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Nicholas T Hayman, Brian T Hentschel, Violet C Renick, Todd W Anderson
Hydrodynamics and pollution affect estuarine populations, but their ecological effects have rarely been studied in combination. We conducted two laboratory experiments to quantify whether predator-prey interactions between California killifish, Fundulus parvipinnis, and the polychaete Polydora cornuta vary with flow speed and chlorpyrifos exposure. In one experiment, only F. parvipinnis was exposed to chlorpyrifos; in the other, only P. cornuta was exposed. The flume included a 300-cm2 area of sediment with 24 P...
December 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Todd F Alamin, Vijay Agarwal, Alicia Zagel, Albi Qeli
Background: Pain while sitting is the primary complaint of many patients with lumbar spinal ailments, including those with discogenic low back pain and lumbar disc herniations. There has been little basic research on the different mechanical stresses that different sitting positions place on the spine. To demonstrate the effect of different sitting positions on lumbar intersegmental relationships. Methods: Twenty healthy male volunteer subjects were recruited. Lateral X-rays of the lower lumbar spine were taken in four positions: (I) relaxed lateral standing; (II) "standard" sitting position; (III) sitting on a "kneeling" chair; and (IV) unsupported sitting on a stool...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Heath P Melugin, Vishal S Desai, Christopher L Camp, Todd A Milbrandt, Diane L Dahm, Bruce A Levy, Michael J Stuart, Aaron J Krych
Background: Avulsion fractures involving the tibial eminence are considered equivalent in terms of the cause to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears; however, there are limited data comparing the outcomes of adolescent patients undergoing surgical fixation of a tibial eminence fracture (TEF) with those undergoing ACL reconstruction. Purpose: To compare the clinical outcomes, subsequent ACL injury rates, and activity levels between adolescent patients who underwent TEF fixation with patients with midsubstance ACL tears who required acute reconstruction...
December 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Todd J Treangen, Justin Wagner, Mark P Burns, Sonia Villapol
The secondary injury cascade that is activated following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces responses from multiple physiological systems, including the immune system. These responses are not limited to the area of brain injury; they can also alter peripheral organs such as the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota play a role in the regulation of immune cell populations and microglia activation, and microbiome dysbiosis is implicated in immune dysregulation and behavioral abnormalities. However, changes to the gut microbiome induced after acute TBI remains largely unexplored...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Adam Ciarleglio, Eva Petkova, Todd Ogden, Thaddeus Tarpey
Treatment response heterogeneity poses serious challenges for selecting treatment for many diseases. To better understand this heterogeneity and to help in determining the best patient-specific treatments for a given disease, many clinical trials are collecting large amounts of patient-level data prior to administering treatment in the hope that some of these data can be used to identify moderators of treatment effect. These data can range from simple scalar values to complex functional data such as curves or images...
November 2018: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
Todd E Golde, Steven T DeKosky, Douglas Galasko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Science
Xinyu Zhang, Ying Hu, Bradley E Aouizerat, Gang Peng, Vincent C Marconi, Michael J Corley, Todd Hulgan, Kendall J Bryant, Hongyu Zhao, John H Krystal, Amy C Justice, Ke Xu
BACKGROUND: The effects of tobacco smoking on epigenome-wide methylation signatures in white blood cells (WBCs) collected from persons living with HIV may have important implications for their immune-related outcomes, including frailty and mortality. The application of a machine learning approach to the analysis of CpG methylation in the epigenome enables the selection of phenotypically relevant features from high-dimensional data. Using this approach, we now report that a set of smoking-associated DNA-methylated CpGs predicts HIV prognosis and mortality in an HIV-positive veteran population...
