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Aging And Review

Jordan T Jones, Nasreen Talib, Daniel Lovell, Mara L Becker
BACKGROUND: Arthropathy of Down syndrome (DA) is largely under-recognized, with an average 2-year delay in diagnosis. Most patients present with polyarthritis, and treatment has historically been challenging. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate the clinical features and treatment of DA in the largest cohort reported to date. METHODS: In a retrospective chart review at two tertiary care hospitals, International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for Down syndrome (DS) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015, were identified and charts reviewed...
December 13, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Azza Hamed, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
BACKGROUND: The risk of falling and associated injuries increases with age. Therefore, the prevention of falls is a key priority in geriatrics and is particularly based on physical exercising, aiming to improve the age-related decline in motor performance, which is crucial in response to postural threats. Although the benefits and specifications of effective exercise programs have been well documented in pre-post design studies, that is during the treatment, the definitive retention and transfer of these fall-related exercise benefits to the daily life fall risk during follow-up periods remains largely unclear...
December 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Konstantinos N Paterakis, Alexandros G Brotis, Athanasios Paschalis, Alkiviadis Tzannis, Konstantinos N Fountas
Background: Surgical treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis (DS) always remains a challenge and often necessitates complex multilevel surgery via traditional open approaches. However, the severity of the procedure, in association with the fact that many of these patients are at an advanced age with several comorbidities, results in high rate of complications. Therefore, during the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have gained a place in the treatment of this pathology. Our aim is to determine the safety and efficacy of extra lateral lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) with or without supplemented instrumentation in the treatment of DS...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Varun Dewan, Adrian Gardner, Stephen Forster, Jake Matthews, Matthew Newton Ede, Jwalant Mehta, Jonathan Spilsbury, David Marks
Background: To assess the reliability of the indicators for performing magnetic resonance imaging in patients with scoliosis and assess the incidence of neural axis anomalies in a population with scoliosis referred to a specialist centre. Methods: A retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports of all patients under the age of 18 who underwent a pre-operative MRI for investigation of their scoliosis between 2009 and 2014 at a single institution was performed...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Rushabh M Vakharia, Chester J Donnally, Augustus J Rush, Ajit M Vakharia, Derek D Berglund, Neil V Shah, Michael Y Wang
Background: Primary lumbar fusion (LF) is a treatment option for degenerative disc disease. The literature is limited regarding postoperative complications in opioid abusers undergoing LF. The purpose of this study was to compare 2-year short term implant-related complications, infection rates, 90-day readmission rates, in-hospital length of stay, and cost of care amongst opioid abusers (OAS) and non-opioid abusers (NAS) undergoing primary 1- to 2-level primary lumbar fusion (1-2LF). Methods: A retrospective review was performed using the Medicare Standard Analytical Files from an administrative database...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Nikhil Adapa, Nikhil Jain, Allison Capek, Rajiv Chandawarkar, Safdar N Khan, Yazeed M Gussous, Elizabeth Yu
Background: Wound complications can occur in up to 20% of patients following multilevel posterior spinal fusion. Currently, the use of local flaps has been reported in high-risk patients with a history of spinal neoplasm, radiation therapy, exposed hardware, multiple spine surgeries, or wound infections. However, there are no reports of prophylactic muscle flap wound closure in patients undergoing multi-level spinal fusion for degenerative pathology. Given the extensive soft tissue dissection for exposure compounded by patient comorbidities, there is potential to minimize the risk of wound complications with prophylactic trapezius and/or paraspinal flap coverage...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Timothy R Niedzielak, Bijan J Ameri, Blaze Emerson, Rushabh M Vakharia, Martin W Roche, John P Malloy
Background: Due to increased postoperative complications with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there has been an increasing interest in the use of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). Advancements in prosthetic designs and techniques have improved patient reported outcome measurements and minimized revision rates. There is a paucity in the literature regarding recent trends in CDA utilization and revision rates. The purpose of this study was to determine annual primary and revision CDA trends with the use of an administrative database...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Vivien Chan, Alessandro Marro, J Max Findlay, Laura M Schmitt, Sumit Das
Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in adults is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm. It is characterized by the presence of rhabdoid cells in combination with loss of either the INI1 or BRG1protein from the tumor cells. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE using the terms "atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor" AND "adult." The systematic review was supplemented with relevant articles from the references. Cases were included if the pathology was confirmed by loss of INI1 or BRG1...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
James Heath Pelham, Lynae Hanks, Stella Aslibekyan, Shima Dowla, Ambika P Ashraf
Aim: Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding lipoprotein profiles in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The primary objective was to analyze the type and nature of lipoprotein abnormalities present in children with T2DM and to identify determinants of adverse lipoprotein profiles. The secondary objective was to assess associations with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), i.e., <8% vs. ≥8.0% and pediatric dyslipidemias in the setting of T2DM. Methods: This retrospective chart review included children with T2DM who had undergone lipoprotein analysis and were not on lipid lowering medications (n = 93)...
March 2019: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
Mohammad Adeel, Muhammad Shaheryar Ahmed Rajput, Asif Ali Arain, Maqbool Baloch, Mumtaz Khan
Introduction Ameloblastoma is a locally destructive tumor with a propensity for recurrence if not entirely excised. Management of ameloblastoma poses a challenge for all involved in the field of head and neck surgery because successful treatment requires not only adequate resection but also a functional and aesthetically acceptable reconstruction of the residual defect. Methods Patients who had histologically proven ameloblastoma between 1991 and 2009 were identified from the database of Aga Khan University Hospital...
