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HIV drug

Simone Perazzolo, Laura M Shireman, Josefin Koehn, Lisa A McConnachie, John C Kraft, Danny D Shen, Rodney J Y Ho
Drug combination nanoparticles (DcNP) administered subcutaneously represent a potential long-acting lymphatic-targeting treatment for HIV-infection. The DcNP containing lopinavir-ritonavir-tenofovir, Targeted-Long-Acting-Antiretroviral-Therapy product candidate 101 (TLC-ART 101), has shown to provide long-acting lymphocyte-targeting performance in non-human primates. To extend the TLC-ART platform, we replaced TLC-ART 101 lopinavir with second-generation protease inhibitor, atazanavir. Pharmacokinetics of atazanavir-ritonavir-tenofovir DcNP was assessed in macaques, in comparison to the equivalent free drug formulation and to the TLC-ART 101...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Maureen Oliveira, Ruxandra-Ilinca Ibanescu, Kaitlin Anstett, Thibault Mésplède, Jean-Pierre Routy, Marjorie A Robbins, Bluma G Brenner
BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are recommended for first-line HIV therapy based on their relatively high genetic barrier to resistance. Although raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG) resistance profiles are well-characterized, resistance patterns for dolutegravir (DTG), bictegravir (BIC), and cabotegravir (CAB) remain largely unknown. Here, in vitro drug selections compared the development of resistance to DTG, BIC, CAB, EVG and RAL using clinical isolates from treatment-naïve primary HIV infection (PHI) cohort participants (n = 12), and pNL4...
August 17, 2018: Retrovirology
Carlos Blanco, Melanie M Wall, Wilson M Compton, Shoshana Kahana, Tianshu Feng, Tulshi Saha, Jennifer C Elliott, H Irene Hall, Bridget F Grant
We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the prevalence of a history of HIV testing was 53.0% among females and 47.0% among males. Among individuals tested, the prevalence of HIV was 1...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Priyal Barai, Nisith Raval, Sanjeev Acharya, Ankit Borisa, Hardik Bhatt, Niyati Acharya
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an enervating and chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, occurring frequently in the elderly and adversely affecting intellectual capabilities and the cognitive processes. Bergenin possesses efficacious antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity along with antinociceptive effect and wound healing properties. Previous studies have shown that bergenin has in vitro bovine adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitory activity, mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, β-secretase (BACE-1) enzyme inhibitory activity and prevented neuronal death in the primary culture of rat cortical neurons...
August 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Matthew R Beymer, Jennifer L Gildner, Ian W Holloway, Raphael J Landovitz
PURPOSE: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent HIV. However, low uptake of daily oral PrEP since Food and Drug Administration approval and low medication adherence among users have stimulated the investigation of other modalities for delivery, such as injectable PrEP and on-demand PrEP. The objective of this study was to determine the demographic and behavioral predictors of willingness to try alternative PrEP delivery mechanisms among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) who stated that they were unwilling to try daily oral PrEP...
August 17, 2018: LGBT Health
Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Sheila López, Mariela Rivera, Eddy Ríos-Olivares, Luis Cubano, Nawal M Boukli
Aim: Intense interest remains in the identification of compounds to reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Coriolus versicolor 's polysaccharide peptide (PSP) has been demonstrated to possess immunomodulatory properties with the ability to activate an innate immune response through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) showing insignificant toxicity. This study sought to determine the potential use of PSP as an anti-HIV agent and whether its antiviral immune response was TLR4 dependent...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Leonard Rogers, Adetayo E Obasa, Graeme B Jacobs, Stefan G Sarafianos, Anders Sönnerborg, Ujjwal Neogi, Kamalendra Singh
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) integrates viral DNA into the host genome using its 3'-end processing and strand-transfer activities. Due to the importance of HIV-1 IN, it is targeted by the newest class of approved drugs known as integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). INSTIs are efficient in maintaining low viral load; however, as with other approved antivirals, resistance mutations emerge in patients receiving INSTI-containing therapy. As INSTIs are becoming increasingly accessible worldwide, it is important to understand the mechanism(s) of INSTI susceptibility...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shuai Zhao, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Yang Li, Zhongbao Zuo, Jing Yan, Jing Zhang, Pi Cao, Wei Xu, Fan Li, Yuxueyun Li, Lingjie Liao, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Hui Xing
To investigate the prevalence and temporal trend of transmitted drug resistance (TDR), a nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among 5627 ART naïve newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in 2015 in China. Totally 4704 partial pol sequences were obtained. Among them, the most common HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) or subtype was CRF01_AE (39.0%), followed by CRF07_BC (35.6%), CRF08_BC (8.9%), and subtype B (5.5%). TDR mutations were found in 3.6% of the cases, with 1.1% harboring TDR to protease inhibitors (PIs), 1...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mónica Morán Arribas, Antonio Rivero, Emma Fernández, Toni Poveda, Joan A Caylá
In Spain, HIV incidence has remained stable and higher than the European average since 2000 due to insuf-ficient prevention measures. An estimated 130,000-160,000 people are believed to be living with HIV in Spain, including 18% who do not know they are infected, and half are late diagnoses, with a poorer clinical course, lower quality of life and life expectancy, as well as higher costs. Late diagnosis is more common in heterosexuals, intravenous drug users, people over 50 years of age and immigrants, whereas men who have sex with men are the only group where the rate of new diagnoses is increasing...
