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HIV drug

Ji Young Kim, Youngran Yang, Hyun Kyung Kim, Ji Young Kim
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the impact of alcohol use on the antiretroviral-therapy (ART) adherence of Koreans living with HIV. METHODS: A total of 144 HIV-infected Koreans over the age of 19 who had been receiving antiretroviral drugs for at least three months were surveyed. Alcohol use was identified as non-hazardous, binge, hazardous, and alcohol dependent as determined by the Alcohol Disorder20s Identification Test-Korea (AUDIT-K). Antiretroviral-therapy adherence was defined according to the components of adherence motivation, adherence knowledge, and 95% medication adherence using the modified Morisky scale (MMS)...
October 11, 2018: Asian Nursing Research
Edgar A Rivera-Leon, Iris M Llamas-Covarrubias, Raul A Soria-Rodriguez, Sergio Sanchez-Enriquez, Luz A González-Hernández, Jaime F Andrade-Villanueva, Mara A Llamas-Covarrubias
INTRODUCTION: Patients with HIV+ often present lipid disturbances. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in these lipid disturbances is not clear. The effect of antiretroviral (ART) drugs on those molecules is also unknown. This study measured ghrelin and obestatin levels, as well as metabolic markers, in patients with HIV+ before and after 36 weeks of ART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty HIV-positive, ART-naïve patients who started a scheme consisting of tenofovir/emtricitabine+lopinavir/ritonavir were enrolled...
October 10, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Melanie Stecher, Antoine Chaillon, Anna Maria Eis-Hübinger, Clara Lehmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Elena Knops, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Sanjay Mehta, Martin Hoenigl
OBJECTIVES: In Germany, previous reports have demonstrated transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRM) in 11% of newly diagnosed individuals, highlighting the importance of drug-resistance screening prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of HIV DRM transmission in the Cologne-Bonn region of Germany, given one of the highest rates of new HIV diagnoses in Western Europe (13.7 per 100,000 habitants). METHODS: We analysed 714 HIV-1 ART naïve infected individuals diagnosed at the University Hospitals Cologne and Bonn between 2001 and 2016...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Qian An, Ruiguang Song, Teresa J Finlayson, Catlainn Sionean, Cyprian Wejnert
We present a simple, comprehensive method for assessing similarity between sex partners of a participant and demonstrate its application using data collected in 2015 as part of CDC's National HIV behavioral surveillance (NHBS) among persons who inject drugs (PWID). We found that the pairwise similarity between sex partners of a survey participant was high. The similarity between second-to-last and third-to-last partners in the past 3 months was significantly higher than that between last and second-to-last partner in partner type, frequency of sex acts, and the contextual characteristics of sex behavior at last sexual encounter...
October 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
K Rivet Amico, Jessica Miller, Christopher Balthazar, Pedro Alonso Serrano, Jennifer Brothers, Sarah Zollweg, Sybil Hosek
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men is a critical part of the HIV prevention landscape in the US. Given the unique challenges and resources of young MSM negotiating safer sex practices, including PrEP, counseling and supportive discussions to optimize both PrEP use and sexual health protection more generally may facilitate reaching HIV prevention goals. Within the context of a large, open-label PrEP study (ATN110/113), support for sexual health promotion and PrEP use was provided through use of integrated Next Step Counseling (iNSC) as part of study visits...
October 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Michael P Dubé, Sung Yong Park, Heather Ross, Tanzy M T Love, Sheldon R Morris, Ha Youn Lee
Daily PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV-1 acquisition, but risks of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) include renal decline and bone mineral density decrease in addition to initial gastrointestinal side effects. We investigated the impact of TDF-FTC on the enteric microbiome using rectal swabs collected from healthy MSM before PrEP initiation and after 48 to 72 weeks of adherent PrEP use. The V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing showed that Streptococcus was significantly reduced from 12...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Thiyam Ramsing Singh, Lisam Shanjukumar Singh
Increasing incidence of drug resistance is ascertained to be the main obstacles in limiting the virus among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. This study investigates the drug resistance mutations (DRMs), genetic variants and origin of transmitted drug resistance of HIV-1 among the HIV-1 infected wives of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Manipur. 44 HIV pol gene sequences were generated from 56 blood samples by viral gene amplification and sequencing. Sequences were then analysed for drug resistance, genetic variants and origin...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ali Judd, Caroline Foster, Lindsay C Thompson, Kate Sturgeon, Marthe Le Prevost, Eva Jungmann, Katie Rowson, Hannah Castro, Diana M Gibb
As adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) survive into adulthood, gaining insight into sexual behaviour and risk-taking is important. Between 2013-2015, 296 PHIV aged 13-21 years and 96 HIV negative affected adolescents (13-23 years) were recruited to the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort in England. Sexual health data were collected through computer-assisted self-interview questionnaires. Quality of life and household deprivation were also measured. T-tests compared means, and χ2 proportions; logistic regression examined predictors of ever having sex...
