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HIV drug complications

João M Furtado, Tiago E Arantes, Heloisa Nascimento, Daniel V Vasconcelos-Santos, Natalia Nogueira, Rafael de Pinho Queiroz, Luana P Brandão, Thaís Bastos, Ricardo Martinelli, Rodrigo C Santana, Cristina Muccioli, Rubens Belfort, Justine R Smith
Recent reports from different world regions suggest ocular syphilis is re-emerging, in parallel with an increasing incidence of the systemic infection globally. We conducted a large observational study of 127 persons consecutively treated for ocular syphilis at public medical centers in Brazil over a 2.5-year period ending July 2015. Of 104 individuals serologically tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 34.6% were positive. Ophthalmological evaluations included measurement of Snellen visual acuity and intraocular pressure, and assessment of inflammation by slit lamp examination and dilated posterior eye examination...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
L Quéro, A Gobert, J-P Spano
Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, cancer incidence is still 2 to 3-fold higher in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the general population, with an increased incidence of malignancies not associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-infected patients cancer treatment does not differ from that in the general population. However, the management of those patients have some particularities due to preexisting comorbid conditions, including metabolic, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic complications and the risk for potential drug - drug interactions in HIV-infected patients...
August 4, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Swati Khare, Rashmi Kushwaha, Ashutosh Kumar, Vimala Venkatesh, Himanshu D Reddy, Mili Jain, Mohd Yusuf, Uma Shankar Singh
Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may result in variable haematological manifestations. Thrombotic events are more common among HIV-infected persons than the general population, possibly due to the increased inflammatory/hypercoagulable state and presence of concurrent comorbidities. Aims and Objectives: (1) Screen for coagulation abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. (2) Detect certain prothrombotic factors such as deficiency of protein C and protein S and elevation of homocysteine as possible precursors of coagulation defects in HIV patients...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Hao Cheng, Liang-Yu Wu
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the earliest and most commonly used anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs and play an important role in high active antiretroviral therapy. However, NRTI drug therapy can cause peripheral neuropathic pain. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of rapamycin on the pain sensitization of model mice by in vivo experiments to explore the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain caused by NRTIs...
August 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Tatiana Rozental, Anamaria Szrajbman Vaz da Silva, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça Favacho, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira, Francisco Inácio Bastos, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
The increasing use of illicit drugs imposes a public health challenge worldwide. People who inject drugs (PWID) are more susceptible to health complications due to immunosuppression associated with drug use and non-hygienic self-administration of substances, contaminants, and liquids. PWID are subjected to increased risk of acquiring and transmitting different pathogens (frequently functioning as sentinel cases for (re)emerging pathogens), including those transmitted by arthropods and vertebrate reservoirs in unhealthy environments...
July 19, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Xiu Ying Zhao, Zhao Ying Zeng, Wen Hao Hua, Yan Hua Yu, Cai Ping Guo, Xiu Qin Zhao, Hai Yan Dong, Jie Liu, Kang Lin Wan
A retrospective analysis was performed in two major HIV/AIDS referral hospitals in Beijing to evaluate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections in HIV-infected patients. A total of 627 patients' data were reviewed, and 102 (16.3%) patients were diagnosed with culture-confirmed mycobacterial infection, including 84 with MTB, 16 with NTM, and 2 with both MTB and NTM. The most frequent clinical complication by mycobacterial infection was pulmonary infection (48/102, 47...
June 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Maud Mavigner, Jakob Habib, Claire Deleage, Elias Rosen, Cameron Mattingly, Katherine Bricker, Angela Kashuba, Franck Amblard, Raymond F Schinazi, Sherrie Jean, Joyce Cohen, Colleen McGary, Mirko Paiardini, Matthew P Wood, Donald L Sodora, Guido Silvestri, Jacob Estes, Ann Chahroudi
Worldwide, nearly two million children are infected with HIV, with breastfeeding accounting for the majority of contemporary HIV transmissions. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality but is not curative. The main barrier to a cure is persistence of latent HIV in long-lived reservoirs. However, our understanding of the cellular and anatomic sources of the HIV reservoir during infancy and childhood is limited. Here, we developed a pediatric model of ART suppression in orally SIV-infected rhesus macaque (RM) infants, with measurement of virus persistence in blood and tissues after 6-9 months of ART...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bright Addo, Sally Sencherey, Michael N K Babayara
Background: Despite the growing interest in understanding the aetiology of chronic diseases, limited studies exist on medication noncompliance, especially, among periurban and rural dwellers in Ghana. In this study, we determined the prevalence of medication noncompliance and explored the medication intake behaviour of patients with chronic diseases. The relative influence of cost on medication noncompliance and the risk factors for noncompliance were also assessed. Methods: The design was a cross-sectional study of 200 patients from ages below 40 years to ages above 60 years sampled from the Offinso South Municipality, a periurban district of the Ashanti region of Ghana...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
Luhaka Kanda, Robert Mash
BACKGROUND: Botswana is one of the countries significantly affected by the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Despite an extensive preventive campaign, the incidence of HIV remains high.Condoms are an important contributor to prevention of new HIV infections, although they are not consistently used by young adults. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why condoms are not consistently usedby young adults. SETTING: Mahalapye District Hospital and Airstrip Clinic, Botswana...
