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HIV drug

Gideon Lasco, Nicole Curato
Medical emergencies are staple features of today's 24/7 culture of breaking news. As politics becomes increasingly stylised, audiences fragmented, and established knowledge claims contested, health crises have become even more vulnerable to politicisation. We offer the vocabulary of medical populism to make sense of this phenomenon. We define medical populism as a political style based on performances of public health crises that pit 'the people' against 'the establishment.' While some health emergencies lead to technocratic responses that soothe anxieties of a panicked public, medical populism thrives by politicising, simplifying, and spectacularising complex public health issues...
December 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Andrew Radley, Marijn de Bruin, Sarah K Inglis, Peter T Donnan, John F Dillon
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 0.7% of the general population, and up to 40% of people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST) in Scotland. In conventional care, less than 10% of OST users are tested for HCV and less than 25% of these initiate treatment. Community pharmacists see this group frequently to provide OST supervision. This study examines whether a pharmacist-led 'test & treat' pathway increases cure rates for HCV. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes a cluster-randomised trial where 60 community pharmacies provide either conventional or pharmacy-led care...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Yuki Ishida, Tsunefusa Hayashida, Masaya Sugiyama, Kiyoto Tsuchiya, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Masashi Mizokami, Shinichi Oka, Hiroyuki Gatanaga
BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing among HIV-1-infected individuals in Tokyo. Appropriate clinical management is needed. SETTING: To delineate the epidemiological status of HCV transmission, we analyzed stocked plasma samples of HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients seen at the largest referral center for HIV care in Tokyo. METHODS: HCV full-genome sequences were amplified and determined using next-generation sequencing...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Carla Tilchin, Christina M Schumacher, Kevin J Psoter, Elizabeth Humes, Ravikiran Muvva, Patrick Chaulk, William Checkley, Jacky M Jennings
BACKGROUND: The release of the first drug for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 marked the beginning of a new era of HIV prevention. Although PrEP is highly efficacious, identifying and ultimately increasing uptake among the highest risk male subgroups remains a challenge. METHODS: Public health surveillance data from 2009-2016 was used to evaluate the risk of an HIV diagnosis following a syphilis (i.e. primary, secondary, or early latent), gonorrhea, and repeat diagnosis among urban males including MSM and non-MSM in Baltimore City...
December 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Michael McGee, Nicholas Whitehead, Scott Twadell, Nicholas Collins
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension may be a consequence of intrinsic elevation in pulmonary vasculature resistance or complicate numerous other conditions affecting the cardiac and respiratory systems. In this review we sought to explore the relationship between pulmonary hypertension and intravenous drug use. METHODS: A narrative review was conducted using PubMed MeSH search with further papers were identified using a standard PubMed search with relevant key terms and various synonyms...
December 14, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
E S Ivanova, N N Vorobeva, V S Shelud'ko
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to study the immunological and virological efficacy of the domestic antiretroviral drug nicavir (at the optimal dose, as proven by previous clinical studies) with lamivudine, in comparison with other drugs of the group of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with kaletra in perinatal HIV chemoprophylaxis regimens. METHODS: 658 pregnant women aged 16-39 years and children born to them were examined. The first group (281 people) and the third group (66 people) received the nicavir (manufactured by AZT PHARMA KB LLC) with lamivudine in combination with calyx; the second (281 people) and the fourth (30 people) of the comparison group, stag and zidovudine, respectively, with lamivudine in combination with calyx...
2018: Voprosy Virusologii
Briony Pasipanodya, Rudo Kuwengwa, Margaret L Prust, Bethany Stewart, Christine Chakanyuka, Tonderayi Murimwa, Jason Brophy, Olawale Salami, Angela Mushavi, Tsitsi Apollo
INTRODUCTION: Heat-stable lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) oral pellets were developed to overcome challenges with administration and storage experienced with previously available tablet and syrup forms of LPV/r prescribed to paediatric HIV patients. We report on the adoption of LPV/r pellets for infants living with HIV in the public sector antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Infants aged three months to three years who had been prescribed a LPV/r-based regimen (including ART-naïve patients) in fourteen facilities across the country were eligible to receive the pellets...
