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apoptosis irradiation

Joanna Nackiewicz, Marta Kliber-Jasik, Magdalena Skonieczna
Zn-based phthalocyanine acts as drug or photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of cancer cells. The activated zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine (ZnPcOC) reacts with oxygen, to generate reactive oxygen species for the damage of melanoma cancer cells, Me45. This in vitro study aimed at investigating the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of ZnPcOC activated with a diode laser (λ = 685 nm) on Me45, and normal human fibroblast cells, NHDF. To perform this study 104 cells/ml were seeded in 96-well plates and allowed to attach overnight, after which cells were treated with different concentrations of ZnPcOC (10, 20 and 30 μM)...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Anneliese Krell, Marietta Wolter, Nina Stojcheva, Caroline Hertler, Franziska Liesenberg, Marc Zapatka, Michael Weller, Bastian Malzkorn, Guido Reifenberger
AIMS: Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is frequent in various cancers including gliomas. We aimed to characterize the role of miR-16-5p as a candidate tumour suppressor miRNA in gliomas. METHODS: Real-time PCR-based approaches were used for miRNA and mRNA expression profiling of glioma and non-neoplastic brain tissues as well as glioma cell lines. Protein levels were determined by Western blotting. In vitro analyses were performed following overexpression of miR-16-5p, trichostatin A treatment, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of HDAC3 in glioma cells...
December 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Sirui Li, Dan Shi, Liangyu Zhang, Fang Yang, Guanghui Cheng
Oridonin is an active component of the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens . The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effects of oridonin on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and explore whether oridonin could enhance their radiosensitivity. Oridonin was demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation of SPC-A-1 and HCC827 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was detected using the MTT assay. In addition, pretreatment with oridonin for 24 h prior to irradiation was identified to enhance the radiosensitivity of SPC-A-1 cells...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Branislav Kura, Ashim K Bagchi, Pawan K Singal, Miroslav Barancik, Tyler W LeBaron, Katarina Valachova, Ladislav Soltes, Jan Slezak
Uncontrolled production of oxygen and nitrogen radicals results in oxidative (OS) and nitrosative (NS) stresses that impair cellular functions and have been regarded as causative common denominators of many pathological processes. In this review, we report on the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) in scavenging radicals in an artificial system of ●OH formation. As a proof of principle, we also demonstrate that in rat hearts in vivo, administration of H2 led to a significant increase in SOD as well as pAKT, a cell survival signaling molecule...
December 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yan Ma, Xiaojing Jia
BACKGROUND Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) induces severe damage in multiple human tissues. The testes are extremely sensitive to IR, and testes irradiation can result in infertility and abnormality. A novel and safe radioprotector for testes injury from IR is needed. Polydatin (PD) has been proved to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating its potential application in radiation protection. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks old) were exposed to ionizing radiation...
December 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Weichao Zhao, Nan Hu, Dexin Ding, Dingxin Long, Sheng Li, Guangyue Li, Hui Zhang
In this paper, the developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos induced by 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10-Gy γ-ray irradiation were investigated and verified by single cell gel electrophoresis, acridine orange staining, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, digital gene expression sequencing, and Western blot analysis. DNA damage, deformity rates, and apoptosis of zebrafish embryos were found to increase significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, and survival and hatching rates significantly decreased when the irradiation dose exceeds 0...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jia-Yu Li, Kun Zhang, Dan Xu, Wen-Tian Zhou, Wen-Qing Fang, Yu-Ying Wan, Dan-Dan Yan, Miao-Yu Guo, Jin-Xin Tao, Wen-Chuan Zhou, Fan Yang, Li-Ping Jiang, Xiao-Jian Han
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used to provide illumination due to their low energy requirements and high brightness. However, the LED spectrum contains an intense blue light component which is phototoxic to the retina. Recently, it has been reported that blue light may directly impinge on mitochondrial function in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Mitochondria are high dynamic organelles that undergo frequent fission and fusion events. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in blue light-induced damage in retinal neuronal R28 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Deyu Sun, Yi Mu, Haozhe Piao
BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most prevalent malignant tumor in human central nervous systems. Recently, the development of resistance to radiotherapy in glioma patients markedly vitiates the therapy outcome. MiR-153-3p has been reported to be closely correlated with tumor progression, but its effect and molecular mechanism underlying radioresistance remains unclear in glioma. METHODS: The expression of miR-153-3p was determined in radioresistant glioma clinical specimens as well as glioma cell lines exposed to irradiation (IR) using quantitative real-time PCR...
