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Body positivity

Rosy Wang, R M Damian Holsinger
Emerging evidence indicates that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is positively correlated with cognitive function and memory. However, the exact mechanisms underlying such improvements remain unclear. Recent research in animal models allows proposition of a pathway in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator. This perspective draws upon evidence from animal and human studies to highlight such a mechanism whereby exercise drives synthesis and accumulation of neuroactive metabolites such as myokines and ketone bodies in the periphery and in the hippocampus to enhance BDNF expression...
October 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Luis Suarez-Arrones, Eduardo Saez de Villarreal, Francisco Javier Núñez, Valter Di Salvo, Cristian Petri, Alessandro Buccolini, Rafael Angel Maldonado, Nacho Torreno, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
The aim of this study was to describe the changes in body composition, strength and sprint performance in response to an entire competitive season of football training supplemented with 2 inertial eccentric-overload training sessions a week in young male professional soccer players. Whole body and regional composition (assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), power output in half-squat and 40-m sprinting performance were evaluated in fourteen players. The eccentric-overload training consisted of training sessions a week of 1-2 sets of 10 exercises of upper-body and core (Day 1) and lower-body (Day 2), during the entire competitive season (27 weeks)...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin J Levy, Brandon M Tauberg, Ari J Holtzman, Konrad I Gruson
INTRODUCTION: To report on the effectiveness of a standardized patient positioning and padding protocol in reducing lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) palsy in obese patients who have undergone shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 400 consecutive patients with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m who underwent either open or arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position by a single surgeon...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Suman Srinivasa, Kathleen V Fitch, Martin Torriani, Markella V Zanni, Christopher Defilippi, Robert Christenson, Patrick Maehler, Sara E Looby, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) well-treated on antiretroviral therapies remain at risk for ensuing arterial disease. We investigated the relationship between adipose depots and biomarkers of arterial injury and inflammation to gain insight into the link between body composition and CVD risk. DESIGNS/METHODS: 155 HIV-infected and 70 non-HIV-infected individuals were well-phenotyped for body composition. Adipose depots were assessed via single-slice abdominal CT...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Tara Rendo-Urteaga, Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes, Francisco Leonardo Torres-Leal, Yannis Manios, Frederic Gottand, Michael Sjöström, Anthony Kafatos, Kurt Widhalm, Stefaan De Henauw, Dénes Molnár, Ascensión Marcos, Marcela González-Gross, Marika Ferrari, Heráclito B Carvalho, Luis A Moreno
Background Adolescents having early puberty (EP) are more likely to have obesity and increased cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk. We aimed to assess the indirect and mediated effects of leptin and adiposity on the relation between EP and cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in European adolescents. Methods A sample of 511 adolescents with EP (12.5-17.5 years) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study was studied. To assess whether leptin levels and adiposity mediate the relation between EP and several biomarkers, linear regression models for mediation analyses were performed...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Fabrício Edler Macagnan, Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli, Thais Russomano
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence of how metabolic syndrome (MS) affects sympathovagal balance responses to acute physical effort (APE) and autonomic stimulation (AS). This study aimed to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV) responses to the combined APE and AS challenges. METHODS: Fourteen subjects (8 men; 49.15 ± 8.67 years) divided into two groups: 7 healthy volunteers [control group (CG)] and 7 patients with MS. Sympathovagal balance [low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio] was accessed by HRV through the beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) electrocardiogram...
October 17, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Mia Demant, Jonatan I Bagger, Malte P Suppli, Asger Lund, Mette Gyldenløve, Katrine B Hansen, Kristine J Hare, Mikkel Christensen, David P Sonne, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
BACKGROUND: Fasting hyperglucagonemia can be detrimental to glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and may contribute to metabolic disturbances in obese and/or prediabetic subjects. However, the mechanisms underlying fasting hyperglucagonemia remain elusive. METHODS: We evaluated the interrelationship between fasting hyperglucagonemia and demographic and biochemical parameters in 106 patients with T2D (31% female, age: 57 ± 9 years [mean ± standard deviation; body mass index (BMI): 30...
October 16, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Abbas Basiri, Behnam Shakiba, Niloufar Rostaminejad
A healthy 37 - year - old woman referred to our clinic with one - year history of recurrent urinary tract infection, dysuria and frequency. Her past medical history informed us that an IUD (Copper TCu380A) had been inserted 11 years ago. Eleven months after the IUD insertion she had become pregnant, unexpectedly. At that time, she had undergone gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasound study. However, the IUD had not been found, and the gynecologist had made the diagnosis of spontaneous fall out of the IUD...
