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2017 AIDS guide

Dustin G Gibson, Tigest Tamrat, Garrett Mehl
The recent introduction of digital health into generating demand for health commodities and services has provided practitioners with an expanded universe of potential tools to strengthen demand and ensure service delivery receipt. However, considerable gaps remain in our understanding of which interventions are effective, which characteristics mediate their benefit for different target populations and health domains, and what is necessary to ensure effective deployment. This paper first provides an overview of the types of digital health interventions for demand generation, including untargeted client communication, client-to-client communication, on-demand information services, personal health tracking, client financial transactions, and targeted client communication...
October 10, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Pernille Gabel, Mette Bach Larsen, Pia Kirkegaard, Adrian Edwards, Berit Andersen
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening participation is a preference-sensitive choice, in which trade-offs between benefits and harms must be made by individual citizens. Often the decision is made without any contact with healthcare professionals. Citizens with lower educational attainment tend to participate less in colorectal cancer screening than citizens with average educational attainment. Further, they tend to have lower levels of knowledge about colorectal cancer screening. Providing lower educational attainment citizens with a targeted decision aid embracing their diverse information needs might increase these citizens' ability to make informed decisions...
October 10, 2018: Trials
Jessica Lin, Inga Saknite, Manuel Valdebran, Mihaela Balu, Griffin Lentsch, Joshua N Williams, Karsten Koenig, Bruce J Tromberg, Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska
OBJECTIVES: Non-invasive visualization of hair follicles is important for proper diagnosis and management of alopecia; however, histological assessment remains the gold standard. Laser imaging technologies have made possible noninvasive in vivo evaluation of skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to non-invasively identify morphological features that can distinguish scarring from non-scarring alopecia. METHODS: MPM images were obtained from areas on the scalp affected by alopecia...
September 24, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Toshinori Totsugawa, Arudo Hiraoka, Kentaro Tamura, Hidenori Yoshitaka, Taichi Sakaguchi
Because of concerns about the high risk of perioperative complications, the feasibility of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) for elderly patients remains controversial. Here, we review our results of MIAVR in octogenarians with aortic valve stenosis (AS). Between October 2012 and December 2017, 110 patients with AS underwent MIAVR via a right anterolateral mini-thoracotomy; 41 patients were octogenarian (Group O). The perioperative outcomes of these patients were compared with those of the 69 patients who were less than 80 years of age (Group Y)...
September 17, 2018: Heart and Vessels
W H Ren, L Gao, S M Li, F Li, Y Zhi, J Z Song, Q B Wang, L F Xue, Z G Qu, K Q Zhi
Objective: To evaluate the use of virtual planning and 3D printing modeling in mandibular reconstruction and compare the operation time and surgical outcome of this technique with conventional method. Methods: Between June 2013 and June 2017, A total of 18 patients underwent the mandibular reconstruction with fibula free flap in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University.Among 18 patients, there were 11 males and 7 females with an average age of 36.5 years (21-73 years). Nine patients underwent vascularized fibula flap mandibular reconstruction using virtual planning and 3D printing modeling...
September 4, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Heather E Acuff, Amelia Versace, Michele A Bertocci, Cecile D Ladouceur, Lindsay C Hanford, Anna Manelis, Kelly Monk, Lisa Bonar, Alicia McCaffrey, Benjamin I Goldstein, Tina R Goldstein, Dara Sakolsky, David Axelson, Boris Birmaher, Mary L Phillips
Importance: Bipolar disorder (BD) is difficult to distinguish from other psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies can identify objective markers of BD risk. Objective: To identify neuroimaging measures in emotion processing and regulation neural circuitries and their associations with symptoms specific to youth at risk for BD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional (August 1, 2011, to July 31, 2017) and longitudinal (February 1, 2013, to November 30, 2017) neuroimaging study performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center compared a sample of 31 offspring of parents with BD (OBP) with 28 offspring of comparison parents with non-BD psychopathologies (OCP) and 21 offspring of healthy parents (OHP); OBP, OCP, and OHP were recruited from the Bipolar Offspring Study and the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Study...
September 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
A Caresse Gamret, Alexandra Price, Raymond M Fertig, Hadar Lev-Tov, Anna J Nichols
Importance: Up to 51% of patients with psoriasis report the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in their treatment regimen, although it is unclear which CAM therapies are effective for treatment of psoriasis. Objective: This review compiles the evidence on the efficacy of the most studied CAM modalities for treatment of patients with plaque psoriasis and discusses those therapies with the most robust available evidence. Evidence Review: PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials...
September 5, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Reza Alizadeh, Laura Vickers, Pradtana Hirunpatravong, Pablo Romero, Mark C Lin, Farideh Sharifipour, Joseph Caprioli
PURPOSE: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients constitute a heterogeneous group. Identification of phenotypic subtypes among these patients may provide a deeper understanding of the disease and aid associations with genotypes. We describe a phenotype of POAG patients associated with a constellation of systemic disorders; patients with this phenotype appear to be vulnerable to optic nerve damage at low intraocular pressures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the medical records of active Jules Stein Eye Institute glaucoma patients from January 1996 to January 2017 and included subjects with POAG, acquired pits of the optic nerve (APON) and at least one of the following: systolic blood pressure persistently ≤100▒mmHg, history of migraine headaches or migraine variant, and Raynaud's syndrome...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Katherine Fornili
In early April 2018, Dr. Maria Oquendo, President of the American Psychiatric Association, and Dr. Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, published a thought-provoking article in the New England Journal of Medicine about the role of suicide in the opioid overdose epidemic, referring to the relationship between them as a "hidden tragedy." Drs. Oquendo and Volkow drew our attention to the twinning of the opioid (and other drug) overdose and suicide epidemics, but these are not the first or only drug-related "twin epidemics...