2018: PloS One
Alyona Mazhnaya, Ruthanne Marcus, Martha J Bojko, Alexei Zelenev, Iuliia Makarenko, Iryna Pykalo, Sergii Filippovych, Sergii Dvoriak, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: The HIV treatment cascade is a crucial tool to guide HIV prevention and treatment strategies. The extent to which opioid agonist treatments (OATs) such as methadone and buprenorphine influence this cascade was examined in a nationwide study of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. SETTING: Cross-sectional stratified survey of PWID followed by HIV and hepatitis C virus testing in 5 Ukrainian cities. METHODS: Opioid-dependent PWID (N = 1613) were sampled from January 2014 to March 2015...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Angela R Bazzi, Dea L Biancarelli, Ellen Childs, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Alberto Edeza, Peter Salhaney, Matthew J Mimiaga, Katie B Biello
People who inject drugs (PWID) experience sexual and injection-related HIV risks, but uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among PWID has been low. Improving PrEP uptake in this population will require understanding of PrEP knowledge and interest. In 2017, we conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with HIV-uninfected PWID and key informants (PrEP and harm reduction providers) in the US Northeast. Thematic analysis of coded data explored PrEP knowledge and the factors that influence PrEP interest...
October 11, 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Lai Wei, Ji Dong Jia, Fu Sheng Wang, Jun Qi Niu, Xu Min Zhao, Shengmei Mu, Li Wen Liang, Zaiqi Wang, Peggy Hwang, Michael N Robertson, Paul Ingravallo, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Bo Wei, Barbara Evans, George J Hanna, Rohit Talwani, Zhong Ping Duan, Konstantin Zhdanov, Pin-Nan Cheng, Tawesak Tanwandee, Van Kinh Nguyen, Jeong Heo, Vasily Isakov, Jacob George
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although treatment with direct-acting antivirals has dramatically improved morbidity and mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis C virus infection, universal access to these medicines has been slow in the Asia-Pacific region and Russia. This study evaluated efficacy and safety of elbasvir/grazoprevir in participants with HCV infection from Asia-Pacific countries and Russia (C-CORAL). METHODS: C-CORAL was a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rachael Lazar, Laura Kersanske, Sarah L Braunstein
People living with HIV (PLWH) are frequently affected by comorbid medical conditions. Despite the importance of diagnosing and treating these conditions, testing rates for common comorbidities often fall short of primary care recommendations for PLWH. Clinical care data were obtained from the 2012 New York City (NYC) Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a multi-site surveillance project that includes demographically representative cohorts of PLWH receiving medical care. Medical record abstraction data were analyzed to determine testing frequencies for potential comorbid conditions, including tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C, diabetes, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and to assess demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with testing...
October 12, 2018: AIDS Care
Shuaihua Gao, Yingxiu Lu, Yuanyuan Li, Rong Huang, Guojun Zheng
(-)-γ-Lactam ((-)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one) has attracted increasing attention as the chiral intermediate of carbocyclic nucleosides most of which serve as pharmaceutical agents such as anti-HIV/HBV drugs abacavir and carbovir. So far, developing in vitro (+)-γ-lactamase-mediated biotransformation has been one of the most efficient approaches for the production of (-)-γ-lactam. In this study, the catalytic activity of the (+)-γ-lactamase from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was engineered by semi-rational design...