December 13, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Maren Wehrs, Jan-Philip Prahl, Jadie Moon, Yuchen Li, Deepti Tanjore, Jay D Keasling, Todd Pray, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Beyond pathway engineering, the metabolic state of the production host is critical in maintaining the efficiency of cellular production. The biotechnologically important yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae adjusts its energy metabolism based on the availability of oxygen and carbon sources. This transition between respiratory and non-respiratory metabolic state is accompanied by substantial modifications of central carbon metabolism, which impact the efficiency of metabolic pathways and the corresponding final product titers...
December 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Todd B Reynolds
Strains of the bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are able to generate a multicellular structure called a mat on low percentage (0.3%) agar plates are given a selective advantage over strains that cannot exhibit this phenotype. This environment may exhibit some similarities to the rotting fruit on which S. cerevisiae often grows in nature. Mat formation occurs when the cells spread over the plate as they grow, and cells in the center of the biofilm aggregate to form multicellular structures that resemble a floral pattern...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Heather M McGee, Todd Carpenter, Umut Ozbek, Katherine Kirkwood, Tzeng Tzu-Chi, Seth Blacksburg, Isabelle M Germano, Sheryl Green, Michael Buckstein
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for spinal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with other radioresistant histologies (renal cell carcinoma (RCC), melanoma, and sarcoma) in terms of local control (LC) and pain control. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients treated with SRS to the spine for metastatic HCC, RCC, melanoma, and sarcoma from January 2007 through May 2014. Radiographic assessment of LC, OS, and patient-reported pain control were analyzed as univariable analyses and with various patient- and treatment-related parameters as multivariable analyses (MVA)...
December 10, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
David Schneberger, Jane M DeVasure, Shelley A Kirychuk, Todd A Wyatt
Prolonged exposure to organic barn dusts can lead to chronic inflammation and a broad range of lung problems over time, mediated by innate immune mechanisms. The immune surfactant or collectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a crucial multifunctional innate immune receptor. Little work to date has examined the effect of such collectins in response to organic dusts. We provide evidence here that agricultural organic dusts can inhibit mRNA and protein expression of SP-D in a human alveolar epithelial cell line, and an in vivo mouse model...
2018: PloS One
Quin R S Miller, Satish K Nune, Herbert Todd Schaef, Ki Won Jung, Kayte M Denslow, Matthew S Prowant, Paul F Martin, B Peter McGrail
The low-frequency (100-1250 Hz) acoustic properties of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials were examined in impedance tube experiments. The anomalously-high sound transmission loss of HKUST-1, FeBTC, and MIL-53(Al) quantitatively demonstrated that these prototypical MOFs are absorptive acoustic metamaterials. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOFs that have been demonstrated to be acoustic metamaterials. The low-frequency acoustic dampening by subwavelength MOF metamate-rials is likely due to sound dissipation and absorption facilitated by multiple internal reflections within the microporous framework structure...
December 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Srikanth Sivaraman, Nicholas Amoroso, Xinzhu Gu, J Todd Purves, Francis M Hughes, William R Wagner, Jiro Nagatomi
Although the previous success of bladder tissue engineering demonstrated the feasibility of this technology, most polyester based scaffolds used in previous studies possess inadequate mechanical properties for organs that exhibit large deformation. The present study explored the use of various biodegradable elastomers as scaffolds for bladder tissue engineering and poly (carbonate-urethane) urea (PCUU) scaffolds mimicked urinary bladder mechanics more closely than polyglycerol sebacate-polycaprolactone (PGS-PCL) and poly (ether-urethane) urea (PEUU)...
December 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Edward Florez, Todd Nichols, Ellen E Parker, Seth T Lirette, Candace M Howard, Ali Fatemi
Purpose The definition of radiotherapy target volume is a critical step in treatment planning for all tumor sites. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pulse sequences are used for the definition of the gross target volume (GTV) and the contouring of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and meningioma. We propose the use of multiparametric MRI combined with radiomic features to improve the texture-based differentiation of tumor from edema for GTV definition and to differentiate vasogenic from tumor cell infiltration edema...
October 8, 2018: Curēus
Todd K Hyster, Derek M Dalton, Tomislav Rovis
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1039/C4SC02590C.].
