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apoptosis irradiation

Pei Zhang, Jicong Du, Hainan Zhao, Ying Cheng, Suhe Dong, Yanyong Yang, Bailong Li, Fu Gao, Xuejun Sun, Jianming Cai, Cong Liu
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation often causes severe injuries to radiosensitive tissues, especially haematopoietic system. Novel radioprotective drugs with low toxicity and high effectiveness are required. Prolyl hydroxylases domain (PHD) inhibitors have been reported to protect against radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of a PHD inhibitor, roxadustat (FG-4592), against radiation-induced haematopoietic injuries in vitro and in vivo...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Kaiyuan Ni, Guangxu Lan, Samuel S Veroneau, Xiaopin Duan, Yang Song, Wenbin Lin
Selective delivery of photosensitizers to mitochondria of cancer cells can enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Though cationic Ru-based photosensitizers accumulate in mitochondria, they require excitation with less penetrating short-wavelength photons, limiting their application in PDT. We recently discovered X-ray based cancer therapy by nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nMOFs) via enhancing radiotherapy (RT) and enabling radiodynamic therapy (RDT). Herein we report Hf-DBB-Ru as a mitochondria-targeted nMOF for RT-RDT...
October 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Li Li, Ke Zhang, Ji Zhang, Ya-Nan Zeng, Feng Lai, Gen Li, Na Ma, Ming-Jiang Hu, Feng-Mei Cui, Qiu Chen
This study aimed to examine the radioprotective effect of polydatin (PD) on crypt and endothelial cells of the small intestines of C57BL/6 mice that received abdominal irradiation. Mice were treated with 20 Gy X-ray (6 MeV) abdominal irradiation at a dose rate of 200 cGy/min. Thirty minutes before or after irradiation (IR), mice were intraperitoneally injected with PD. The rate of survival of the mice at 30 days after irradiation was determined. The duodenum (upper small intestine), jejunum (middle small intestine), and ileum (lower small intestine) were collected and subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining...
October 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Minghui Chang, Xingguo Song, Xinran Geng, Xingwu Wang, Weijun Wang, Thomas C Chen, Li Xie, Xianrang Song
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate (TMZ-POH), a novel Temozolomide (TMZ) analog developed based on the conjugation of TMZ and perillyl alcohol (POH), displayed strong anticancer potency in multiple cancer types. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between TMZ-POH and autophagy, and explore the underlying mechanisms involved in. METHODS: The proteins involved in autophagy, mitochondrial fission, lysosomal function and membrane traffic were detected by western blots; Autophagosome, mitochondria and lysosome were visualized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and immunostaining; Apoptosis analysis and fluorescence probe detection were applied by flow cytometry...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Christian Grimm, Charlotte E Remé
The induction of retinal degeneration by light exposure is widely used to study mechanisms of cell death. The advantage of such light-induced lesions over genetically determined degenerations is that light exposures can be manipulated according to the needs of the experimenter. Bright white light exposure can induce a synchronized burst of apoptosis in photoreceptors in a large retinal area which permits to study cellular and molecular events in a controlled fashion. Blue light of high energy induces a hot spot of high retinal irradiance within very short exposure durations (seconds to minutes) and may help to unravel the initial events after light absorption which may be similar for all damage regimens...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zhong-Guo Liang, Guo-Xiang Lin, Bin-Bin Yu, Fang Su, Ling Li, Song Qu, Xiao-Dong Zhu
Purpose: The present study aimed to study the role of autophagy in the radiosensitivity of the radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R. Methods: Before being irradiated, CNE-2R cells were treated with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) or the autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAPA). Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) and p62 were assessed using Western blotting analysis 48 hours after CNE-2R cells were irradiated...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Jang-Chun Lin, Jo-Ting Tsai, Tsu-Yi Chao, Hsin-I Ma, Chian-Shiu Chien, Wei-Hsiu Liu
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain malignancy in adults, and currently available GBM treatments present several unique challenges. It is known that GBM involves cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and tumor cells that aggressively invade normal brain tissues, and both cell types may cause resistance to radiotherapy (RT) and are thus responsible for therapeutic failure. The radioresistance of GBM cells relies on the efficient activation of the DNA damage response (DDR), but the mechanisms linking this response with stem-cell status and tumor invasion remain unclear...