December 11, 2018: Biological Research
Pavel Kundrát, Werner Friedland
Oncogenic transformed cells represent an in vitro system mimicking early-stage carcinogenesis. These precancerous cells are subject to a selective removal via apoptosis induced by neighbor cells. By modulating the underpinning intercellular signaling mediated by cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, ionizing radiation enhances this removal of precancerous cells in vitro, at doses from a few mGy to a few Gy. However, epidemiological data demonstrate that radiation exposure induces cancer, at least above 100 mGy...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jiali Dong, Yuan Li, Huiwen Xiao, Dan Luo, Shuqin Zhang, Changchun Zhu, Mian Jiang, Ming Cui, Lu Lu, Saijun Fan
Radiation therapy toward malignancies is often ineffective owing to radioresistance of cancer cells. On the basis of anti-tumor properties of cordycepin, we examined the effects of cordycepin on sensitizing breast cancer cells toward radiotherapy. Cordycepin administration promoted G2/M arrest and apoptosis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulting in restraining the proliferation of the cells in vitro and in vivo following irradiation. Mechanistic investigations showed that the breast cancer cells cultured with cordycepin harbored higher levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and incremental numbers of γ-H2AX foci after irradiation exposure...
December 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Pavel N Lobachevsky, Jessica Ventura, Lina Giannakandropoulou, Helen Forrester, Jason S Palazzolo, Nicole M Haynes, Andrew W Stevenson, Christopher J Hall, Joel Mason, Gerasimos Pollakis, Ioannis S Pateras, Vassilis Gorgoulis, Georgia I Terzoudi, John A Hamilton, Carl N Sprung, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Olga A Martin
INTRODUCTION: Non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation, by which unirradiated cells and tissues are also damaged, are a relatively new paradigm in radiobiology. We recently reported radiation-induced abscopal effects (RIAEs) in normal tissues, namely DNA damage, apoptosis, and activation of the local and systemic immune responses in C57BL6/J mice after irradiation of a small region of the body [1]. High dose-rate synchrotron-generated broad beam or multi-planar X-ray microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) was used with various field sizes and doses...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Zhanzhan Li, Na Li, Liangfang Shen, Jun Fu
Since resistance to radiotherapy remains refractory for the clinical management of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), further understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance is necessary in order to develop more effective NPC treatment and improve prognosis. In this study, an integrated quantitative proteomic approach involving tandem mass tag labeling and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used to identify proteins potentially responsible for the radioresistance of NPC. The differential radiosensitivity in NPC model cells was examined through clonogenic survival assay, CCK-8 viability assay, and BrdU incorporation analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Feng-Chi Hsieh, Chun-Tzu Hung, Kai-Chun Cheng, Chang-Yi Wu, Yen-Chun Chen, Yu-Jen Wu, Wangta Liu, Chien-Chih Chiu
The medicinal herb Lycium barbarum fruit has been widely used for improving and maintaining the health of the eyes in the Far East for many centuries. This study is aimed at investigating whether protective effects generated from the aqueous (LBA) and ethanol (LBE) extracts of the L. barbarum fruit existed against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. L. barbarum extracts LBA and LBE exerted the activity of ROS scavenging and rescued UVB irradiation-induced growth inhibition in retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 cells...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Michiharu Yoshida, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Shunsuke Terasaka, Shogo Endo, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Hiroaki Motegi, Rachmilevitch Itay, Shuji Suzuki, Omer Brokman, Yeruham Shapira, Kenji Moriyama, Yumiko Kawase, Toshiaki Akahane, Yasutaka Kato, Hajime Kamada, Kiyohiro Houkin
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is used to treat various malignancies and can be applied to brain tumors using a transcranial magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) device. This study investigated the efficacy of 220-kHz TcMRgFUS combined with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on malignant glioma in vitro and in vivo. F98 cells were irradiated with focused ultrasound (FUS) (4000 J, 20 W, 240 s, 100% duty cycle, target medium temperature <40°C) after treatment with 200 µg/mL 5-ALA, and cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated with the water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay, triple fluorescent staining and Western blot analysis 20 h later...
