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Aging Review

Marie Gallé-Tessonneau, Kamel Gana
Objective: School refusal (SR) is considered as a clinical form of emotionally based school absenteeism related to the experience of strong negative emotions when attending school. However, there are no psychometrically sound measures specifically designed to assess SR. The aim of the present research was to develop and validate a multidimensional self-report measure of SR: the SChool REfusal EvaluatioN Scale (SCREEN) for adolescents. Methods: Two studies were performed to develop this scale...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Simin Nikbin Meydani, Erin Diane Lewis, Dayong Wu
Current vitamin E requirements are uniformly applied across the population for those >14 y of age. However, aging is associated with alterations in cellular and physiologic functions, which are affected by vitamin E. Therefore, it is questionable whether vitamin E requirements can be uniformly applied to all adult age categories. With aging, there is dysregulation of the immune system in which there are decreased cell-mediated and pathogen defense responses coupled with an overactive, prolonged inflammatory state...
August 11, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Gianfranco Frojo, Aaron Dotson, Kara Christopher, Sumesh Kaswan, Herluf Lund
Background: Anesthesia for elective ambulatory procedures must provide appropriate pain control while minimizing perioperative risk. Local anesthesia in combination with oral sedation provides a safe office-based method of anesthesia for rhytidectomy. Objectives: The purpose of this analysis was to identify the incidence of traditional outcome parameters in ambulatory rhytidectomy performed with local anesthesia and oral sedation. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent office-based rhytidectomy under local anesthesia with oral sedation from February 2011 to May 2017...
August 13, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Berry Fairchild, Warren Ellsworth, Jesse C Selber, David Bogue, Dmitry Zavlin, Stephanie Nemir, Christina Checka, Mark W Clemens
Background: Traditional two-stage breast reconstruction involves placement of a textured surface tissue expander (TTE). Recent studies have demonstrated textured surface devices have higher propensity for bacterial contamination and biofilm formation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of smooth surface tissue expanders (STE) in immediate breast reconstruction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive women undergoing STE breast reconstruction from 2016 to 2017 at three institutions...
August 10, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Tao Zhang, Caterina De Carolis, Man Gene Chi-Wai, Chi-Chiu Wang
Endometriosis (EMS), an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disorder affects approximately 5-10% of the general female population of reproductive age and 20-90% of women with pelvic pain and infertility. Many immunological factors are known to contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of EMS, and both chronic local inflammation and autoantibodies in EMS shares many similarities with autoimmune diseases (AD). However, the autoimmune etiology in EMS remains controversial, and its evidence on autoimmune basis may be limited...
August 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Angyang Hou, Peng Chen, He Tang, Haoye Meng, Xiaoqing Cheng, Yu Wang, Yuming Zhang, Jiang Peng
In older adults, the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases directly with age and is the most common cause of chronic disability. It is necessary to recognize that OA is a degenerative disease that strongly correlates with age, and often promotes elevated levels of cartilage injury. Chondrocytes undergo an age-dependent decline in proliferative and synthetic capacity. It is thought that cellular senescence may play a significant role in the pathology of OA, with chondrocytes exhibiting a variety of senescence-associated phenotypes...
August 11, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Thomas MacFarlane, Jeffrey D Zajac, Ada S Cheung
BACKGROUND: Cancers are a leading cause of death worldwide and transgender individuals are no exception. The effects of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) on sex hormone-dependent tumours are unclear. Therefore, this review seeks to determine if tumour risk in transgender individuals differs from the general population, to guide clinical screening recommendations. METHODS: We performed a systematic review based on the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies examining tumour incidence, prevalence or cancer-related mortality in transgender individuals...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Elizabeth Mannino Avila, Erin Stucky Fisher, Kyung Rhee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine patient history as well as clinical and laboratory features associated with true bacteremia versus false bacteremia in previously healthy febrile children ages 0 to 36 months in the era of polyvalent conjugate pneumococcal immunization. METHODS: Using retrospective chart review, we examined history, physical examination, and laboratory characteristics associated with true and false bacteremia. We included subjects under 3 years old, with a positive blood culture obtained in the emergency department or clinic from July 2011 to July 2013, and fever defined as a temperature of greater than or equal to 100...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Theofano Tikka, Constantina P Yiannakis, Emma Stapleton, Richard Locke, John A Crowther, William A S Taylor, Georgios Kontorinis
OBJECTIVE: To explore the nature of spontaneously regressing vestibular schwannomas (VS) and identify possible predictive factors for such behavior. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case control study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center, university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with sporadic VS demonstrating spontaneous regression compared with a control group of patients with growing VS. INTERVENTIONS: Review of serial magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory meatus (MRI IAM) and case notes and direct comparison of possible related factors between the two groups using univariate analysis...
August 13, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Nicholas Pulos, Kathleen M Kollitz, Allen T Bishop, Alexander Y Shin
BACKGROUND: Outcomes following revision surgery for scaphoid nonunions with osteonecrosis are guarded. We hypothesized that use of free vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) bone grafts can lead to healing of the nonunion, increase vascularity of the proximal pole, and restore scaphoid architecture, resulting in acceptable functional outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 49 patients who were treated with an MFC bone graft, between May 2005 and September 2016, after prior failure of operative treatment for scaphoid nonunion...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Robert L Buly, Branden R Sosa, Lazaros A Poultsides, Elaine Caldwell, S Robert Rozbruch
BACKGROUND: Version abnormalities of the femur can cause pain and hip joint damage due to impingement or instability. A retrospective clinical review was conducted on patients undergoing a subtrochanteric derotation osteotomy for either excessive anteversion or retroversion of the femur. METHODS: A total of 55 derotation osteotomies were performed in 43 patients: 36 females and 7 males. The average age was 29 years (range, 14 to 59 years). The osteotomies were performed closed with an intramedullary saw...