October 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Hironori Yoshino, Haruka Konno, Koya Ogura, Yoshiaki Sato, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Radiosensitivity varies depending on the cell type; highly differentiated cells typically exhibit greater radioresistance. We recently demonstrated that human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytic cells, which lack TP53 , are highly resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis compared with undifferentiated THP-1 cells. However, the mechanisms by which THP-1 cells acquire radioresistance during differentiation remain unknown. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms by which THP-1-derived macrophages develop p53-independent radioresistance by analyzing DNA damage responses and apoptotic pathways...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhichao Fu, Pei Zhang, Huachun Luo, Huijuan Huang, Fengmei Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of stromal cell‑derived factor 1 (CXCL12) in the radioresistance of cervical cancer, which was upregulated in tumors in our previous study. A CCK‑8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis and the expression levels of CD44 and CXCR4. ELISA was performed to measure the expression level of CXCL12 protein and CXCL12 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Akram Assali, Omid Akhavan, Fatemeh Mottaghitalab, Mohsen Adeli, Rassoul Dinarvand, Shayan Razzazan, Ehsan Arefian, Masoud Soleimani, Fatemeh Atyabi
Introduction: MicroRNA-101 (miR-101) is an intense cancer suppressor with special algorithm to target a wide range of pathways and genes which indicates the ability to regulate apoptosis, cellular stress, metastasis, autophagy, and tumor growth. Silencing of some genes such as Stathmin1 with miR-101 can be interpreted as apoptotic accelerator and autophagy suppressor. It is hypothesized that hybrid microRNA (miRNA) delivery structures based on cationized graphene oxide (GO) could take superiority of targeting and photothermal therapy to suppress the cancer cells...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Keywan Mortezaee, Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Peyman Amini, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is a treatment modality for cancer. For better therapeutic efficiency, it could be used in combination with surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In addition to its beneficial therapeutic effects, exposure to radiation leads to several toxic effects on normal tissues. Also, it may induce some changes in genomic expression of tumor cells, thereby increasing the resistance of tumor cells. These changes lead to the appearance of some acute reactions in irradiated organs, increased risk of carcinogenesis, and reduction in the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy...
October 10, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Feng Yang, Yue Li, Chun Liufu, Yi Wang, ZhiYi Chen
Ultrasound contrast agents involving a therapeutic drug applied during enhanced imaging can be used for targeted therapy, and the preparation of contrast agents is a precondition and basis for the use of multifunctional contrast agents in molecular imaging. This study uses thin-film hydration-mechanical vibration to conduct the preliminary preparation of a cationic lipid-coated ultrasound contrast agent (C-UAC); characterizes the particle diameter, potential, distribution, and concentration of the agents; optimizes the factors affecting the preparation of the agents...
October 11, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hideki Ujiie, Lili Ding, Rong Fan, Tatsuya Kato, Daiyoon Lee, Kosuke Fujino, Tomonari Kinoshita, Chang Young Lee, Thomas K Waddell, Shaf Keshavjee, Brian C Wilson, Gang Zheng, Juan Chen, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: We have developed ultra-small porphyrin-lipoprotein nanoparticles (<20nm) called "porphyrinHDL" that have a high density of porphyrin molecules and dissociate rapidly upon tumor cell accumulation to become fluorescent and photoactive. This is introduced as a novel activatable photosensitizer for image-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, we report the studies of these nanoparticles targeted to scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expressed on lung cancer cells, as a first step towards development of a minimally-invasive treatment for peripheral lung cancer and metastatic lymph nodes of advanced lung cancer...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Xufeng Zhu, Hui Zhou, Yanan Liu, Yayu Wen, Chunfang Wei, Qianqian Yu, Jie Liu
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and low targeting are major obstacles for the treatment of gliomas. Accordingly, overcoming the BBB and enhancing the targeting of drugs to the glioma area are key to achieving a good therapeutic effect. Here, we have developed the mesoporous ruthenium nanosystem RBT@MRN-SS-Tf/Apt with dual targeting function. Transferrin (Tf) and aptamer AS1411(Apt) are grafted on the surfaces of mesoporous ruthenium nanoparticles (MRN) with high loading capacity. This is achieved via redox-cleavable disulfide bonds, serving as both a capping agent and a targeting ligand, enabling the effective penetration of the blood-brain barrier and targeting the glioma...
