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face processing

Lordkipanidze Maia, Lulofs Kris, Bressers Hans
The paper focuses on the governance of the Dutch national park Weerribben-Wieden and its ability to foster ecological resilience in the face of climate change and human disturbances. The study highlights the role of various characteristics of the institutional context of governance in which resilience-relevant decisions are prepared, taken and implemented as referenced by an assessment of the governance context. The relevance of such an assessment is found in the frequent institutional changes in nature policy...
August 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chang Hong Liu, Wenfeng Chen
Facial attractiveness is often studied on the basis of the internal facial features alone. This study investigated how this exclusion of the external features affects the perception of attractiveness. We studied the effects of two most commonly used methods of exclusion, where the shape of an occluding mask was defined by either the facial outline or an oval. Participants rated attractiveness of the same faces under these conditions. Results showed that faces were consistently rated more attractive when they were masked by an oval shape rather than by their outline (Experiment 1)...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hoda Mohammadzade, Amirhossein Sayyafan, Benyamin Ghojogh
The variation of pose, illumination, and expression continues to make face recognition a challenging problem. As a pre-processing step in holistic approaches, faces are usually aligned by eyes. The proposed method tries to perform a pixel alignment rather than eye alignment by mapping the geometry of faces to a reference face while keeping their own textures. The proposed geometry alignment not only creates a meaningful correspondence among every pixel of all faces, but also removes expression and pose variations effectively...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Christopher Cy Mak, Gordon Kc Leung, Gary Tk Mok, Kit San Yeung, Wanling Yang, Cheuk-Wing Fung, Sophelia Hs Chan, So-Lun Lee, Ni-Chung Lee, Rolph Pfundt, Yu-Lung Lau, Brian Hy Chung
Currently, offering whole-exome sequencing (WES) via collaboration with an external laboratory is increasingly common. However, the receipt of a WES report can be merely the beginning of a continuing exploration process rather than the end of the diagnostic odyssey. The laboratory often does not have the information the physician has, and any discrepancies in variant interpretation must be addressed by a medical geneticist. In this study, we performed diagnostic WES of 104 patients with paediatric-onset genetic diseases...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
Paula Fitzpatrick, Jean A Frazier, David Cochran, Teresa Mitchell, Caitlin Coleman, R C Schmidt
Difficulty in social communication and interaction is a primary diagnostic feature of ASD. Research has found that adolescents with ASD display various impairments in social behavior such as theory of mind (ToM), emotion recognition, and social synchrony. However, not much is known about the relationships among these dimensions of social behavior. Adolescents with and without ASD participated in the study. ToM ability was measured by viewing social animations of geometric shapes, recognition of facial emotions was measured by viewing pictures of faces, and synchrony ability was measured with a spontaneously arising interpersonal movement task completed with a caregiver and an intentional interpersonal task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Daniele d'Amaro, Marita Metzler, Valerie Finke, David Baracchi, Adrian G Dyer
The expertise of humans for recognizing faces is largely based on holistic processing mechanism, a sophisticated cognitive process that develops with visual experience. The various visual features of a face are thus glued together and treated by the brain as a unique stimulus, facilitating robust recognition. Holistic processing is known to facilitate fine discrimination of highly similar visual stimuli, and involves specialized brain areas in humans and other primates. Although holistic processing is most typically employed with face stimuli, subjects can also learn to apply similar image analysis mechanisms when gaining expertise in discriminating novel visual objects, like becoming experts in recognizing birds or cars...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Benjamin Titze, Christel Genoud, Rainer W Friedrich
We present SBEMimage , an open-source Python-based application to operate serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM) systems. SBEMimage is designed for complex, challenging acquisition tasks, such as large-scale volume imaging of neuronal tissue or other biological ultrastructure. Advanced monitoring, process control, and error handling capabilities improve reliability, speed, and quality of acquisitions. Debris detection, autofocus, real-time image inspection, and various other quality control features minimize the risk of data loss during long-term acquisitions...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Rozana Rosli, Pek-Lan Chan, Kuang-Lim Chan, Nadzirah Amiruddin, Eng-Ti Leslie Low, Rajinder Singh, John L Harwood, Denis J Murphy
The diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) (diacylglycerol:acyl-CoA acyltransferase, EC are a key group of enzymes that catalyse the final and usually the most important rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants and other organisms. Genes encoding four distinct functional families of DGAT enzymes have been characterised in the genome of the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The contrasting features of the various isoforms within the four families of DGAT genes, namely DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT are presented both in the oil palm itself and, for comparative purposes, in 12 other oil crop or model/related plants, namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Brassica napus, Elaeis oleifera, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus, Musa acuminata, Oryza sativa, Phoenix dactylifera, Sorghum bicolor, and Zea mays...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Anne-Laure Le Gac, Clément Lafon-Placette, Didier Chauveau, Vincent Segura, Alain Delaunay, Régis Fichot, Nicolas Marron, Isabelle Le Jan, Alain Berthelot, Guillaume Bodineau, Jean-Charles Bastien, Franck Brignolas, Stéphane Maury
Trees have a long lifespan and must continually adapt to environmental pressures, notably in the context of climate change. Epigenetic mechanisms are doubtless involved in phenotypic plasticity and in stress memory; however, little evidence of the role of epigenetic processes is available for trees growing in fields. Here, we analyzed the possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the winter-dormant shoot apical meristem of Populus × euramericana clones in memory of the growing conditions faced during the vegetative period...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Esteban Hasson, Diego De Panis, Juan Hurtado, Julián Mensch
Host plant shifts in herbivorous insects often involve facing new environments that may speed up the evolution of oviposition behavior, performance related traits, morphology and, incidentally, reproductive isolation. In the genus Drosophila, cactophilic species of the repleta group include emblematic species in the study of the evolution of host plant utilization. The South American D. buzzatii and its sibling D. koepferae are a model system for the study of differential host plant use. Though these species exhibit a certain degree of niche overlap, the former breeds primarily on decaying cladodes of Opuntia cacti while the D...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Alejandro J Estudillo, Jürgen M Kaufmann, Markus Bindemann, Stefan R Schweinberger
Seeing a face being touched in spatial and temporal synchrony with the own face produces a bias in self-recognition, whereby the other face becomes more likely to be perceived as the self. The present study employed event-related potentials to explore whether this enfacement effect reflects initial face encoding, enhanced distinctiveness of the enfaced face, modified self-identity representations, or even later processing stages that are associated with the emotional processing of faces. Participants were stroked in synchrony or asynchrony with an unfamiliar face they observed on a monitor in front of them, in a situation approximating a mirror image...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Joan H Krause, Richard S Saver
The 21st Century Cures Act ("Cures Act") 1 relies on the concept of real-world evidence ("RWE") 2 to improve the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") approval process. This has amplified interest and furthered momentum in applying RWE more broadly, beyond FDA regulation. In this article, we discuss the understandable appeal of RWE's pragmatic application and its many potential benefits. But we also caution that claims about RWE's wide-ranging, ameliorative impact on the health care system are likely overstated...