August 13, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Stephen F Kralik, Krish K Singhal, Mark S Frank, Lauren M Ladd
OBJECTIVE: Although significant investigation has been done into the deposition of gadolinium in the brains of patients receiving IV gadolinium, there is little research concerning nonintravenous uses of gadolinium, specifically in conjunction with musculoskeletal MR arthrography. Although small in volume, intraarticular administration is an off-label use of gadolinium, necessitating careful scrutiny for patient safety. Thus, we investigated the relationship between intraarticular gadolinium administration during MR arthrography and the presence of intracranial gadolinium deposition on subsequent brain MRI...
August 14, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Mabi Singh, Athena Papas, Robert W Gerlach
PURPOSE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a two-step dentifrice/gel oral hygiene sequence in a vulnerable population. METHODS: Prior to the research, institutional review was obtained for the protocol, consent and advertising. The study targeted adults with medication-associated xerostomia, because of the plaque accumulation and possible oral safety risks seen in this population. Eligible subjects with a medication history and measured hyposalivation were randomly assigned to one of two oral hygiene groups:(1) a two-step 0...
July 2018: American Journal of Dentistry
Ferran Casas, Mònica González-Carrasco
An increasing number of scientific publications have provided data from different countries suggesting subjective well-being (SWB) continuously decreases during adolescence. A review of these publications reveals authors have used dissimilar scales in diverse countries. Using data from the international Children's Worlds project (N = 48,040), involving 15 countries, a comparative analysis was performed to determine how mean scores evolve with different SWB scales from the age of 8 onwards. The results support the hypothesis that the tendency of SWB to decrease with age starts at around 10 years of age in most countries, while also confirming that different psychometric scales display different levels of sensitivity to diverse sociocultural contexts and more than one should be used in any research on children and adolescents' SWB...
August 14, 2018: Child Development
Shivani Bhatia, Haley Quinlan, Courtney McCracken, Eric W Price, Lokesh Guglani, Sumit Verma
INTRODUCTION: Clinical and electrophysiological studies to measures disease activity in juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG) are limited. METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinical profile, Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) scores, serial stimulated jitter analysis (Stim-JA) of the orbicularis oculi muscle, grip strength, and spirometry of JMG patients followed in a multidisciplinary clinic was performed. RESULTS: Thirteen JMG subjects (9 females), mean age of 13...
August 14, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Ahmed A Al Sarkhy, Anjum Saeed, Yassin H Hamid, Mona M Al Asmi, Tariq I Altokhais, Anhar A Ullah, Asaad M Assiri
OBJECTIVES: To determine the outcomes  of endoscopic dilatation of esophageal strictures in children. METHODS: Children younger than 18 years of age diagnosed with esophageal strictures over a period of 7 years (June 2010 to June 2017) were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. The study took place at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The patients' clinical characteristics, endoscopic findings, and details of the strictures, treatment, and outcomes were documented...
August 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Benjamin Cochran, Tereza Kovačíková, Kateřina Hodaňová, Martina Živná, Aleš Hnízda, Angela G Niehaus, Alex Bonnecaze, Gowrie Balasubraminiam, Irene Ceballos-Picot, Amret Hawfield, Kendrah Kidd, Stanislav Kmoch, Anthony J Bleyer
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency (OMIM #614723) is a rare autosomal recessive defect in the purine salvage pathway that causes excessive production of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, leading to nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This case report describes the natural history of CKD in untreated APRT deficiency. We describe a novel APRT mutation (chr16:88877985 G / C; c.195 C>/G; p.His54Asp) presenting with CKD without nephrolithiasis. The patient initially required dialysis, but kidney function improved with allopurinol...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Maryam Abdollahi, MingYang Meah Gao, David G Munoz
Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is a rare, inherited disorder classically known by the triad of nail dystrophy, mucosal leukoplakia, and lacy reticulated skin hyperpigmentation. Bone marrow failure is a prominent feature and accounts for most deaths in these patients. Genetic mutations resulting in shortened telomeres have been shown to cause DKC, which is the basis for categorizing it as a "premature aging syndrome". Different modes of inheritance have been identified with X-linked recessive as the most common...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
Fabrizio Ricci, Richard Sutton, Stefano Palermi, Claudio Tana, Giulia Renda, Sabina Gallina, Olle Melander, Raffaele De Caterina, Artur Fedorowski
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac syncope heralds significantly higher mortality compared with syncope due to non-cardiac causes or unknown etiology, commonly considered a benign event. A few epidemiologic studies have examined the outcome of non-cardiac/unexplained syncope comparing individuals with and without syncope, but with controversial results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify whether history of non-cardiac/unexplained syncope is associated with increased all-cause mortality in the general population...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Joshua Payne, Samuel Aznaurov, Sandeep Gautam
BACKGROUND: Figure-of-Eight sutures (F8S) have emerged as an alternative to the standard practice of manual compression to achieve venous hemostasis after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). In lieu of a knot to secure the sutures in place, a three-way stopcock can be used that can be loosened or tightened as needed to achieve hemostasis and is easier to remove. The safety and effectiveness of this technique when compared to traditional F8S is unknown. In this case series, we sought to describe this stopcock closure technique (SC) and compare procedural characteristics and outcomes to traditional F8S...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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