October 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Shereen M Shedid, Nadia Abdel-Magied, Helen N Saada
Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis may play a major role in the development of radiation-induced liver damage. Betaine, a native compound widely present in beetroot, was reported to possess hepato-protective properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of betaine on radiation-induced liver damage. Animals were exposed to 9 Gy applied in 3 doses of 3 Gy/wk. Betaine (400 mg/kg/d), was orally supplemented to rats after the first radiation dose, and daily during the irradiation period...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Qinlian Hou, Linlin Liu, Yinping Dong, Jing Wu, Liqing Du, Hui Dong, Deguan Li
Radiation enteritis is an old but emerging question induced by the application of radiation. However, no effective drugs for radiation enteritis in clinic. In this study, we found that thymoquinone (TQ) could mitigate intestinal damages induced by irradiation. After exposure to irradiation, TQ-treated improved the irradiated mice survival rate, ameliorated intestinal injury and increased the numbers of intestinal crypts. Furthermore, Lgr5+ ISCs and their daughter cells, including Vil1+ enterocytes, Ki67+ cells and lysozyme+ Paneth cells, were all significantly increased with TQ treatment...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Savva Pronin, Chan Hee Koh, Mark Hughes
INTRODUCTION: Current treatment strategies for glioblastoma multiforme are limited due to early recurrence and heterogeneity of the cell population that causes a varied response to treatment. Ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation may be a potential adjuvant treatment that could theoretically be delivered locally by implantable micro-electromechanical systems that sense and kill early recurrence and/or minimally residual cancer. In vitro irradiation experiments are limited because they commonly use a single cell line...
October 8, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Gang Chen, Lina Yu, Hui Dong, Zhihao Liu, Yahong Sun
Upregulated in lung cancer, miRNA-182 was found to be related to cancer proliferation and chemoresistance. However, there is no report on the role of miR-182 in radioresistance, which is a main obstacle of radiotherapy. In this study, we aimed to depict the effect of miR-182 inhibition on cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Our data confirmed that miR-182 was upregulated in lung cancers and tissues and that miR-182 was responsive to irradiation. We also showed that miR-182 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis after irradiation...
October 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Niannian Li, Fei Xu, Jiejun Cheng, Ying Zhang, Gang Huang, Jun Zhu, Xi Shen, Dannong He
Amelioration of hypoxia is an important factor increasing the effects of anti-tumor therapies. In the present experiments, nanocapsules of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol)/perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB)/photosensitizers (IR780) have been developed to increase oxygen concentration inside the tumor and improve the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT). PFOB has high oxygen solubility, and IR780 is a photosensitizer particularly suited for a highly effective photodynamic therapy under the 808-nm laser irradiation...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Khatereh Khorsandi, Reza Hosseinzadeh, Fedora Khatibi Shahidi
Photodynamic treatment is a minimally invasive and clinically approved procedure for eliminating selected malignant cells with activation of a photosensitizer agent at a specific light. Little is known, however, about the phototoxic properties of curcumin, as a natural phenolic compound, against different types of cancers. It is generally accepted that cellular damage occurs during photo treatment. There is a limitation in using of curcumin as a drug due to its low solubility, but nanoparticles such as anionic nanoclays or layered double hydroxide (LDH) could overcome it...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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