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Cortisol diurnal

Madeleine U Shalowitz, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Marianne M Hillemeier, Vernon M Chinchilli, Emma K Adam, Calvin J Hobel, Sharon Landesman Ramey, Maxine Reed Vance, Patricia O'Campo, John M Thorp, Teresa E Seeman, Tonse N K Raju
OBJECTIVE:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities. METHODS:  The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Lihua Chen, Xiaoming Li, Ledina Imami, Danhua Lin, Junfeng Zhao, Guoxiang Zhao, Samuele Zilioli
OBJECTIVES: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the most well-established social determinants of health. However, little is known about what can protect the health of individuals (especially children) living in low-SES circumstances. This study explored whether the psychological strategy of "shift-and-persist" protects low-SES children from stress-related physiological risks, as measured through blunted (unhealthy) diurnal cortisol profiles. METHODS: A sample of 645 children (aged 8-15) from low-SES backgrounds and having at least one HIV positive parent completed a battery of psychological scales...
December 7, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Adam Elias Brøndsted, Henrik Ullits Andersen, Birgit Sander, Poul Jørgen Jennum, Henrik Lund-Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diurnal melatonin, cortisol, and activity/rest levels, as well as sleep quality, in patients with and without nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We included 25 diabetic patients with DR and 29 without DR. A total of 21 healthy subjects constituted the control group. We assessed the circadian rhythm by actigraphy and diurnal salivary melatonin and cortisol measurements. Sleep quality was evaluated by actigraphy and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires...
October 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Türkan Yurtsever, Fabian Streit, Jerome C Foo, Slavena Trifonova, Robert Kumsta, Claude P Muller, Jonathan D Turner, Jobst Meyer, Andrea B Schote
Secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a circadian rhythm and is stimulated following stress exposure. Cortisol regulates the transcription of several genes, primarily through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Previously, we showed an upregulation of PERIOD genes PER1 and PER3 after pharmacological/glucocorticoid challenge in vivo and in vitro. The current study aims to investigate the temporal association between unstimulated, diurnal cortisol secretion and the expression of selected GR-target genes (PER1, PER2, PER3, FKBP5, GILZ and SDPR) in vivo to determine the timing of the most pronounced coupling between cortisol and mRNA expression...
November 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Łukasz Cieszyński, Jarosław Jendrzejewski, Piotr Wiśniewski, Anna Owczarzak, Krzysztof Sworczak
BACKGROUND: Measuring hair cortisol seems to be a good alternative to laboratory tests used thus far in routine endocrine diagnostics, primarily because it is independent of the circadian rhythm of cortisol. Due to the average hair growth of 1 cm per month, the results are related to the average blood cortisol levels over the previous weeks, months or years (depending on the length of the hair sample). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is an attempt to apply hair cortisol concentration (HCC) measurements to clinical endocrine diagnostics, based on reference cortisol concentrations in the blood in a population without disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)...
December 5, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
S Nazzari, P Fearon, F Rice, N Dottori, F Ciceri, M Molteni, A Frigerio
Accumulating evidence suggests that antenatal maternal stress is associated with altered behavioral and physiological outcomes in the offspring, however, whether this association is causal and the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. While the most studied mediator of maternal stress influences on the fetus has generally been cortisol, alternative novel markers of stress or inflammation warrant further consideration. The current investigation explored the influence of variations in self-reported symptoms of distress, stress hormones and inflammatory markers on infant birth outcomes and early stress regulation...
November 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rainbow T H Ho, Ted C T Fong, Wai Chi Chan, Joseph S K Kwan, Patrick K C Chiu, Joshua C Y Yau, Linda C W Lam
Objectives: Dementia interferes with older adults' functioning in cognitive, daily, psychosocial, and neuroendocrine domains. The present study examined the psychophysiological effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) and physical exercise for older adults with dementia. Methods: This randomized controlled trial recruited 204 older adults diagnosed with mild dementia into the DMT, exercise, or waitlist control group. Both DMT and exercise interventions had similar intensity and comprised 24 hours of intervention that spanned over 12 weeks...
November 28, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Margarita Cernych, Neringa Baranauskiene, Astra Vitkauskiene, Andrius Satas, Marius Brazaitis
Acute whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) increases blood markers concentration of stress, impairs motor drive to exercising muscles, and decreases resistance to neuromuscular fatigability. The functional natural residual consequences of WBH on neuromuscular functions remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of residual WBH on voluntary and electrically induced ankle plantar flexor contractility properties, motor drive transmission (reflexes), muscle torque steadiness, resistance to neuromuscular fatigability, and markers of stress as the body temperature recovers naturally to normothermia...
November 24, 2018: Human Movement Science
Yujiro Yamanaka, Hidemasa Motoshima, Kenji Uchida
AIM: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responds to changing environmental demands including psychological stressors. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the time of day effects on the acute response of HPA axis activity to acute psychological stress. METHOD: We studied 27 healthy young subjects. The subjects were participated two experiments as follows. In the first experiment, subjects were instructed to keep their regular sleep schedule for 2 weeks which were measured by using a wrist-worn activity monitor...
November 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
William R Lovallo, Andrew J Cohoon, Ashley Acheson, Kristen H Sorocco, Andrea S Vincent
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Persons with blunted stress reactivity have poor impulse control and also show increased risk for alcoholism. Exposure to early life adversity (ELA) contributes to blunted reactivity, but individual differences in susceptibility to ELA are not well understood. This study aimed to determine whether exposure to ELA has a greater impact on stress reactivity in young adults with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) compared with young adults with no family history of alcoholism (FH-)...
