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face processing

A Susana Ramírez, Kimberly Arellano Carmona
BACKGROUND: Fatalism - beliefs about the causes and controllability of disease - has been negatively associated with prevention behaviors. Fatalism has been suggested as a mechanism for health disparities because ethnic minorities are especially likely to hold fatalistic beliefs. However, the construct has been criticized: Fatalism fails to account for structural barriers to health faced by vulnerable populations that also score highly on measures of fatalism. Another critique suggests that operationalizations of fatalism expose communication failures: "Fatalism" rather reflects information overload from an environment riddled with misinformation and contradictions...
October 13, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Yuru Guan, Guohe Huang, Lirong Liu, Charley Z Huang, Mengyu Zhai
Faced with an increasing amount of industrial solid waste (ISW) in the process of rapid industrialization, it is indispensable to carry out ISW metabolism study to realize source and waste reduction. In this study, a new composite waste input-output (WIO) model is developed to examine ISW production and production relationships among different sectors. In particular, the extended methods of network control analysis and network utility analysis are used in the ecological network analysis under two ISW scenarios (i...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
David Acunzo, Graham MacKenzie, Mark C W van Rossum
EEG studies suggest that the emotional content of visual stimuli is processed rapidly. In particular, the C1 component, which occurs up to 100 ms after stimulus onset and likely reflects activity in primary visual cortex V1, has been reported to be sensitive to emotional faces. However, difficulties replicating these results have been reported. We hypothesized that the nature of the task and attentional condition are key to reconcile the conflicting findings. We report three experiments of EEG activity during the C1 time range elicited by peripherally presented neutral and fearful faces under various attentional conditions: the faces were spatially attended or unattended and were either task-relevant or not...
October 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Anders Klingberg, Lee Alan Wallis, Marie Hasselberg, Po-Yin Yen, Sara Caroline Fritzell
BACKGROUND: The referral process in acute care remains challenging in many areas including burn care. Mobile phone apps designed explicitly for medical referrals and consultations could streamline the referral process by using structured templates and integrating features specific to different specialties. However, as these apps are competing with commercial chat services, usability becomes a crucial factor for successful uptake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the usability of a mobile phone app for remote consultations and referrals of burn injuries...
October 19, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Jun Zhou, Buyun Du, Yuanmei Hu, Jiani Liang, Hailong Liu, Xingjun Fan, Ligan Zhang, Hongbiao Cui, Xiaoli Liu, Jing Zhou
There is an increasing evidence linking protective effect of selenium (Se) against Pb toxicology; however, Pb exposure risk assessments usually consider only the environmental Pb contamination and dietary intake. Based on the current understanding of mechanisms of SePb interactions, the physiological function/toxicology of Se and the toxicology of Pb, a new criterion for Se and Pb exposure assessment is developed. Additionally, seven existing criteria were also used to assess the resident health risks around a smelter in China...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lemasson Alban, André Vanessa, Boudard Mathilde, Lippi Daria, Hausberger Martine
Public performance is a reported source of anxiety. While the relationship between emotion and postural laterality is well-known in animals, few studies have tested the possible link between audience effect, anxiety and head orientation in humans. The Valence-Specific Hypothesis posits that the left/right sides of the brain are specialized for processing positive/negative emotions respectively. Here, actors performed a piece in the presence of small, medium and large audiences. They self-reported feeling more anxious when the audience was large (also confirmed with speech analyses), but the small audience was scored with the lowest preference...
October 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Pravin Vejan, Rosazlin Abdullah, Tumirah Khadiran, Salmah Ismail
Sustainable crop production for a rapidly growing human population is one of the current challenges faced by the agricultural sector. However, many of the chemical agents used in agriculture can be hazardous to humans, non-targeted organism and environment. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have demonstrated role in promoting plant growth and health under various stress conditions including disease. Unfortunately, bacteria viability degrades due to temperature and other environmental factors (Bashan et al...
October 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Franziska Hoche, Maureen P Daly, Yogesh K Chutake, Eve Valera, Janet C Sherman, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease causing cerebellar ataxia, mucocutaneous telangiectasias, immunodeficiency, and malignancies. A pilot study reported cognitive and behavioral manifestations characteristic of the cerebellar cognitive affective / Schmahmann syndrome (CCAS). We set out to test and further define these observations because a more comprehensive understanding of the spectrum of impairments in AT is essential for optimal management. Twenty patients (12 males; 9...
October 18, 2018: Cerebellum
Evan L MacLean, Brian Hare
Working dogs play a variety of important roles, ranging from assisting individuals with disabilities, to explosive and medical detection work. Despite widespread demand, only a subset of dogs bred and trained for these roles ultimately succeed, creating a need for objective measures that can predict working dog aptitude. Most previous research has focused on temperamental characteristics of successful dogs. However, working dogs also face diverse cognitive challenges both in training, and throughout their working lives...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Arthur Rawlings, Jennifer Doty, Amanda Frevert, Jacob Quick
PURPOSE: Nondesignated preliminary residents (N-DPRs) in General Surgery face difficult challenges of overcoming failure to match and quickly reentering the match again with little time to significantly improve their application. Programs with N-DPRs should take seriously their responsibility for helping these residents obtain a successful career path just as they do for their categorical residents. This study evaluates an intervention to improve the matching of N-DPRs into desired positions...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Yassine Rabhi, Makrem Mrabet, Farhat Fnaiech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In order to improve assistive technologies for people with reduced mobility, this paper develops a new intelligent real-time emotion detection system to control equipment, such as electric wheelchairs (EWC) or robotic assistance vehicles. Every year, degenerative diseases and traumas prohibit thousands of people to easily control the joystick of their wheelchairs with their hands. Most current technologies are considered invasive and uncomfortable such as those requiring the user to wear some body sensor to control the wheelchair...
