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Kimberly A Huey
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) deletion in adult mouse muscle fibers contributes to impaired contractile and muscular adaptations to a hypertrophic stimulus suggesting a critical role in adult muscle growth. This review will explore the hypothesis that VEGF is essential for adult muscle growth by impacting inflammatory processes, satellite-endothelial cell interactions, and contractile protein accumulation by functioning within known hypertrophic signaling pathways including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-Akt) and Wnt-ß-catenin...
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
Lin Ye, Yuanyuan Yao, Hui Guo, Yun Peng
AIM OF THE STUDY: Blepharoptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid, usually due to dysfunction of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS). Recently, skeletal muscle satellite cells (SSCs) have been reported to promote the repair of damaged skeletal muscle. This study aims to investigate the potential contribution of exogenous SSCs to the regeneration of mechanically damaged LPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups, including control group, SSCs-treated group, SSCs-treated injury group and non-treated injury group...
April 13, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Gen-Xia Liu, Shu Ma, Yao Li, Yan Yu, Yi-Xiang Zhou, Ya-Die Lu, Lin Jin, Zi-Lu Wang, Jin-Hua Yu
The putative tumor suppressor microRNA let-7c is extensively associated with the biological properties of cancer cells. However, the potential involvement of let-7c in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has not been fully explored. In this study, we investigated the influence of hsa-let-7c (let-7c) on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) treated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) via flow cytometry, CCK-8 assays, alizarin red staining, real-time RT-PCR, and western blotting...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Cai-Zhi Liu, Yuan Luo, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a crucial role in regulating growth in vertebrates while suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) act as feedback inhibitors of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Although SOCS-2 binds IGF-1 receptor and inhibits IGF-1-induced STAT3 activation, presently there is no clear evidence whether IGF-1 could induce SOCS genes expression. The current study aimed to determine whether IGF-1 could induce the transcription of SOCS in juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). We show that there is a common positive relationship between the mRNA expression of IGF-I and SOCS-2 under different nutritional statuses and stimulants, but not the expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 mRNA...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Wenya Zheng, Marie L Hemker, Mingyong Xie, Sebastian T Soukup, Patrick Diel
Isoflavones have been reported to stimulate muscle growth. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine anabolic activity and associated molecular mechanisms of a soy extract (SoyEx), isoflavone aglycones, and a mixture simulating the composition of SoyEx in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 cells were differentiated into myotubes. The effects of SoyEx, genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and the mixture of genistein-daidzein-glycitein (Mix) on myotube diameter and number were determined. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with anabolic activity was analyzed...
April 12, 2018: Planta Medica
Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna Majcher, Urszula Demkow, Beata Pyrżak
The relationships between bone turnover, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis and vitamin D are complex, but still not fully explained. The GH/IGF-1 axis and vitamin D can mutually modulate each other's metabolism and influence the activation of cell proliferation, maturation, and mineralization as well as bone resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reciprocal associations between bone formation markers [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP)], the GH/IGF-1 axis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in children with growth hormone deficiency at baseline and during recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy...
April 13, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Norbert Pallua, Justinas Grasys, Bong-Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and soluble factors jointly contribute to the regenerative effect of fat grafts. The nanofat grafting technique is a simple method to mechanically emulsify the lipoaspirate and increase the ASC yield in the lipoaspirate. In the present study, we evaluated our extended nanofat grafting method that includes two additional centrifugation steps and results in a lipoaspirate of low volume that we termed "lipoconcentrate"...
March 29, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Alexander M Vaiserman
Increasing evidence suggests that risk for age-related disease and longevity can be programmed early in life. In human populations, convincing evidence has been accumulated indicating that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight (<2.5 kg) followed by postnatal catch-up growth is associated with various aspects of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4.5 kg), by contrast, is associated with high risk of non-diabetic obesity and cancers in later life...
April 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Julie M Silverstein, Erin D Roe, Kashif M Munir, Janet L Fox, Birol Emir, Maria Kouznetsova, Lois E Lamerato, Donna King
Purpose Understanding of acromegaly disease management is hampered in the US by lack of a national registry. We describe medical management in a population with confirmed acromegaly. Methods Inpatient and outpatient Electronic Health Records (EHR) were used to create a database of de-identified patients assigned the Acromegaly and Gigantism ICD-9 code and/or an appropriate pituitary procedure code at one of four regional hospital systems over a 6-11 year period. Information regarding demographics, medical history, labs, procedures and medications was collected and supplemented with a chart review to validate the diagnosis of acromegaly...
April 6, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Athanasios Fountas, Shu Teng Chai, John Ayuk, Neil Gittoes, Swarupsinh Chavda, Niki Karavitaki
Co-existence of craniopharyngioma and acromegaly has been very rarely reported. A 65-year-old man presented with visual deterioration, fatigue and frontal headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar heterogeneous, mainly cystic, 1.9 × 2 × 1.9 cm mass compressing the optic chiasm and expanding to the third ventricle; the findings were consistent with a craniopharyngioma. Pituitary hormone profile showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, mildly elevated prolactin, increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and normal thyroid function and cortisol reserve...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Aleksandra Rymarz, Julia Gibińska, Maria Zajbt, Wiesław Piechota, Stanisław Niemczyk
PURPOSE: Nutritional status has a significant impact on the outcomes in the dialysis population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body composition and a one-year survival of hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with chronic kidney disease stage V treated with hemodialysis for more than three months were included. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy (Body Composition Monitor, Fresenius Medical Care)...
