-NM system, we synthesized a series of fluorogenic substrates containing different nitroaromatic masking groups, confirmed their stability in cells, and identified the best substrate for NTR...
August 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Christopher J Thorpe, Todd R Lewis, Matthew C Fisher, Claudia J Wierzbicki, Siddharth Kulkarni, David Pryce, Lewis Davies, Aparna Watve, Mairi E Knight
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd ) is a pathogen killing amphibians worldwide. Its impact across much of Asia is poorly characterized. This study systematically surveyed amphibians for Bd across rocky plateaus in the northern section of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India, including the first surveys of the plateaus in the coastal region. These ecosystems offer an epidemiological model system since they are characterized by differing levels of connectivity, edaphic and climatic conditions, and anthropogenic stressors...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tim Lahm, Ivor S Douglas, Stephen L Archer, Harm J Bogaard, Naomi C Chesler, Francois Haddad, Anna R Hemnes, Steven M Kawut, Jeffrey A Kline, Todd M Kolb, Stephen C Mathai, Olaf Mercier, Evangelos D Michelakis, Robert Naeije, Rubin M Tuder, Corey E Ventetuolo, Antoine Vieillard-Baron, Norbert F Voelkel, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Paul M Hassoun
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) adaptation to acute and chronic pulmonary hypertensive syndromes is a significant determinant of short- and long-term outcomes. Although remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of RV function and failure since the meeting of the NIH Working Group on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Right Heart Failure in 2005, significant gaps remain at many levels in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of RV responses to pressure and volume overload, in the validation of diagnostic modalities, and in the development of evidence-based therapies...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Andrew C McKown, Jonathan D Casey, Derek W Russell, Aaron M Joffe, David R Janz, Todd W Rice, Matthew W Semler
RATIONALE: Hypoxemia is a common complication during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults and is a frequently used endpoint in airway management research. Identifying patients likely to experience low oxygen saturations during tracheal intubation may be useful for clinical practice and clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for lower oxygen saturations and severe hypoxemia during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults and develop prediction models for lowest oxygen saturation and hypoxemia...
August 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kristin K Brown, Michael M Hann, Ami S Lakdawala, Rita Santos, Pamela J Thomas, Kieran Todd
The assessment of the suitability of novel targets to intervention by different modalities, e.g. small molecules or antibodies, is increasingly seen as important in helping to select the most progressable targets at the outset of a drug discovery project. This perspective considers differing aspects of tractability and how it can be assessed using in silico and experimental approaches. We also share some of our experiences in using these approaches.
April 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Robert Kaderka, Erin F Gillespie, Robert C Mundt, Alex K Bryant, Camila B Sanudo-Thomas, Anna L Harrison, Emilie L Wouters, Vitali Moiseenko, Kevin L Moore, Todd F Atwood, James D Murphy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Auto-segmentation represents an efficient tool to segment organs on CT imaging. Primarily used in clinical setting, auto-segmentation plays an increasing role in research, particularly when analyzing thousands of images in the "big data" era. In this study we evaluate the accuracy of cardiac dosimetric endpoints derived from atlas based auto-segmentation compared to gold standard manual segmentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Heart and cardiac substructures were manually delineated on 54 breast cancer patients...
August 11, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Corinne W Tan, Matthew Wall, Todd K Rosengart, Ravi K Ghanta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Quin R S Miller, Eugene S Ilton, Odeta Qafoku, David A Dixon, Monica Vasiliu, Christopher J Thompson, Herbert Todd Schaef, Kevin M Rosso, John S Loring
Reaction pathways and kinetics in highly structured H2O adsorbed as Ångstroms to nanometers thick layers on mineral surfaces are distinct from those facilitated by bulk liquid water. We investigate the role of interfacial H2O structure in the reaction of H2O and CO2 to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) in thin H2O films condensed onto silica nanoparticles from humidified supercritical CO2. Rates of carbonic acid formation are correlated to spectroscopic signatures of H2O structure using oxygen isotopic tracers and infrared spectroscopy...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Robert VanBuren, Ching Man Wai, Marivi Colle, Jie Wang, Shawn Sullivan, Jill M Bushakra, Ivan Liachko, Kelly J Vining, Michael Dossett, Chad E Finn, Rubina Jibran, David Chagné, Kevin Childs, Patrick P Edger, Todd C Mockler, Nahla V Bassil
Background: The fragmented nature of most draft plant genomes has hindered downstream gene discovery, trait mapping for breeding, and other functional genomics applications. There is a pressing need to improve or finish draft plant genome assemblies. Findings: Here we present a chromosome-scale assembly of the black raspberry genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) PacBio sequencing and Hi-C genome scaffolding. The updated V3 assembly has a contig N50 of 5...
August 9, 2018: GigaScience
Lisa Soyeon Baik, Yocelyn Recinos, Joshua A Chevez, Todd C Holmes
Many insects show strong behavioral responses to short wavelength light. Drosophila melanogaster exhibit Cryptochrome- and Hyperkinetic-dependent blue and ultraviolet (UV) light avoidance responses that vary by time-of-day, suggesting that these key sensory behaviors are circadian regulated. Here we show mutant flies lacking core clock genes exhibit defects in both time-of-day responses and valence of UV light avoidance/attraction behavior. Non-genetic environmental disruption of the circadian clock by constant UV light exposure leads to complete loss of rhythmic UV light avoidance/attraction behavior...
2018: PloS One
František Batysta, Roman Antipenkov, Teddy Borger, April Kissinger, Jonathan T Green, Robertas Kananavičius, Gilles Chériaux, Dave Hidinger, Jonas Kolenda, Erhard Gaul, Bedřich Rus, Todd Ditmire
We present a broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) system delivering 4 J pulses at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. It will serve as a frontend for the 1.5 kJ, <150  fs, 10 PW laser beamline currently under development by a consortium of National Energetics and Ekspla. The spectrum of the OPCPA system is precisely controlled by arbitrarily generated waveforms of the pump lasers. To fully exploit the high flexibility of the frontend, we have developed a 1D model of the system and an optimization algorithm that predicts suitable pump waveform settings for a desired output spectrum...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Paul Abrams, Karl-Erik Andersson, Apostolos Apostolidis, Lori Birder, Donna Bliss, Linda Brubaker, Linda Cardozo, David Castro-Diaz, P R O'Connell, Alan Cottenden, Nikki Cotterill, Dirk de Ridder, Roger Dmochowski, Chantal Dumoulin, Mandy Fader, Christopher Fry, Howard Goldman, Philip Hanno, Yukio Homma, Vik Khullar, Chris Maher, Ian Milsom, Diane Newman, Rien J M Nijman, Kevin Rademakers, Dudley Robinson, Peter Rosier, Eric Rovner, Stefano Salvatore, Masayuki Takeda, Adrian Wagg, Todd Wagner, Alan Wein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
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