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Platelet mapping

Michael Caspers, Nadine Schäfer, Matthias Fröhlich, Ursula Bauerfeind, Bertil Bouillon, Manuel Mutschler, Marc Maegele
BACKGROUND: External factors following trauma and iatrogenic intervention influence blood coagulation and particularly clot formation. In particular, three external factors (in detail dilution via uncritical volume replacement, acidosis and hypothermia), in combination, referred to as the "lethal triad", substantially aggravate the hypocoagulative state after trauma. Contribution of these external factors to the resulting hypocoagulative state in trauma and especially their influence on primary haemostasis has still not been investigated systematically...
August 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Hong Li, Manuel Zeitelhofer, Ingrid Nilsson, Xicong Liu, Laura Allan, Benjamin Gloria, Angelo Perani, Carmel Murone, Bruno Catimel, A Munro Neville, Fiona E Scott, Andrew M Scott, Ulf Eriksson
PDGF-CC is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family that stimulates PDGFRα phosphorylation and thereby activates intracellular signalling events essential for development but also in cancer, fibrosis and neuropathologies involving blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. In order to elucidate the biological and pathological role(s) of PDGF-CC signalling, we have generated high affinity neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PDGF-CC. We determined the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the selected clones, and mapped the binding epitope for clone 6B3...
2018: PloS One
Rachael Morris, Shauna-Kay Spencer, Allison Barnes, Teylor Bowles, Patrick B Kyle, Kedra Wallace
HELLP (hemolysis elevated liver enzyme low platelet) syndrome is associated with hypertension, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial activation. The objective of this study was to determine if oxygen scavenging or endothelin A receptor antagonism improved hypertension and oxidative stress. sFlt-1 and sEndoglin were infused via mini-osmotic pump into normal pregnant rats (NP) on gestational day 12 to create HELLP syndrome. On gestational day 18 arterial catheters were inserted and on gestational day 19 mean arterial pressure was analyzed in rats; serum, urine and tissues were collected for molecular analysis...
July 24, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Shinji Yamada, Shunsuke Itai, Mika K Kaneko, Satoru Konnai, Yukinari Kato
Mouse podoplanin (mPDPN) is a type I transmembrane sialoglycoprotein, which is expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells, podocytes of the kidney, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. mPDPN is known as a platelet aggregation-inducing factor and possesses four platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domains: PLAG1, PLAG2, and PLAG3 in the N-terminus and PLAG4 in the middle of the mPDPN protein. mPDPN overexpression in cancers has been reportedly associated with hematogenous metastasis through interaction with the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 of platelets...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Helena Lam, Nakul Katyal, Catherine Parker, Prashant Natteru, Premkumar Nattanamai, Christopher R Newey, Chadd K Kraus
Thromboelastography with platelet mapping (TEG-PM) is a modality to measure platelet function, especially in patients taking antiplatelet medications. It consists of two components: arachidonic acid (AA), which is sensitive to aspirin, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which is sensitive to clopidogrel. In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (sICH), the clinical interpretation of platelet mapping is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate TEG-PM in patients with sICH on aspirin and/or clopidogrel who receive platelet transfusions...