November 2018: Renal Failure
Rui Jin, Ying-Ying Jin, Yi-Lun Tang, Hua-Juan Yang, Xiao-Qian Zhou, Zhe Lei
Glycoprotein non‑metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a glycoprotein that is highly expressed in various types of cancer, including osteosarcoma. However, its cellular functions and related mechanisms in osteosarcoma remain unclear. In the present study, a higher GPNMB mRNA level was observed in osteosarcoma tissues, than in adjacent non‑cancerous tissues. In addition, upregulation of the GPNMB mRNA and protein level was detected in the osteosarcoma cells SaOS2, 143B, MG63 and U2OS using western blot analysis and qPCR...
March 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jing Wang, Chun Zhang, Ping Xu, Zhi-Wen Yang, Cheng-Zhao Weng, Yue-Xing Lai
Phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) has been indicated to serve an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. It was previously demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin alleviated the severity of inflammation and improved the survival rate in rats with induced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which indicates that PI3K/Akt may serve a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. To date, the mechanism by which PI3K/Akt regulates inflammation has not been elucidated...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ilze Mentoor, Maritza Kruger, Theo Nell
BACKGROUND: Sufficient evidence associate body shape to detrimental lifestyle diseases including the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of the MetS, as well as effects of the MetS and body shape on body composition, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone parameters were investigated in a female farm worker population in the Western Cape. METHODS: Women between the ages of 20-60 years were classified according to the International Diabetes Federation's definition of the MetS...
April 4, 2018: BMC Public Health
Baldomero González, Guadalupe Vargas, Ana Laura Espinosa de Los Monteros, Victoria Mendoza, Moisés Mercado
Context: Diabetes and hypertension are frequent comorbidities of acromegaly. Objective: To analyze the course of diabetes and hypertension at diagnosis and after multimodal therapy in a large cohort of patients with acromegaly. Design and setting: Retrospective study, at a tertiary care center. Patients and methods: 522 patients with acromegaly treated according to a pre-established protocol. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and its relationship with biochemical indices of acromegalic control...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jing Lu, Lei Lu, Yueyue Yu, Joanne Cluette-Brown, Camilia R Martin, Erika C Claud
Poor growth in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is associated with an increased risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm infants, however the mechanism is unclear. The microbiome has increasingly been recognized as a modifiable environmental factor to influence host development. Here we explore the hypothesis that the microbiome influences both growth phenotype and brain development. A germ free mouse transfaunation model was used to examine the effects of preterm infant microbiotas known to induce either high growth or low growth phenotypes on postnatal brain development...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tong Gao, Nataliia Bogdanova, Sameera Ghauri, Gang Zhang, Jianxin Lin, Kazim Sheikh
Spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) is a mouse model of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice null for costimulatory molecule, B7-2 gene (B7-2-/- ). SAPP is a chronic progressive and multifocal inflammatory and demyelinating polyneuropathy of spontaneous onset with secondary axonal degeneration. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) is a pleiotropic factor with neuroprotective, regenerative, and anti-inflammatory effects with extensive experience in its preclinical and clinical use...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shuang Liang, Jiang Xue, Guimei Li
BACKGROUND: Based on the sample of obese children with relative growth hormone deficiency (GHD), the objective of our study was to determine the effects of rhGH treatment on cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid levels and glucose metabolism index. METHODS: A total of 43 obese children with relative GHD were included in our final analysis. The obese subjects were divided into two groups: recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment group and untreated control group...
April 3, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Vishnu Balaji, Wojciech Pokrzywa, Thorsten Hoppe
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway is a pivotal genetic program regulating cell growth, tissue development, metabolic physiology, and longevity of multicellular organisms. IIS integrates a fine-tuned cascade of signaling events induced by insulin/IGF-1, which is precisely controlled by post-translational modifications. The ubiquitin/proteasome-system (UPS) influences the functionality of IIS through inducible ubiquitylation pathways that regulate internalization of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, the stability of downstream insulin/IGF-1 signaling targets, and activity of nuclear receptors for control of gene expression...
April 3, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
L Sciacca, V Vella, L Frittitta, A Tumminia, L Manzella, S Squatrito, A Belfiore, R Vigneri
AIMS: Hyperinsulinemia is a recognized risk factor for cancer and plays a major role for the increased cancer incidence in diabetic patients. Whether insulin analogs, and particularly long-acting analogs, worsen the pro-cancer effect of excess insulin is still controversial. DATA SYNTHESIS: In this paper we summarize the biological bases for the potential detrimental effect of long-acting analogs on cancer cells and review the in vitro and in vivo evidence on this issue...
February 24, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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