Read by QxMD icon Read

HIV drug complications

Erik Tenland, Nitya Krishnan, Anna Rönnholm, Sadaf Kalsum, Manoj Puthia, Matthias Mörgelin, Mina Davoudi, Magdalena Otrocka, Nader Alaridah, Izabela Glegola-Madejska, Erik Sturegård, Artur Schmidtchen, Maria Lerm, Brian D Robertson, Gabriela Godaly
Tuberculosis has been reaffirmed as the infectious disease causing most deaths in the world. Co-infection with HIV and the increase in multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains complicate treatment and increases mortality rates, making the development of new drugs an urgent priority. In this study we have identified a promising candidate by screening antimicrobial peptides for their capacity to inhibit mycobacterial growth. This non-toxic peptide, NZX, is capable of inhibiting both clinical strains of M...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Vimbai Chibango, Pranitha Maharaj
OBJECTIVE: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a matter of global concern but is particularly serious in Zimbabwe. A number of strategies have been identified to limit the risk of mother-to-child transmission, including abortion. The aim of the current study was to assess men's and women's roles in decision making about abortion in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV. METHODS: Qualitative research based on eight focus group discussions was conducted among adult men and women in Gokwe North District, Zimbabwe...
November 30, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Nripendra Nath Mishra, Ajay Kesharwani, Aakanksha Agarwal, Suja Kizhiyedath Polachira, Reshmi Nair, Satish Kumar Gupta
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcers. The impact of ulcers also demonstrates a strong link to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Complications, drug resistance, and side-effects of anti-viral drugs make the treatment of HSV-2 infection challenging. Herbal medicines have shown potential against HSV-2 and HIV infections. In this context, polyherbal gel formulation comprising 50% ethanolic extracts from Acacia catechu , Lagerstroemia speciosa , Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica has been developed...
October 24, 2018: Viruses
Kirsty Brittain, Landon Myer, Nicole Phillips, Lucie D Cluver, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein, Jacqueline Hoare
Behavioural health risks, including substance use, early sexual debut, bullying and suicidality, are common during adolescence, but may be complicated among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. However, there are few data exploring these behaviours in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared behavioural health risks (any self-report of substance use, sexual activity, bullying others or suicidality, or a positive urine toxicology screen) among perinatally-infected adolescents ages 9-14 years to that of an HIV-uninfected comparator group; and explored the effect of behavioural health risks on adolescent and caregiver report of adolescent suboptimal adherence (missed antiretroviral therapy dose(s) on ≥1 day during the preceding 30 days) and elevated HIV viral load (≥50 and ≥1000 copies/mL in sensitivity analyses) in multivariable logistic regression models...
October 19, 2018: AIDS Care
L F Ni, H Wang, H Li, Z G Zhang, X M Liu
OBJECTIVE: To improve the understanding of the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-human immunodeficiency virus (non-HIV) infection patients and reduce delay in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis. METHODS: The clinical features, imaging characteristics, laboratory examinations, treatment and prognosis of 34 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively analyzed. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital from June 1997 to June 2016...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Joseph Donovan, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Le Tien Dung, Darma Imran, Erlina Burhan, Lam Hong Bao Ngoc, Nguyen Duc Bang, Do Chau Giang, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Jeremy Day, Le Thi Phuong Thao, Nguyen Tt Thuong, Nguyen Nang Vien, Ronald B Geskus, Marcel Wolbers, Raph L Hamers, Reinout van Crevel, Mugi Nursaya, Kartika Maharani, Tran Tinh Hien, Kevin Baird, Nguyen Huu Lan, Evelyne Kestelyn, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy E Thwaites
Background:  Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Co-infection with HIV increases the risk of developing TBM, complicates treatment, and substantially worsens outcome. Whether corticosteroids confer a survival benefit in HIV-infected patients with TBM remains uncertain. Hepatitis is the most common drug-induced serious adverse event associated with anti-tuberculosis treatment, occurring in 20% of HIV-infected patients. The suggested concentration thresholds for stopping anti-tuberculosis drugs are not evidence-based...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Tyler Finocchio, William Coolidge, Thomas Johnson
The management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be a complicated specialty within itself, made even more complex when there are so many unanswered questions regarding the care of critically ill patients with HIV. The lack of consensus on the use of antiretroviral medications in the critically ill patient population has contributed to an ongoing clinical debate among intensivists. This review focuses on the pharmacological complications of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the intensive care setting, specifically the initiation of ART in patients newly diagnosed with HIV, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), continuation of ART in those who were on a complete regimen prior to intensive care unit admission, barriers of drug delivery alternatives, and drug-drug interactions...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Eveline Thobias Konje, Moke Tito Nyambita Magoma, Jennifer Hatfield, Susan Kuhn, Reginald S Sauve, Deborah Margret Dewey
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant benefits of early detection and management of pregnancy related complications during antenatal care (ANC) visits, not all pregnant women in Tanzania initiate ANC in a timely manner. The primary objectives of this research study in rural communities of Geita district, Northwest Tanzania were: 1) to conduct a population-based study that examined the utilization and availability of ANC services; and 2) to explore the challenges faced by women who visited ANC clinics and barriers to utilization of ANC among pregnant women...