April 22, 2018: Curēus
Anika Witten, Juliane Bolbrinker, Andrei Barysenka, Matthias Huber, Frank Rühle, Ulrike Nowak-Göttl, Edeltraut Garbe, Reinhold Kreutz, Monika Stoll
Immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the clinically most important adverse drug reaction (ADR) in response to heparin therapy characterized by a prothrombotic state despite a decrease in platelet count. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 96 suspected HIT cases and 96 controls to explore the genetic predisposition for HIT within a case-control pharmacovigilance study followed by replication in additional 86 cases and 86 controls from the same study. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs1433265, P = 6...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Junhui Li, Xiaohua Sheng, Dongsheng Cheng, Feng Wang, Guihua Jian, Yongguang Li, Tao Xu, Xiaoxia Wang, Ying Fan, Niansong Wang
A high mean platelet volume (MPV) level has been demonstrated to predict poor clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between MPV and mortality in patients with acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the predictive value of MPV for in-hospital mortality of patients with ACRS who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in this study.We retrospectively analyzed the demographics, etiology, severity of illness, prognosis, and risk factors of ACRS patients who underwent CRRT in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2014...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aly Shamseddin, Céline Crauste, Erwan Durand, Pierre Villeneuve, Grégor Dubois, Teresa Pavlickova, Thiery Durand, Joseph Vercauteren, Francisco Veas
Gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -9) play a critical role not only in mammals physiology but also during inflammation and healing processes. The natural stilbenoid, resveratrol (RES), exhibits potent antioxidant effects, in a hormetic mode of action, and is known to inhibit MMP-9. However, RES administration exhibits major issues, including poor bioavailability and water solubility, hampering its potential therapeutic effect in vivo In the present study, we synthesized and evaluated five novel RES-lipid conjugates to increase their cell membrane penetration and improve their bioavailability...
August 31, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Palash K Dutta, Yun Zhang, Aaron T Blanchard, Chenghao Ge, Muaz Rushdi, Kristin Weiss, Cheng Zhu, Yonggang Ke, Khalid Salaita
Mechanical forces are central to most, if not all, biological processes, including cell development, immune recognition, and metastasis. Because the cellular machinery mediating mechano-sensing and force generation is dependent on the nanoscale organization and geometry of protein assemblies, a current need in the field is the development of force-sensing probes that can be customized at the nanometer-length scale. In this work, we describe a DNA origami tension sensor that maps the piconewton (pN) forces generated by living cells...
July 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Lucia Stefanini, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Platelets are highly specialized cells that continuously patrol the vasculature to ensure its integrity (hemostasis). At sites of vascular injury, they are able to respond to trace amounts of agonists and to rapidly transition from an anti-adhesive/patrolling to an adhesive state (integrin inside-out activation) required for hemostatic plug formation. Pathological conditions that disturb the balance in the underlying signaling processes can lead to unwanted platelet activation (thrombosis) or to an increased bleeding risk...
June 4, 2018: Platelets
Sally A Moody
The individual blastomeres of Xenopus two- to 32-cell embryos have been fate mapped. This work identified the precursors of most of the embryonic cell types, tissues and organs; however, the maps do not reveal the cell interactions or signaling pathways that are required for establishing cell fates. This protocol describes an explant culture approach for culturing blastomeres in isolation to test whether a cell's fate has been determined. Cleavage blastomeres can be cultured in a simple salt medium without added factors because they contain intracellular yolk platelets, which provide an intrinsic energy source...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
John Alfred Carr
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids are widely used. This article reviews the coagulopathic effects of fish oil. METHODS: A review was performed of all English articles that addressed the topic from 1980 to 2017. RESULTS: Fish oil induces an in vitro coagulopathy in humans due to inhibitory effects in platelet-to-platelet adhesion and platelet-stimulated thrombin generation. The effect from fish oil alone is weak, but it is enhanced and may become clinically noticeable in patients taking antiplatelet therapy, and, to a lesser extent, in patients on factor Xa inhibitors and warfarin...
May 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Yvonne Jockel-Schneider, Anne Kobsar, Angelika Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Ulrich Vogel, Stefan Störk, Stefan Frantz, Ulrich Schlagenhauf, Martin Eigenthaler
In vitro studies revealed that Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a pathogen intimately associated with the onset and progression of periodontitis, is able to activate platelets, thus linking periodontal inflammation with the endangerment of vascular health. As wild-type Pg strains are characterized by major genetic heterogeneity, the commonness of platelet-activating Pg strains in periodontitis patients is unknown as of yet. Therefore, this study evaluated the platelet activation capacity of wild-type Pg isolates sampled from patients with aggressive periodontitis...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Shunsuke Itai, Yao-Wen Chang, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Satoshi Ogasawara, Takeshi Murata, Hiroaki Uchida, Hideaki Tahara, Hiroyuki Harada, Yukinari Kato
Podoplanin (PDPN), a type I transmembrane sialoglycoprotein, is expressed on normal renal podocytes, pulmonary type I alveolar cells, and lymphatic endothelial cells. Increased expression of PDPN in cancers is associated with poor prognosis and hematogenous metastasis through interactions with C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets. We previously reported a novel PMab-48 antibody, which is an anti-dog PDPN (dPDPN) monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognizing PDPN expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells...