September 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Rekha P Mangalore, Michael A Moso, Katie Cronin, Katrina Young, James H McMahon
Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH), an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised hosts. A patient with newly-diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presented with a violaceous, raised, indurated, pruritic rash over the face, arms and trunk on a background of significant weight loss, fevers with sweats, diarrhoea and worsening shortness of breath. His CD4+ T cell count was 14 cells/µl (12%). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed from histology, fungal stain and culture of skin biopsy...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Jorge Soares, João Vasco Santos, António Sarmento, Altamiro Costa-Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous viral clearance of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a rare event. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic, demographic, and laboratory features associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in 16 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, the largest case series, to our knowledge). METHODS: This case series study reports the findings from 16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with CHC who experienced spontaneous clearance of HCV infection...
August 16, 2018: Intervirology
Liusheng Huang, Norah Mwebaza, Richard Kajubi, Florence Marzan, Camilla Forsman, Sunil Parikh, Francesca T Aweeka
BACKGROUND: Lumefantrine is a long-acting antimalarial drug with an elimination half-life of over 3 days and protein binding of 99 percent. Correlation of lumefantrine concentrations from capillary plasma via fingerprick (Cc) versus venous plasma (Cv) remains to be defined. METHODS: Venous and capillary plasma samples were collected simultaneously from children, pregnant women, and non-pregnant adults at 2, 24, 120hr post last dose of a standard 3-day artemether-lumefantrine regimen they received for uncomplicated malaria...
2018: PloS One
Susan E Dorman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights recent advances in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics that are relevant for clinicians engaged in the care of HIV-positive adults. RECENT FINDINGS: The first section focuses on newly available tools, highlighting recent progress. The second section focuses on new diagnostic approaches that are not yet widely available or implemented, but have considerable potential to improve the management of TB/HIV coinfected persons...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Snigdha Pattnaik
Background: The estimated incidence of TB in India was approximately 28,00,000 as per the Global TB report 2017. This accounts for a quarter of the world's TB (Tb) cases. National strategic plan, is a programme which aims at the elimination of Tb by 2018. The programme is crafted in line with other health sector strategies and global efforts, such as the draft National Health Policy 2015, World Health Organization's (WHO) End TB Strategy and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN)...
May 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Mukesh M Mudgal, Nagaraju Birudukota, Mayur A Doke
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been devastating for millions of people around the world. Inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease is among the most important approaches for the therapeutic intervention in HIV infection. Since the discovery of the HIV-1 protease, this enzyme has been considered as a key target for the inhibition of viral replication. A large body of research has been done to develop an effective HIV-1 protease inhibitor. There are to date 10 HIV-1 protease inhibitor drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that have improved the survival and quality of life of HIV infected people...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Raynell Lang, Stuart Skinner, Jackie Ferguson, Taj Jadavji, Maria Stadnyk, John Gill
Despite a dramatic decrease in vertical transmission of HIV in the developed world, maternal HIV infection acquired after negative prenatal screening still leaves a window of vulnerability. Through quality assurance programs in two Canadian Provinces, five cases where perinatal HIV transmission occurred despite negative prenatal screening were identified between 2005 and 2015. Maternal risk factors such as intravenous drug use, high-risk sexual behavior, hepatitis C virus co-infection, and belonging to high prevalence minority groups were common...
August 15, 2018: AIDS Care
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2016 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2016, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Brinda Emu, Jeffrey Fessel, Shannon Schrader, Princy Kumar, Gary Richmond, Sandra Win, Steven Weinheimer, Christian Marsolais, Stanley Lewis
BACKGROUND: Ibalizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody, blocks the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by noncompetitive binding to CD4. METHODS: In this single-group, open-label, phase 3 study, we enrolled 40 adults with multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 infection in whom multiple antiretroviral therapies had failed. All the patients had a viral load of more than 1000 copies of HIV-1 RNA per milliliter. After a 7-day control period in which patients continued to receive their current therapy, a loading dose of 2000 mg of ibalizumab was infused; the viral load was quantified 7 days later...
August 16, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Marlène Guillon
This article studies the epidemiological and economic impacts of a universal testing and treatment policy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in South Africa. A model of disease transmission is built to simulate several implementation scenarios of the policy. Different behavioral responses in the general population are considered. The results show that the success of a large-scale HIV testing and treatment program in South Africa depends on its implementation conditions. The policy can lead to a reduction of the HIV epidemic, even in the case of a large relapse in preventive behaviors in the general population, if implementation conditions are favorable...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Henry J Whittle, Lila A Sheira, Edward A Frongillo, Kartika Palar, Jennifer Cohen, Daniel Merenstein, Tracey E Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Mardge H Cohen, Adaora A Adimora, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lisa Metsch, Janet M Turan, Eryka L Wentz, Phyllis C Tien, Sheri D Weiser
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and substance use. We aimed to investigate this relationship using longitudinal data among women with or at risk for HIV in the United States. DESIGN: Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine sites across the US. PARTICIPANTS: 2,553 women with or at risk for HIV. MEASUREMENTS: Semi-annual structured interviews were conducted during April 2013-March 2016...
August 14, 2018: Addiction
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