October 5, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sarah MacCarthy, Uzaib Saya, Clare Samba, Josephine Birungi, Stephen Okoboi, Sebastian Linnemayr
BACKGROUND: Studies from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) document how barriers to ART adherence present additional complications among adolescents and young adults living with HIV. We qualitatively explored barriers to ART adherence in Uganda among individuals age 14-24 to understand the unique challenges faced by this age group. METHODS: We conducted focus group (FG) discussions with Community Advisory Board members (n = 1), health care providers (n = 2), and male and female groups of adolescents age 14-17 (n = 2) and youth age 18-24 (n = 2) in Kampala, Uganda...
October 4, 2018: BMC Public Health
Alexander Kay, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Anna Maria Mandalakas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The detrimental synergy of colliding HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics is most devastating among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) who shoulder a disproportionate burden of all child TB mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: CALWH benefit less from Bacille-Calmette Guerin vaccination than HIV-uninfected children and are not receiving TB preventive therapy despite global recommendations. Further, the predictive utility of most diagnostic tools is reduced in CALWH...
November 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Rocío M Hurtado, Daniel Meressa, Anne E Goldfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to describe the key principles in treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV, including early access to timely diagnostics, linkage into care, TB treatment strategies including the use of new and repurposed drugs, co-management of HIV disease, and treatment complications and programmatic support to optimize treatment outcomes. These are necessary strategies to decrease the likelihood of poor treatment outcomes including lower treatment completion rates and higher mortality...
November 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Mathieu Nacher, Gulen Ayhan, Romain Arnal, Florence Huber, Celia Basurko, Agathe Pastre, Bruno Falissard, Vincent About
PURPOSE: Penile implants or nodules are objects inserted beneath the skin of the penis mostly for erotic purposes. The procedure is painful and there may be complications. It is often associated with prison. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of penile nodules among inmates in French Guiana, and to study factors associated with this practice, notably psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. All consenting new adult prisoners incarcerated between 01/01/2014 and 31/12/2014 at the penitentiary centre of French Guiana were included...
2018: PloS One
Myint M Noe, Akriti G Jain, Sonia Shahid, Umair Majeed
Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by muscle necrosis and leakage of toxic intracellular contents into the circulatory system. It is most commonly caused by trauma, physical exertion, drugs, toxins, and a variety of infections; only rarely is it associated with acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection alone. The severity of illness ranges from asymptomatic elevations in serum muscle enzymes to life-threatening electrolyte imbalances and acute kidney injury. High HIV viral load is associated with higher muscle breakdown that increases the incidence of severe acute kidney injury and sometimes the need for renal replacement therapy...
July 24, 2018: Curēus
Nina Derby, Manjari Lal, Meropi Aravantinou, Larisa Kizima, Patrick Barnable, Aixa Rodriguez, Manshun Lai, Asa Wesenberg, Shweta Ugaonkar, Keith Levendosky, Olga Mizenina, Kyle Kleinbeck, Jeffrey D Lifson, M Melissa Peet, Zachary Lloyd, Michael Benson, Walid Heneine, Barry R O'Keefe, Melissa Robbiani, Elena Martinelli, Brooke Grasperge, James Blanchard, Agegnehu Gettie, Natalia Teleshova, José A Fernández-Romero, Thomas M Zydowsky
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) strategies with proven in vivo efficacy rely on antiretroviral drugs, creating the potential for drug resistance and complicated treatment options in individuals who become infected. Moreover, on-demand products are currently missing from the PrEP development portfolio. Griffithsin (GRFT) is a non-antiretroviral HIV entry inhibitor derived from red algae with an excellent safety profile and potent activity in vitro. When combined with carrageenan (CG), GRFT has strong activity against herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) in vitro and in vivo...