December 3, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Ki-Hye Jung, Ji-Ae Park, Jung Young Kim, Mi Hyun Kim, Seyoung Oh, Hee-Kyung Kim, Eun-Ji Choi, Han-Jun Kim, Sun Hee Do, Kyo Chul Lee, Kyeong Min Kim, Yong Jin Lee, Yongmin Chang
Gadolinium-neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is based on the nuclear capture reaction that occurs when 157 Gd is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to primarily produce gamma photons. Herein, we investigated the effect of neutron capture therapy (NCT) using a small molecular gadolinium complex, Gd-DO3A-benzothiazole (Gd-DO3A-BTA), which could be a good candidate for use as an NCT drug due to its ability to enter the intracellular nuclei of tumor cells. Furthermore, MRI images of Gd-DO3A-BTA showed a clear signal enhancement in the tumor, and the images also played a key role in planning NCT by providing accurate information on the in vivo uptake time and duration of Gd-DO3A-BTA...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Abdelrazek B Abdelrazzak, Mohamed A El-Missiry, Moustafa T Ahmed, Basma F Elnady
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of whole body low-dose radiation (10 cGy of 6 MeV x-rays) given prior to a challenging dose of 2 Gy x-rays on adaptive response in the liver of rats Materials and Methods: Rats were either irradiated with 10cGy, 2Gy or 10cGy 24h prior to 2Gy (10cGy-2Gy irradiated). Liver samples were analysed for apoptosis,caspase-3, Bcl-2, by flow cytometery. DNA damage was determined by alkaline comet assay. The protein damage, lipid damage, and expression of endogenous antioxidants, Il-1β, Il-6, and TNF-α were determined by ELISA...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Lina Xiao, Ziran Wu, Junzhe Zhang, Guohua Wang, Yuhui Ma, Yayun Ding, Xiao He, Shouquan Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang
It is currently a very active research area to develop multifunctional nanocomposites (NCs) which integrate the novel properties from various nanomaterials for multimodal imaging and simultaneous therapy. These theranostic nanoplatforms can provide complementary information from each imaging modality for accurate diagnosis and, at the same time, afford an imaging-guided focused tumor therapy. Among them, core/shell Fe₃O₄@Au NCs have attracted wide attention due to their unique advantages in magnetic targeting, multimodal imaging and photothermal therapy...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Tatsuki Kunoh, Tsutomu Shimura, Tomonari Kasai, Syuji Matsumoto, Hafizah Mahmud, Apriliana Cahya Khayrani, Masaharu Seno, Hitoshi Kunoh, Jun Takada
The surface reactivity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is receiving attention as a radiosensitizer of cancer cells for radiation therapy and/or as a drug carrier to target cells. This study demonstrates the potential of DNA-AuNPs (prepared by mixing calf thymus DNA with HAuCl4 solution) as a radiosensitizer of human glioma cells that have cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, to reduce their survival. CSC-like U251MG-P1 cells and their parental glioblastoma U251MG cells are treated with a prepared DNA-AuNP colloid...
February 1, 2019: Nanotechnology
Sharmi Mukherjee, Anindita Chakraborty
PURPOSE: Despite of the extensive utilization of radiotherapy in cancer treatments, clinicians often face challenges in achieving desired outcomes. This is because of the existence of secondary radiation effects like bystander phenomenon that influence radiation non-targeted cells and tissues. The concept of bystander effects of radiation was first proposed in the latter half of the last century which led to a paradigm shift in classical dogma of radiation biology. This review primarily focuses on the diverse mechanisms of bystander signal production and response under the influence of different sources of radiation like α, β, γ rays as well as protons and ions...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Azadeh Fahim Golestaneh, Laura S M Lecker, Julian Schlegel, Ali Nowrouzi, Christian Schwager, Sarah Meister, Wilko Weichert, Jürgen Debus, Amir Abdollahi
Micro RNAs (miR) are master regulators of cellular transcriptome. We aimed to investigate the role of miR regulation on tumor radiosensitivity and development of local tumor recurrence by a novel large-scale in-vivo loss of function screen. For stable miR silencing, human A431 tumor cells were transduced with lentiviral constructs against 170 validated human miR (miRzip library). Fractionated radiotherapy (5x6Gy) was applied to A431 miRzip library growing s.c. in NCr nude mice. Enrichment of miRZip and miR expression was assessed using multiplexed qRT-PCR...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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