May 24, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Tadele Girum, Ebrahim Muktar, Kifle Lentiro, Habtamu Wondiye, Misgun Shewangizaw
Introduction: The emergence of MDR-TB remained a major public health threat particularly in developing countries. With increased prevalence and complexity of treatment, the burden of MDR-TB challenged the country. It is of an important; the epidemiology of drug resistant TB is not well understood. There are few studies conducted to assess the prevalence, determinants and treatment outcome of MDR-TB with inconclusive finding. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on Epidemiology of MDR-TB in Ethiopia, So that policy makers and other stalk holders could have pooled evidence on the problem to make a decision...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Maria Letizia Giancola, Pietro Balestra, Adriana Ammassari, Martina Ricottini, Patrizia Lorenzini, Claudio Angeletti, Rita Bellagamba, Chiara Tommasi, Massimo Tempestilli, Mauro Zaccarelli, Carmela Pinnetti, Anna Loredana Gallo, Andrea Antinori, Pasquale Narciso, Emanuele Nicastri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Patricia Brasil, Andre Machado Siqueira, Heruza Einsfeld Zogbi, Bianca de Santis Gonçalves, Aline da Silva Santos, Otilia Lupi, Rogerio Valls de Souza, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Clarisse da Silveira Bressan, Mauymi Duarte Wakimoto, Eliane Saraiva de Araújo, Ingrid Cardoso Dos Santos, Ingebourg Georg, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
BackgroundZika virus (ZIKV) emergence in South America revealed the lack of knowledge regarding clinical manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical characteristics, laboratory manifestations, differential diagnosis, and outcome of ZIKV infection in a large, single-center cohort of HIV-infected patients.MethodsHIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years with clinical suspected arboviral disease from an ongoing cohort were followed from February through December 2015...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lee F Schroeder, Jeannette Guarner, Timothy K Amukele
BACKGROUND: There are numerous barriers to achieving high-quality laboratory diagnostic testing in resource-limited countries. These include inconsistent supply chains, variable quality of diagnostic devices, lack of human and financial resources, the ever-growing list of available tests, and a historical reliance on syndromic treatment algorithms. A list of essential diagnostics based on an accepted standard like the WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) could coordinate stakeholders in the strengthening of laboratory capacity globally...
August 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Alfredo Iardino, Orlando Garner, Gabriella Lorusso, Franco Lotta
Ergotism is an ischaemic complication due to vasoconstriction throughout the body due to ingestion of ergotamine. A 34-year-old Hispanic man with HIV infection treated with saquinavir, ritonavir and abacavir/lamivudine presented to the emergency department complaining of left foot pain 1 week prior to admission. The affected extremity was cold with absence of pedal and tibial pulses. Arterial Doppler revealed absent arterial flow from the popliteal artery later confirmed by arteriography. Medication reconciliation revealed a recent prescription for migraine headache containing ergotamine...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Purva Sharma, Mohamad Kabach, Samineh Sehatbakhsh, Rashida Tharpe, Shaun Isaac, Robert Chait, Kleper De Almeida
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with perinatally acquired HIV may be at increased risk due to the viral infection itself and exposure to HAART in utero or as part of treatment. A 20-year-old female with transplacentally acquired HIV infection presented with symptoms of transient aphasia, headache, palpitations, and blurry vision. She was admitted for hypertensive emergency with blood pressure 203/100 mmHg...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Garret P Greeneway, James L West, Daniel E Couture, Wesley Hsu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral abscesses are rare, potentially life-threatening entities that result from local spread or hematogenous dissemination to the brain. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is key in lowering morbidity and preventing mortality associated with cerebral abscesses. Congenital heart diseases with right-to-left intracardiac shunts can be complicated by brain abscesses via paradoxical embolism of infected microthrombi. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by an underdeveloped left heart that uses intracardiac shunting to achieve adequate systemic circulation...
August 2018: World Neurosurgery
Danae Bixler, Greg Corby-Lee, Scott Proescholdbell, Tina Ramirez, Michael E Kilkenny, Matt LaRocco, Robert Childs, Michael R Brumage, Angela D Settle, Eyasu H Teshale, Alice Asher
The Appalachian region of the United States is experiencing a large increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to injection drug use (IDU) (1). Syringe services programs (SSPs) providing sufficient access to safe injection equipment can reduce hepatitis C transmission by 56%; combined SSPs and medication-assisted treatment can reduce transmission by 74% (2). However, access to SSPs has been limited in the United States, especially in rural areas and southern and midwestern states (3). This report describes the expansion of SSPs in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia during 2013-August 1, 2017...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jingyi Li, He Ma, Ren Liao, Yanjuan Huang, Guiyong Chen
Knowledge of illicit drug users (IDUs) is important because of the comorbidity related to drug use. In this prospective, observational study, we screened 1007 patients undergoing emergency surgery and found that 75 of them (7.5%) were IDUs The results of preoperative screening showed that the rates of HIV and syphilis infection were significantly higher in IDUs (HIV (+) 2.6%, syphilis (+) 10.7%) than in non-IDUs (HIV (+) 0, syphilis (+) 0.5%). Intraoperative consumption of remifentanil (IDUs: 1.85 ± 1...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
Krisda Boonthos, Chankit Puttilerpong, Thitima Pengsuparp, Weerawat Manosuthi
Long-term complications of protease inhibitor (PI) treatment includes increased cardiovascular risks due to dyslipidemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ezetimibe reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) without drug interactions with PIs and statins. Furthermore, the addition of ezetimibe to statins is an optional treatment in HIV-infected patients with uncontrolled dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term efficacy and safety of adding ezetimibe to the currently administered statin regimen...
May 24, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
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