September 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Zachery J Harter, Stuti Agarwal, Pranjali Dalvi, Norbert F Voelkel, Navneet K Dhillon
: Improved survival among HIV-1 infected individuals with the advent of antiretroviral therapy has clearly led to a greater prevalence of non-infectious complications. One of the most devastating sequelae in these individuals is the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Various epidemiological studies suggest a worse survival of HIV-PAH patients when compared to other forms of PAH. Given that only a subset and not all HIV-infected individuals develop HIV-PAH, suggests that an additional second hit of genetic or environmental triggers is needed for the development of PAH...
September 18, 2018: AIDS
Marcelo N Pedro, Guilherme Z Rocha, Dioze Guadagnini, Andrey Santos, Daniela O Magro, Heloisa B Assalin, Alexandre G Oliveira, Rogerio de Jesus Pedro, Mario J A Saad
Here we review how immune activation and insulin resistance contribute to the metabolic alterations observed in HIV-infected patients, and how these alterations increase the risk of developing CVD. The introduction and evolution of antiretroviral drugs over the past 25 years has completely changed the clinical prognosis of HIV-infected patients. The deaths of these individuals are now related to atherosclerotic CVDs, rather than from the viral infection itself. However, HIV infection, cART, and intestinal microbiota are associated with immune activation and insulin resistance, which can lead to the development of a variety of diseases and disorders, especially with regards to CVDs...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Mao-Wang Ho, Chih-Ho Lai, Chen-Hsing Chou, Ju-Pi Li, Chi-Fung Cheng, Yang-Chang Wu, Xiang Liu, Hsinyi Tsang, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Jung-Chun Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Wen-Miin Liang, Ying-Ju Lin
Antiretroviral (ART) drugs has previously been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome, metabolic consequences, and neuropsychiatric complications. ART drugs include three main classes of protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Our previous work demonstrated that a high risk of hyperlipidemia was observed in HIV-1-infected patients who received ART drugs in Taiwan. Patients receiving ART drugs containing either Abacavir/Lamivudine (Aba/Lam; NRTI/NRTI), Lamivudine/Zidovudine (Lam/Zido; NRTI/NRTI), or Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Lop/Rit; PI) have the highest risk of hyperlipidemia...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Farah Ladak, Eugenia Socias, Seonaid Nolan, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: Active illicit drug use can present a barrier to the medical management of HIV infection by complicating adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) rebound, defined as a period of detectable HIV viral load (VL) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) and VL suppression, can lead to the generation of viral resistance and potential treatment failure. We sought to investigate the contribution of substance use patterns on rates of VL rebound. METHODS: We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada, a setting of universal no-cost HIV treatment...
September 19, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Suparna Das, Jenevieve Opoku, Adam Allston, Michael Kharfen
BACKGROUND: People with HIV infection in the United States are often affected by chronic viral hepatitis. These coinfected people with either HBV or HCV are at increased risk for serious, life-threatening complications. Coinfections with viral hepatitis may also complicate the delivery of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) by escalating the risk of drug-related hepatoxicity. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 10 percent of people with HIV in the United States also have HBV, and 25 percent also have HCV coinfection...
2018: PloS One
Martin Alexander Schaller, Felix Wicke, Christian Foerch, Stefan Weidauer
PURPOSE: As a result of multilateral migration and globalization in times of humanitarian crises, western countries face a possible increase in the incidence of central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB). The diagnosis of CNS TB is challenging and often delayed due to the manifold and often non-specific presentation of the disease. The aim of this review is to analyze and summarize imaging features and correlated clinical findings of CNS TB. METHODS: The different manifestations of CNS TB are explained and illustrated by characteristic neuroradiological as well as neuropathological findings...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"