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Hannah L Connolly, Andrew W Young, Gary J Lewis
Recognising identity and emotion conveyed by the face is important for successful social interactions and has thus been the focus of considerable research. Debate has surrounded the extent to which the mechanisms underpinning face emotion and face identity recognition are distinct or share common processes. Here we use an individual differences approach to address this issue. In a well-powered (N = 605) and age-diverse sample we used structural equation modelling to assess the association between face emotion recognition and face identity recognition ability...
October 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Elina Birmingham, Joakim Svärd, Christopher Kanan, Håkan Fischer
Adult aging is associated with difficulties in recognizing negative facial expressions such as fear and anger. However, happiness and disgust recognition is generally found to be less affected. Eye-tracking studies indicate that the diagnostic features of fearful and angry faces are situated in the upper regions of the face (the eyes), and for happy and disgusted faces in the lower regions (nose and mouth). These studies also indicate age-differences in visual scanning behavior, suggesting a role for attention in emotion recognition deficits in older adults...
2018: PloS One
Maha Sudki Nahal, Åsa B Axelsson, Asma Imam, Helena Wigert
BACKGROUND: Living with spina bifida in Palestine is a critical issue that might influence various aspects of the individual's life. It is a challenge for children, their families, and health care providers since it requires lifelong treatment and follow-up of care provision. However, little focus has been placed on these children's perceptions about their daily life experiences with spina bifida. PURPOSE: To illuminate the lived experience of children with spina bifida in the West Bank, Palestine...
October 18, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Melissa D Avery, Carrie E Neerland, Melissa A Saftner
INTRODUCTION: A physiologic approach to labor and birth is preferred for most women. The United States spends more on birth than any other country. Cesarean rates are currently 32%, and approximately 23% of women with a singleton pregnancy experience induction or augmentation of labor. Most physiologic birth research has focused on care during labor and birth. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of the care processes, support, and information received during pregnancy that helped them feel confident for physiologic labor and birth...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Zuopeng Lv, Athaydes Francisco Leite, Hauke Harms, Karin Glaser, Jan Liebetrau, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz
Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich substrate often causes process inhibition due to the susceptibility of the microbial community facing ammonia accumulation. However, the precise response of the microbial community has remained largely unknown. To explore the reasons, bacterial communities in ammonia-stressed reactors and control reactors were studied by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and the active methanogens were followed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of mcrA/mrtA gene transcripts...
October 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sarah V Stevenage, Greg J Neil, Beth Parsons, Abi Humphreys
Two experiments are presented, which explore the presence of a distinctiveness advantage when recognising unfamiliar voices. In Experiment 1, distinctive voices were recognised significantly better, and with greater confidence, in a sequential same/different matching task compared with typical voices. These effects were replicated and extended in Experiment 2, as distinctive voices were recognised better even under challenging listening conditions imposed by nonsense sentences and temporal reversal. Taken together, the results aligned well with similar results when processing faces, and provided a useful point of comparison between voice and face processing...
September 2018: Applied Cognitive Psychology
Cesare Brandi, Roberto Cuomo, Giuseppe Nisi, Luca Grimaldi, Carlo D'Aniello
INTRODUCTION: The slowing of the aging process is subject of great research and attention in modern society, particularly aging of face. Processes involved are very complex. Mesotherapy. hyaluronic acid and carbon dioxide injection can be used for biorevitalization and skin rejuvenation. METHODS: Three groups were made and 62 patients were enrolled. Patients with superficial wrinkles of the face, neck and/or décolleté, without presence of nasolabial folds and marionette wrinkles were included in group 1...
October 8, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Kristin D Bradley, Christie Schumacher, Jill S Borchert, Mary Ann Kliethermes, Deborah K Anderson
PURPOSE: The reliability and validity of a survey tool that aims to assess and stratify patient care services provided by ambulatory care pharmacists were evaluated. METHODS: The Tool for Assessing Ambulatory Care Pharmacist Practice (TAAPP) was developed by updating the Pharmaceutical Care Clinical Pharmacist Questionnaire. The TAAPP is organized into 2 sections that include 5 domains derived from the Pharmacists' Patient Care Process (PPCP). The first section of the TAAPP gathers the demographic information of the respondents as well as practice site characteristics...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Saif Khairat, Paige Ottmar, Betsy Sleath, Brandon Welch, Suparna Qanungo, Michelle Nichols, Jihad S Obeid
BACKGROUND: Informed consent is among the biggest challenges in recruiting participants for clinical research studies. Researchers face many challenges in conducting clinical trials, some of which include budgetary restrictions, lack of trained personnel, and difficulty recruiting study participants-particularly minorities and participants from rural communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to utilize telemedicine to improve the informed consent process for clinical trials and studies...
October 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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