October 10, 2018: Curēus
Aunaly Palmer, Lisa A Taitsman, May J Reed, Bala G Nair, Itay Bentov
Hip fractures result in significant morbidity and mortality in elders. Indicators of frailty are associated with poor outcomes. Commonly used frailty tools rely on motor skills that cannot be performed by this population. We determined the association between the Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCS), intraoperative hypotension (IOH), and a geriatric medicine consult index (GCI) with short-term mortality in hip fracture patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single institution over a 2-year period...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
Yoshinori Yanai, Takeo Kosaka, Hiroshi Hongo, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Toshiaki Shinojima, Eiji Kikuchi, Akira Miyajima, Ryuichi Mizuno, Shuji Mikami, Masahiro Jinzaki, Mototsugu Oya
There is an increasing proportion of individuals aged 70 years and older, as well as an increasing life expectancy worldwide. The present study may guide the management of older patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA). The medical records of 241 older men aged >70 years who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) before prostate biopsy (PBx) at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. Multiple variables were evaluated as predictors for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa)...
December 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Chirn-Bin Chang, Hsiu-Yun Lai, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Shu-Yu Yang, Ru-Shu Wu, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Ding-Cheng Chan
Background: PIM-Taiwan criteria were first established in 2010 for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Currently, updating of PIM criteria is mandatory because of newly established evidence and newly developed medications. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of PIM based on country-specific PIM criteria and factors associated with PIM use by applying 2010 version and newly updating PIM-Taiwan criteria in a cohort with polypharmacy. Methods: The baseline data of Medication Safety Review Clinic Taiwan (MSRC-Taiwan) study were used to investigate the prevalence of PIMs...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Zonggang Hou, Xiaogang Tao, Junting Zhang, Zhen Wu, Baiyun Liu
Tanycytic ependymoma (TE), a rare subtype of ependymoma, was classified as grade II ependymoma by the World Health Organization in 2000 and 2007. Preoperative diagnosis of TE is challenging due to its similarities to schwannoma and astrocytoma; therefore, differentiation is required. The present study investigated the clinical, imaging and pathological characteristics of TE in the filum terminale. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical, imaging, pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of 8 patients with TE in the filum terminale and the relevant literature was reviewed...
December 2018: Oncology Letters
Severin Donald Kamdem, Roger Moyou-Somo, Frank Brombacher, Justin Komguep Nono
Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing process purposely aimed at restoring organ integrity after severe injury caused by autoimmune reactions, mechanical stress or infections. The uncontrolled solicitation of this process is pathogenic and a pathognomonic feature of diseases like hepatosplenic schistosomiasis where exacerbated liver fibrosis is centrally positioned among the drivers of the disease morbidity and mortality. Intriguingly, however, liver fibrosis occurs and progresses dissimilarly in schistosomiasis-diseased individuals with the same egg burden and biosocial features including age, duration of residence in the endemic site and gender...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Pedro R Pereira, Marta Guimarães, Tiago Morais, Sofia S Pereira, Mário Nora, Mariana P Monteiro
Background/Objetives: Obesity and obesity related co-morbidities are well-recognized risks for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality. Weight loss improves CV risk factors and the efficacy of bariatric surgery in decreasing CV mortality is now well-established. Our aim was to assess CV risk progression and occurrence of CV events in a cohort of patients that underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for obesity treatment in a single academic public center. Subjects and Methods: Ten year CV risk was estimated using the Framingham Equation at baseline and 2 years after RYGB surgery in our patients cohort ( n = 260)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jeana Hong, Seak Hee Oh, Han-Wook Yoo, Hiroshi Nittono, Akihiko Kimura, Kyung Mo Kim
Oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase deficiency is a very rare liver disease categorized as inborn errors of bile acid synthesis, caused by CYP7B1 mutations. As it may cause rapid progression to end-stage liver disease even in early infancy, a high index of suspicion is required to prevent fatal outcomes. We describe the case of a 3-month-old boy with progressive cholestatic hepatitis and severe hepatic fibrosis. After excluding other etiologies for his early liver failure, we found that he had profuse urinary excretion of 3β-monohydroxy-Δ5 -bile acid derivatives by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with dried urine spots on filter paper...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Sean Joe, Marquisha Lawrence Scott, Andrae Banks
We reviewed the controlled studies that report outcome findings for Black adolescent males 24 years of age and younger at risk of suicide. Our review identified 48 articles published from 2000 to 2015, 33 that met our initial criteria for full-text articles review, resulting in 6 that met all inclusion criteria. We sought to understand what works for Black males experiencing suicide ideation or engaging in suicidal behaviors (e.g., attempts). We identified crossover effects for multisystemic therapy for reducing the risk for suicide ideation and attempts...
March 2018: Research on Social Work Practice
Michael A Lindsey, Andrae Banks, Catherine F Cota, Marquisha Lawrence Scott, Sean Joe
The objective was to qualitatively examine the treatment effects of depression interventions on young, Black males (YBM) across treatment providers and settings via a review. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) seeking to ameliorate depressive symptomology in Black males ages 12-29 were eligible for inclusion. After review of 627 abstracts and 212 full-text articles, 12 studies were selected. These RCTs were organized into five categories based on the intervention method. We isolated only one study that targeted YBM exclusively...
March 1, 2018: Research on Social Work Practice
E Linton, A Walkden, L R Steeples, A Bhargava, C Williams, C Bailey, F M Quhill, S P Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To explore self-inflicted retinal burns from laser pointers in children. METHODS: Literature review of laser pointer retinal injuries in childhood and online survey of UK Consultant Ophthalmologists. A cohort of local children with self-inflicted injury is described. The matter is topical. We review progress in recent legislation and policy change in the UK. RESULTS: Four of 77 case reports of laser burns in childhood analysed reported psychological or behavioural issues...
December 13, 2018: Eye
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