October 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Cindy Huang, Vichetra Sam, Sophie Du, Tuan Le, Anthony Fletcher, William Lau, Kathleen Meyer, Esther Asaki, Da Wei Huang, Calvin Johnson
The third-generation sequencing technology, PacBio, has shown an ability to sequence the HIV virus amplicons in their full length. The long read of PaBio offers a distinct advantage to comprehensively understand the virus evolution complexity at quasispecies level (i.e. maintaining linkage information of variants) comparing to the short reads from Illumina shotgun sequencing. However, due to the highnoise nature of the PacBio reads, it is still a challenge to build accurate contigs at high sensitivity. Most of previously developed NGS assembly tools work with the assumption that the input reads are fairly accurate, which is largely true for the data derived from Sanger or Illumina technologies...
2018: Bioinformation
Aristid Ekollo Mbange, Djiba Kaba, Abou Abdallah Malick Diouara, Halimatou Diop-Ndiaye, Ndeye Fatou Ngom-Ngueye, Ahmed Dieng, Seynabou Lo, Kine Ndiaye Toure, Mamadou Fall, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Mariama Sadjo Diallo, Mohamed Cisse, Souleymane Mboup, Coumba Toure Kane
OBJECTIVES: Disruption in HIV care provision may enhance the development and spread of drug resistance due to inadequate antiretroviral therapy. This study thus determined the prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in settings of decentralized therapy and care in Senegal and, the Ebola outbreak in Guinea. Antiretroviral-naïve patients were enrolled following a modified WHO TDR Threshold Survey method, implemented in Senegal (January-March 2015) and Guinea (August-September 2015)...
October 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Tyler Finocchio, William Coolidge, Thomas Johnson
The management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be a complicated specialty within itself, made even more complex when there are so many unanswered questions regarding the care of critically ill patients with HIV. The lack of consensus on the use of antiretroviral medications in the critically ill patient population has contributed to an ongoing clinical debate among intensivists. This review focuses on the pharmacological complications of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the intensive care setting, specifically the initiation of ART in patients newly diagnosed with HIV, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), continuation of ART in those who were on a complete regimen prior to intensive care unit admission, barriers of drug delivery alternatives, and drug-drug interactions...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Kyung-Bok Son
Compulsory licensing (CL), provided by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, enables countries, including high-income countries, to ensure the protection of public health in the context of stringent intellectual property regimes. This study investigated associations between the time to attempted CL and a series of factors at the drug and country level. We used a dataset of all attempted CL that occurred from 1995 to 2014, calculated the duration as the difference in years between the year of global marketing of a certain drug and the year of attempted CL in a certain country, and applied a nonparametric event history model...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Margaret Nyaku, Linda Beer, Fengjue Shu
Not taking medicine over a specific period of time-non-persistence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)-may be associated with higher HIV-viral load. However, national estimates of non-persistence among U.S. HIV patients are lacking. We examined the association between non-persistence and various factors, including sustained HIV-viral suppression (VS) stratified by adherence, and assessed reasons for non-persistence using Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) data. MMP conducts clinical and behavioral surveillance among cross-sectional representative samples of adults receiving HIV care in the U...
October 11, 2018: AIDS Care
Sai Archana Krovi, Matthew D Gallovic, Austin M Keller, Menakshi Bhat, Pamela Tiet, Naihan Chen, Michael A Collier, Elizabeth G Gurysh, Erica N Pino, Monica M Johnson, M Shamim Hasan Zahid, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Jason R Pirone, Angela D Kashuba, Jesse J Kwiek, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie
While highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced mortality rates in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), its efficacy may be impeded by emergence of drug resistance caused by lack of patient adherence. A therapeutic strategy that requires infrequent drug administration as a result of sustained release of antiretroviral drugs would put less burden on the patient. Long-acting antiretroviral prodrugs for HIV therapy were synthesized through modification of the active drugs, emtricitabine (FTC) and elvitegravir (EVG), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in one-step, one-pot, high-yielding reactions...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Youfang Cao, Emily K Cartwright, Guido Silvestri, Alan S Perelson
CD8+ lymphocytes play an important role in suppressing in vivo viral replication in HIV infection. However, both the extent to which and the mechanisms by which CD8+ lymphocytes contribute to viral control are not completely understood. A recent experiment depleted CD8+ lymphocytes in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RMs) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to study the role of CD8+ lymphocytes. CD8+ lymphocytes depletion resulted in temporary plasma viremia in all studied RMs. Viral control was restored when CD8+ lymphocytes repopulated...
October 11, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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