November 21, 2018: Addiction
Maude Lambert, Marie-Ève Couture-Lalande, Kelly Brennan, Aldin Basic, Sophie Lebel, Catherine Bielajew
Introduction: One way to examine the extent to which the stress associated with a breast cancer experience (BC) impacts stress-related physiological mechanisms is to study the secretion patterns of associated biomarkers. Unlike cortisol and α-amylase (sAA), biomarkers of immune functioning such as secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) have rarely been examined in BC survivors. Aim of the study: This study had two principal aims: the first was to evaluate the basal secretion profiles of SIgA as well as its response to an acute stressor as a marker of immune health in BC survivors and women with no history of BC, and the second was to determine how SIgA stress-related patterns compare to published cortisol and sAA patterns in the same women...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Gilda E Ennis, Eve-Marie Quintin, Ursula Saelzler, Kristen M Kennedy, Christopher Hertzog, Scott D Moffat
We investigated if the relationship between age and regional limbic system brain structure would be moderated by diurnal cortisol output and diurnal cortisol slope. Participants aged 23-83 years collected seven salivary cortisol samples each day for 10 consecutive days and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Age, sex, cortisol, and an age x cortisol interaction were tested as predictors of hippocampal and amygdalar volume and caudal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) thickness. We found significant interactions between age and cortisol on left and right amygdalar volumes and right caudal ACC thickness...
September 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
J Tortosa-Martínez, C Manchado, J M Cortell-Tormo, I Chulvi-Medrano
Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of developing Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease as well as to improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired individuals. However, the mechanisms of these benefits are not well understood. The stress hypothesis suggests that the cognitive benefits attributed to exercise may partially be mediated by changes in the cortisol secretion pattern. Chronic stress may increase the risk of AD and exacerbate the cognitive deficits and brain pathology characteristic of the condition while physical activity has been shown to attenuate most of stress consequences and risk factors for AD...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Michael W Harvey, Allison K Farrell, Ledina Imami, Justin M Carré, Richard B Slatcher
Prior evidence suggests that an individual's attachment orientation is linked to the health and health-related biology of his/her romantic relationship partners. The current study examined whether this effect extends to parent-child relationships. Specifically, we investigated the association between maternal attachment anxiety and avoidance and diurnal cortisol of offspring. In a sample of 138 youth with asthma and their primary caregivers, caregivers reported their attachment orientations, and their children (aged 10-17) supplied four saliva samples per day over four days to assess diurnal cortisol patterns...
February 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Toral P Parikh, Brian R Stolze, Yesim Ozarda Ilcol, Jacqueline Jonklaas, Kerry Welsh, Likhona Siphe Masika, Micah J Hill, Alan H DeCherney, Steven John Soldin
OBJECTIVE: Accurate measurement of steroid hormones remains challenging. Mass spectrometry affords a reliable means for quantitating steroid profiles accurately. Our objective was to establish and define 1. the extent of diurnal fluctuations in steroid concentrations that potentially necessitate strict adherence to time of sample acquisition and 2. time dependent steroid reference intervals. DESIGN: Nine steroid markers were examined in couplets in males and females...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
In-Jae Oh, Kyu-Sik Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Jai-Young Park, Keun-Young Yoo, Sang-Hwan Do, Ryun-Sup Ahn
Patients with advanced cancer commonly experience multiple symptoms that present as groups or clusters. The present study aimed to examine whether hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction underlies the concurrent multiple symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: Patients' cortisol levels were determined in saliva samples collected after awakening (0, 30, and 60 min after awakening) and at nighttime (2100-2200 h) from 46 patients with lung cancer (15.2% women), with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 64...
October 26, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Raphael M Herr, Frenk Van Harreveld, Bert N Uchino, Wendy C Birmingham, Adrian Loerbroks, Joachim E Fischer, Jos A Bosch
Ambivalent social ties, i.e., whereby a relationship is evaluated simultaneously in positive and negative terms, are a potential source of distress and can perturb health-relevant biological functions. Social interactions at the workplace, in particular with supervisors, are often described in ambivalent terms, but the psychological and psychobiological impact of such interactions has received little scientific attention. The current study examined associations between ambivalent attitudes towards one's supervisor, perceived distress (general and work-related), and diurnal dynamics of the stress hormone cortisol...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Tina M Mason, Allyson R Duffy
BACKGROUND: The loss of a loved one, especially by a caregiver, can be stressful. Grief can affect one emotionally, mentally, behaviorally, spiritually, and physically and affects individuals differently. Complicated grief (CG), especially for a caregiver, can be intense, prolonged, and interfere with normal activities accompanied by destructive thoughts and behaviors. AIM: To synthesize the available research on persons experiencing CG and the effect on cortisol levels...
October 25, 2018: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Lisa R Starr, Kimberly Dienes, Y Irina Li, Zoey A Shaw
Chronic stress exposure has been shown to alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, which may mediate its effects on psychopathology and negative health outcomes. The nature of the chronic stress-HPA axis dysregulation is unclear and individuals likely vary in the extent to and manner in which indices of HPA axis regulation, such as diurnal cortisol slope, are influenced by chronic stress. We examined whether HPA-axis-linked genetic variation moderates the association between chronic stress and diurnal cortisol slope, and potential implications for mood and fatigue (possible manifestations of negative clinical outcomes)...
October 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
R Linz, T Singer, V Engert
Daily life stress is an omnipresent phenomenon in modern society. Research has linked prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to psychiatric and somatic diseases. Everyday stressors substantially contribute to these health risks. Despite the notion that the physiological stress response is highly dependent on concurrent psychological processes, investigations associating diurnal cortisol levels with subjective experience have primarily focused on affective states. The impact of everyday cognitive processes including thought content has been largely neglected...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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