June 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Sebastian Boegel, Martin Löwer, Thomas Bukur, Patrick Sorn, John C Castle, Ugur Sahin
BACKGROUND: The presentation of HLA peptide complexes to T cells is a highly regulated and tissue specific process involving multiple transcriptionally controlled cellular components. The extensive polymorphism of HLA genes and the complex composition of the proteasome make it difficult to map their expression profiles across tissues. METHODS: Here we applied a tailored gene quantification pipeline to 4323 publicly available RNA-Seq datasets representing 55 normal tissues and cell types to examine expression profiles of (classical and non-classical) HLA class I, class II and proteasomal genes...
March 27, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Aparna B Baxi, Camille Lombard-Banek, Sally A Moody, Peter Nemes
The molecular program by which embryonic ectoderm is induced to form neural tissue is essential to understanding normal and impaired development of the central nervous system. Xenopus has been a powerful vertebrate model in which to elucidate this process. However, abundant vitellogenin (yolk) proteins in cells of the early Xenopus embryo interfere with protein detection by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), the technology of choice for identifying these gene products. Here, we systematically evaluated strategies of bottom-up proteomics to enhance proteomic detection from the neural ectoderm (NE) of X...
April 5, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Kenneth E Remy, Mark H Yazer, Arun Saini, Ajlana Mehanovic-Varmaz, Sharon R Rogers, Andrew P Cap, Philip C Spinella
BACKGROUND: Agitation of platelet units stored at room temperature is performed routinely to maintain platelet function, and leukoreduction of blood products is the standard of care in many countries to reduce immune consequences of transfusion. The effect of agitation and leukoreduction on whole blood stored at 4°C requires investigation, as reductions in hemostatic capacity of whole blood may reduce its efficacy in treating trauma-induced coagulopathy and platelet dysfunction. We hypothesize that agitation of whole blood will not affect hemostatic function and that leukoreduction will reduce hemostatic function of whole blood...
June 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ali R Keramati, Lisa R Yanek, Kruthika Iyer, Margaret A Taub, Ingo Ruczinski, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Nauder Faraday, Rasika A Mathias
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aggregation of activated platelets on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque is a critical step in most acute cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a common variant within the first intron of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1), to be robustly associated with platelet aggregation...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Michael L Ekaney, Gabrielle Gonzalez Gray, Iain H McKillop, Susan L Evans
BACKGROUND: Limited availability and use of whole blood (WB) following trauma is driven by perceptions that hemostatic function is limited by platelet dysfunction within 5 days storage. We sought to define the hemostatic function of WB stored at 4°C for up to 25 days, elucidate changes in metabolic parameters and mitochondrial dysfunction in platelets in WB, and the effect of supplementation using resveratrol (Res) or cytochrome c (Cyt c). METHODS: Whole blood was collected, aliquoted, and stored at 4°C without agitation...
July 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jacek Staszewski, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Ewa Skrobowska, Bogdan Brodacki, Katarzyna Macek, Adam Stępień
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of aspirin resistance (AR) in patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease is not well known. The aim of this single-center, prospective study was to examine the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic significance of AR in patients with different clinical manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) over 24-month follow-up. METHODS: We studied 104 patients with MRI confirmed CSVD, including those with recent lacunar stroke (LS, n=49), vascular parkinsonism (VaP, n=16) and dementia (VaD, n=39)...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
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