November 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Elia A Turolla, Silvia Valtorta, Elena Bresciani, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Liliana Giuliano, Stefano Stucchi, Sara Belloli, Paolo Rainone, Francesco Sudati, Laura Rizzi, Laura Molteni, Pascal Verdiè, Jean Martinez, Antonio Torsello, Rosa Maria Moresco, Sergio Todde
TLQP-21 is a neuropeptide that is involved in the control of several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis. Since TLQP-21 could oppose the early phase of diet-induced obesity, it has raised a huge interest, but very little is known about its mechanisms of action on peripheral tissues. Our aim was to investigate TLQP-21 distribution in brain and peripheral tissues after systemic administration using positron emission tomography. We report here the radiolabeling of NODA-methyl phenylacetic acid (MPAA) functionalized JMV5763, a short analog of TLQP-21, with [18 F]aluminum fluoride...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Carmen L Charlton, Esther Babady, Christine C Ginocchio, Todd F Hatchette, Robert C Jerris, Yan Li, Mike Loeffelholz, Yvette S McCarter, Melissa B Miller, Susan Novak-Weekley, Audrey N Schuetz, Yi-Wei Tang, Ray Widen, Steven J Drews
SUMMARYRespiratory viral infections are associated with a wide range of acute syndromes and infectious disease processes in children and adults worldwide. Many viruses are implicated in these infections, and these viruses are spread largely via respiratory means between humans but also occasionally from animals to humans. This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Disease , published in 1986...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Lindsey A Branscom, Todd E Cornish, Kerry S Sondgeroth
Brucella ovis is a bacterial pathogen present in most major sheep-producing regions of the world. The pathogen is associated with ram infertility, decreased ewe conception rates, and premature lambs. Twenty ELISA seropositive or indeterminate rams were culled from a B. ovis-positive flock, and donated to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory for evaluation of infection. Tissues from each ram were collected at autopsy for additional testing, including bacterial culture, PCR, and histopathology. Of 17 seropositive rams, 11 rams were also positive by culture and PCR, and had evidence of mild histologic lesions; 1 seropositive ram was positive by culture with mild histologic lesions, but negative by PCR...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Marco Pahor, Stephen D Anton, Daniel P Beavers, Jane A Cauley, Roger A Fielding, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Kristina H Lewis, Christine K Liu, Laura C Lovato, Jane Lu, Todd M Manini, Mary M McDermott, Michael E Miller, Anne B Newman, Barbara Radziszewska, Cynthia L Stowe, Russell P Tracy, Michael P Walkup, Samuel S Wu, Walter T Ambrosius
BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation, characterized by elevations in plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6), is an independent risk factor of impaired mobility in older persons. Angiotensin receptor blockers and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) may reduce IL-6 and may potentially improve physical function. To assess the main effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and ω-3 as fish oil on IL-6 and 400 m walking speed, we conducted the ENRGISE Pilot multicenter randomized clinical trial...
December 12, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Yun-Kyeong Cho, Chang-Wook Nam, Bon-Kwon Koo, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Heidi Gransar, Yao Lu, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz Al-Mallah, Daniele Andreini, Jeroen J Bax, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Ricardo C Cury, Augustin Delago, Gudrun Feuchtner, Martin Hadamitzky, Jörg Hausleiter, Philipp A Kaufmann, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert L Raff, Ronen Rubinshtein, Leslee J Shaw, Todd C Villines, Daniel S Berman, Erica C Jones, Jessica M Peña, Fay Y Lin, James K Min
BACKGROUND: The extent to which the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis by coronary computed tomography angiography influences a potential mortality benefit of statin is unknown. We evaluated the relationship between statin therapy, mortality, and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: In the CONFIRM study, patients with normal or non-obstructive plaque (<50% diameter stenosis) for whom data on baseline statin use was available were included. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was quantified using the Agatston score...
2018: PloS One
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