December 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Yang Liu, Nicolas Margot, Kathryn M Kitrinos, Christian Callebaut
An HIV-1 integrase (IN) genotyping assay was developed to evaluate clinical samples from patients infected with HIV-1 subtype AE, a subtype highly prevalent in Asia. The HIV-1 integrase gene was amplified from plasma-derived HIV-1 viral RNA via RT-PCR followed by population sequencing. Assay sensitivity was also evaluated using serially diluted plasma samples. The genotyping assay successfully amplified the IN gene from patient plasma samples with HIV-1 RNA as low as 500 copies/mL. This assay is suitable for IN genotyping to identify IN drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 patients harboring subtype AE virus...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Azar Kariminia, Matthew Law, Mary-Ann Davies, Michael Vinikoor, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Valeriane Leroy, Andrew Edmonds, Catherine McGowan, Rachel Vreeman, Lee Fairlie, Samuel Ayaya, Marcel Yotebieng, Elom Takassi, Jorge Pinto, Adebola Adedimeji, Karen Malateste, Daisy M Machado, Martina Penazzato, Rohan Hazra, Annette H Sohn
INTRODUCTION: We assessed mortality and losses to follow-up (LTFU) during adolescence in routine care settings in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. METHODS: Cohorts in the Asia-Pacific, the Caribbean, Central, and South America, and sub-Saharan Africa (Central, East, Southern, West) contributed data, and included adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) enrolled from January 2003 and aged 10 to 19 years (period of adolescence) while under care up to database closure (June 2016)...
December 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Erm Pool, A Winston, E Bagkeris, J H Vera, Pwg Mallon, M Sachikonye, F A Post, A Pozniak, M Boffito, J Anderson, I Williams, M Johnson, L Burgess, C A Sabin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patterns and frequency of multiple risk behaviours (alcohol, drugs, smoking, higher risk sexual activity) among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. METHODS: Cross sectional study. RESULTS: 819 HIV-positive MSM exhibited a high-risk phenotype (defined as >3 of smoking, excess alcohol, sexually transmitted infection and recent recreational drug use). This phenotype was associated with younger age, depressive symptoms and <90% adherence in multivariable logistic regression...
December 12, 2018: HIV Medicine
Esteban Ribera
Advances in antiretroviral therapy have led to dramatic improvements in survival of HIV-infected persons. However, HIV cure remains elusive and lifelong treatment is needed. Attempts for reducing long-term drug exposure, toxicities, and cost, while maintaining viral suppression, have led to explore whether maintenance strategies with less than triple therapy could be feasible using the newest more potent antiretrovirals. While monotherapies have failed to do so with selection of drug resistance, some dual combinations have proven its efficacy when used sequentially in patients with viral suppression under standard triple regimens...
2018: AIDS Reviews
Vicente Soriano, Jorge Del Romero
Nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of the four major curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), namely trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Despite huge global incidence, STIs remain as neglected diseases. The success of antiretrovirals for halting progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and for stopping HIV transmission to uninfected contacts, either as pre- or post-exposure -prophylaxis, has to lead to increased risky sexual behaviors through risk compensation...
2018: AIDS Reviews
Coco C Dekkers, Jan Westerink, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends
Cardiovascular risk management in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is gaining increased attention due to the rising incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in this population. Despite the availability of efficacious treatment strategies, implementation of guideline advocated preventive therapy, such as lipid-lowering therapy with statins, is hampered by perceived, expected, and real side effects as well as by expected interactions with combination antiretroviral therapy. These obstacles to optimal treatment have resulted in a large gap between the number of patients in whom lipid-lowering therapy is indicated and those actually taking lipid-lowering medication...