July 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Anastasia Borozdina, Ega Qeva, Marco Cinicola, Federico Bilotta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the recent clinical evidence published between January 2017 and June 2018 - related to perioperative cognitive evaluation. Namely, new insights into risk factors, prevention, diagnosis and diagnostic tools and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Several risk factors (preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative) have been found to be associated with the development of postoperative delirium (POD) and/or postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Trond R Pettersen, Bengt Fridlund, Bjørn Bendz, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Svein Rotevatn, Jan Schjøtt, Tone M Norekvål
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention is the most common therapeutic intervention for patients with narrowed coronary arteries due to coronary artery disease. Although it is known that patients with coronary artery disease often do not adhere to their medication regimen, little is known about what patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions find challenging in adhering to their medication regimen after hospital discharge. OBJECTIVES: To explore patients' experiences in adhering to medications following early post-discharge after first-time percutaneous coronary intervention...
July 26, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Ben Wisner, Douglas Paton, Eva Alisic, Oliver Eastwood, Cheney Shreve, Maureen Fordham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify strategies for communicating with youth and children pre- and post-disaster in the context of a broader survey of child participation in disaster risk reduction as well as methods for communication with children. RECENT FINDINGS: Youth and children are capable of peer and community education and activism concerning disaster issues and such participation benefits the young actors. Family and sibling support are important in easing the impact of trauma on children...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jacob J van den Berg, Taylor Silverman, M Isabel Fernandez, Kirk D Henny, Zaneta J Gaul, Madeline Y Sutton, Don Operario
BACKGROUND: Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men in the United States continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS. Uptake of and knowledge about biobehavioral HIV prevention approaches, such as treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis, are especially low in these populations. eHealth campaigns and social media messaging about treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis may help to fill this gap in knowledge and lead to increased uptake of such strategies; however, no evidence exists of the effects of these targeted forms of communication on treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis uptake in these populations...
July 16, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Sara Simblett, Ben Greer, Faith Matcham, Hannah Curtis, Ashley Polhemus, José Ferrão, Peter Gamble, Til Wykes
BACKGROUND: Remote measurement technology refers to the use of mobile health technology to track and measure change in health status in real time as part of a person's everyday life. With accurate measurement, remote measurement technology offers the opportunity to augment health care by providing personalized, precise, and preemptive interventions that support insight into patterns of health-related behavior and self-management. However, for successful implementation, users need to be engaged in its use...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Rajesh Puri, Sumit Bhatia, Rinkesh K Bansal, Randhir Sud
Background and study aims : Endoscopic management using standard accessories is the preferred modality for treatment of benign biliary strictures. However, with difficult strictures, there is frequently failure of endoscopic therapy. We are reporting our experience regarding use of a standard diathermic dilator (cystotome) to aid in stricture dilatation and stent placement in patients with difficult strictures. Patients and methods : Data were analyzed from January 2014 to January 2017 at a single tertiary care center in North India...
July 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Andrey S Borisov, Sapna Bamrah Morris, Gibril J Njie, Carla A Winston, Deron Burton, Stefan Goldberg, Rachel Yelk Woodruff, Leeanna Allen, Philip LoBue, Andrew Vernon
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is critical to the control and elimination of tuberculosis disease (TB) in the United States. In 2011, CDC recommended a short-course combination regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) by directly observed therapy (DOT) for treatment of LTBI, with limitations for use in children aged <12 years and persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). CDC identified the use of 3HP in those populations, as well as self-administration of the 3HP regimen, as areas to address in updated recommendations...
June 29, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jack G Caton, Gary Armitage, Tord Berglundh, Iain L C Chapple, Søren Jepsen, Kenneth S Kornman, Brian L Mealey, Panos N Papapanou, Mariano Sanz, Maurizio S Tonetti
A classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions is necessary for clinicians to properly diagnose and treat patients as well as for scientists to investigate etiology, pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment of the diseases and conditions. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions. The workshop was co-sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) and included expert participants from all over the world...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Jack G Caton, Gary Armitage, Tord Berglundh, Iain L C Chapple, Søren Jepsen, Kenneth S Kornman, Brian L Mealey, Panos N Papapanou, Mariano Sanz, Maurizio S Tonetti
A classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions is necessary for clinicians to properly diagnose and treat patients as well as for scientists to investigate etiology, pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment of the diseases and conditions. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions. The workshop was co-sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) and included expert participants from all over the world...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Vasileios Theopistos, Georgios Theocharis, Christos Konstantakis, Panagiotis Kitrou, Ioannis Kehagias, Christos Triantos, Konstantinos Thomopoulos
Background: No consensus exists on treatment of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -related, retroperitoneal duodenal perforations. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of post-ERCP retroperitoneal periampullary (type 2) duodenal perforations and the clinical outcome of non-surgical management. Methods: Patients who underwent ERCP in our institution during the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2017 were included. Any cases of retroperitoneal periampullary duodenal (type 2) perforation were identified...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Theodore R McRackan, Joshua E Fabie, Jane A Burton, Suqrat Munawar, Meredith A Holcomb, Judy R Dubno
OBJECTIVE: Compare word recognition scores for adults undergoing cochlear implant evaluations (CIE) measured using earphones and hearing aids. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of data obtained during adult CIEs. SETTING: Tertiary cochlear implant center. PATIENTS: Two hundred eight ears in 183 subjects with greater than 10% word recognition scores measured with earphones. INTERVENTIONS/MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURED: Preoperative pure-tone thresholds and word recognition scores measured with earphones and hearing aids...
August 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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