May 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Karamjyoti Panigrahi, Subhajit Saha, Sumanta Sain, Rituparna Chatterjee, Antika Das, Uttam Kumar Ghorai, Nirmalya Sankar Das, Kalyan Kumar Chattopadhyay
Feeble white emission with a low Colour Rendering Index (CRI) has become the principal gridlock for the extensive commercialization of phosphor converted white LEDs (pc-WLEDs). Fusion of red, green and blue emitting rare-earth (RE) ions in a suitable host can overcome these drawbacks but the energy migration between multiple RE ions at single excitation wavelength defines the key standpoint in designing such white light emitting phosphors. Apart from the abovementioned obstacles, recently traditional optical temperature sensors based on RE ions have faced difficulties due to their low relative sensitivity and large detection error...
August 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Anna X Luo, Guomei Zhou
Ensemble perception, the extraction of a statistical summary of multiple instances of a feature, enables efficient processing of information. Here we investigated whether ensemble representations can be formed for facial attractiveness, a socially important complex feature. After verifying that our face stimuli produced by geometric morphing represented a valid continuum of attractiveness (Experiment 1), we asked participants to compare the average attractiveness of four faces with a single probe face. Whether the four faces were homogeneous or heterogeneous resulted in highly similar performance levels, suggesting the visual system could extract an ensemble representation of the attractiveness of a heterogeneous group of faces...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Kai Tao, Zhen Fan, Leming Sun, Pandeeswar Makam, Zhen Tian, Mark Ruegsegger, Shira Shaham-Niv, Derek Hansford, Ruth Aizen, Zui Pan, Scott Galster, Jianjie Ma, Fan Yuan, Mingsu Si, Songnan Qu, Mingjun Zhang, Ehud Gazit, Junbai Li
Quantum confined materials have been extensively studied for photoluminescent applications. Due to intrinsic limitations of low biocompatibility and challenging modulation, the utilization of conventional inorganic quantum confined photoluminescent materials in bio-imaging and bio-machine interface faces critical restrictions. Here, we present aromatic cyclo-dipeptides that dimerize into quantum dots, which serve as building blocks to further self-assemble into quantum confined supramolecular structures with diverse morphologies and photoluminescence properties...
August 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Kai Xu, Changchun Ren, Qingshan Deng, Qingping Jin, Xuemin Chen
Glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRPs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their overall performance of light weight, low cost and corrosion resistance, and they are increasingly used as reinforcement in concrete structures. However, GFRP material has low elastic modulus and linear elastic properties compared with steel bars, which introduces different bonding characteristics between bars and concrete. Therefore, a reliable monitoring method is urgently needed to detect the bond slip in GFRP-reinforced concrete structures...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Matthew Joseph Russell, Takahiko Masuda, Koichi Hioki, Anthony Singhal
Recent cultural psychology findings suggest that social orientation affects neural social attention. Whereas independent cultures process people as separate from social context, interdependent cultures process people as dependent on social context. This research expands upon these findings, investigating what role culture plays in people's neural processing of social context for two relationship contexts, close and acquaintance relationships. To investigate, we had European Canadian and Japanese participants rate the emotions of center faces in face lineups while collecting ERP data...
August 14, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Juan José Villaverde, Beatriz Sevilla-Morán, Carmen López-Goti, José Luis Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España
Assessment of two buffered QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) versions (i.e., citrate and acetate) modified by including methanol to recover the residues of three cyclohexanedione oxime (CHD) herbicides and three of their byproducts from agricultural soil was performed. In this context, a full second-order face-centered factorial experimental design was developed to quantify the influences of the main five variables (i.e., extraction time, water content, soil weight, and extraction solvent volume and composition) on the target compound recoveries...
August 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Margaret Black, Lynda R Matthews, Michael J Millington
BACKGROUND: No research has been undertaken about employability assessment (EA) of total and permanent disability (TPD) insurance claims. EA provides vocational information to life insurers to help decide claims. To determine how helpful EA is, a new measure was needed to survey insurers. OBJECTIVE: To generate survey items by harnessing the knowledge and agreement of rehabilitation advisors with expertise in EA. METHODS: A panel of 10 (89% of eligible Australian rehabilitation advisors) participated in an adapted three-round Delphi process...
August 7, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
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