2018: AIDS Reviews
Janet Ousley, Robin Nesbitt, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Elkin Bermudez, Kyi Pyar Soe, Rey Anicete, Phyu Ei Mon, Win Le Shwe Sin Ei, Susannah Christofani, Marcelo Fernandez, Iza Ciglenecki
BACKGROUND: In Southeast Asia, though fishermen are known to be a key population at high risk of HIV, little is known about their co-infection rates with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), or how illness and risk behaviors vary by occupation or type of fishermen. In Myanmar, this lack of knowledge is particularly acute, despite the fact that much of the country's border is coastline. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess clinical, demographic, and risk characteristics of HIV-infected, ≥15-year-old males under HIV care from 2004 to 2014...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yoshitaka Wakabayashi, Yusuke Yoshino, Kazunori Seo, Ichiro Koga, Takatoshi Kitazawa, Yasuo Ota
Osteoporosis is one of the chronic complications seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and affects patients at high prevalence. The causes of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients are multiple, and include chronic HIV infection, living habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption, and antiretroviral drug use. Among antiretroviral drugs, protease inhibitors have been reported to be associated with osteoporosis. However, it remains to be determined how anti-HIV drugs affect osteoblast differentiation...
December 2018: Biomedical Reports
Ricky Hsu, Jennifer Fusco, Cassidy Henegar, Karam Mounzer, Michael Wohlfeiler, Vani Vannappagari, Michael Aboud, Lloyd Curtis, Gregory Fusco
Background: Psychiatric outcomes are common among people living with HIV and may be associated with specific antiretroviral use. We evaluated the occurrence of psychiatric outcomes in patients taking dolutegravir (DTG)-containing regimens compared with five other core agents. Methods: Patients in the OPERA database prescribed regimens based on DTG, efavirenz (EFV), raltegravir (RAL), darunavir (DRV), rilpivirine (RPV), or elvitegravir (EVG) for the first time between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were analyzed...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Sean Matthew McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William Edward Diehl, Jeremy Luban
HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells. Immune activation requires transcription from the HIV-1 provirus and expression of CRM1-dependent, Rev-dependent, RRE-containing, unspliced HIV-1 RNA...
December 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Kalysha Closson, Alexis Palmer, Kate Salters, Cathy Puskas, Surita Parashar, Lateefa Tiamiyu, Wendy Zhang, Rolando Barrios, Angela Kaida, Robert S Hogg
PURPOSE: We assessed differences in optimal adherence between youth (aged 15-29 years) and adults (aged ≥30 years) enrolled in the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program from 2010 to 2016. METHODS: Population-level clinical data were used to compare optimal antiretroviral therapy adherence (≥95%), based on pharmacy refill data, among youth and adults. Unadjusted and adjusted generalized estimating estimates were performed to examine the independent relationship between time-dependent age categories and optimal adherence, adjusting for confounders...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
José Luis Casado, María Fontecha, Marta Monsalvo, Pilar Vizcarra
Because lifelong therapy is needed in HIV infection, high long-term adherence is necessary. Darunavir/co-bicistat/emtricitabina/tenofovir alafenamide (Symtuza® ) is the first triple therapy combining a protease inhibitor (PI) in a single tablet regimen. This drug combines the potency and high genetic barrier of the most effective PI, darunavir, with the renal and bone safety of tenofovir alafenamide. Phase 3 studies have demonstrated its non-inferiority in achieving virologic suppression and maintaining efficacy in virological-ly suppressed patients, even in those with previous failure...
December 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Josep M Llibre
Darunavir is the gold standard protease inhibitor in antiretroviral treatment. It has undergone complete development through randomised clinical trials throughout the entire spectrum of HIV infection, with 2 different dosages and clear indications of when to use each one of them. It has been studied in mono, dual and triple therapy. It can also be administered boosted with either ritonavir or cobicistat. The data indicate that it is the antiretroviral with the greatest barrier against resistance development and that it is the drug with the longest residence time bound to its receptor (protease), thus having the longest dissociation time...
December 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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