September 20, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Reem Eltayeb, Duria A Rayis, Manal E Sharif, Abdel Bagi A Ahmed, Osama Elhardello, Ishag Adam
Background: Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and child health. Investigations of anaemia and its predictors among pregnant women are needed for preventive measures. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants of anaemia in early pregnancy in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical characteristics were gathered using a questionnaire. Serum ferritin, magnesium and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured using different laboratory methods...
October 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Grace A Couture, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin, Anna V Lorimer, Andrew E Kilding, Paul Macadam
Wearable resistance training involves added load attached directly to the body during sporting movements. The effects of load position during running are not yet fully established. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine spatio-temporal and kinetic characteristics during submaximal running using upper, lower and whole-body wearable resistance (1-10% body mass (BM)). Twelve trained male runners completed eight 2-min treadmill running bouts at 3.9 m/s with and without wearable resistance. The first and last bouts were unloaded, while the middle 6 were randomised wearable resistance conditions: upper body (UB) 5% BM, lower body (LB) 1%, 3%, 5% BM and whole body (WB) 5%, 10% BM...
October 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Murat Alan, Beril Gurlek, Alpay Yilmaz, Murat Aksit, Behnaz Aslanipour, İbrahin Gulhan, Calan Mehmet, Cuneyt Eftal Taner
Asprosin associated with insulin resistance is a newly discovered peptide hormone. The peptide promotes hepatic glucose production. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to discover the association between insulin resistance and asprosin in women with PCOS. We recruited 78 subjects with PCOS and 78 age-matched and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls into this cross-sectional study. Circulating asprosin levels were validated using ELISA method...
October 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
I M Winje, X Sheng, K-A Hansson, A Solbrå, S Tennøe, F Saatcioglu, J C Bruusgaard, K Gundersen
AIM: Cachexia is a severe wasting disorder involving loss of body- and muscle mass reducing survival and quality of life in cancer patients. We aim at determining if cachexia is a mere perturbation of the protein balance or if the condition also involves a degenerative loss myonuclei within the fiber syncytia or loss of whole muscle fibers. METHODS: We induced cachexia by xenografting PC3 prostate cancer cells in nu/nu mice. Six weeks later, we counted myonuclei by in vivo microscopic imaging of single live fibers in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL), and the EDL, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were also harvested for ex vivo histology...
October 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Meiyan Zhang, Siqi Jia, Yajing Liu, Yanli Liu, Siqi Li, Lu Bo, Xiujuan Zhao, Changhao Sun
This study aimed to investigate the nephrotoxicity in rats administered with chronic low-dose cadmium (Cd) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups, namely: control; low-dose (0.13 mg/kg·body weight [bw]); middle-dose (0.80 mg/kg·bw); and high-dose (4.89 mg/kg·bw). The rats received CdCl2 daily via drinking water for 24 weeks. Rat kidneys were collected for metabonomics analysis. Principal components analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis were used to investigate the metabonomics profile changes in the kidney samples and to screen the potential biomarkers...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Rahul J Hegde, Vaishali Vadgaonkar, Shamika Kamath
Purpose: Nutrition has a great impact on children's health. Of great concern are the underweight children because of the risk of illness and mortality in them. Being overweight can also have long-lasting adverse effect on development of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine body mass index (BMI) and dental development in normal and underweight children and to carry out a correlative analysis of calculated dental age, chronological age, and BMI in normal and underweight children of age group of 6-13 years of Navi Mumbai, India...
October 2018: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Ahmet Nadir, Sule Temizkan, Aysenur Ozderya, Osman Temizkan, Ekrem Orbay, Kadriye Aydin
Potential effect of hyperandrogenemia on metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has always been a matter of interest. We analyzed the records of 125 patients with PCOS and 54 age-matched healthy women. All participants underwent biochemical and hormonal assessment and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. PCOS and control groups were comparable in terms of age. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/free androgen index (DHEAS/FAI) ratio was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (p < ...
October 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Natalia Dekhnich, Natalie Ivanchik, Roman Kozlov, Alexander Alimov, Andrey Steshits, Pavel Kirsov, Krunal Pandav
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy depends on the chance of having a resistant H. pylori strain, which is ultimately related to the local antimicrobial resistance epidemiology. AIM: To assess H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, and tetracycline in adult patients in the Smolensk region of Russian Federation over a 9-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsy samples were taken from the gastric antrum and body of 573 and 210 patients with dyspepsia symptoms and positive rapid urease test during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in 2015-2017 and 2009-2010, respectively...
October 16, 2018: Helicobacter
Eiji Kutoh, Asuka Wada, Teruma Murayama, Jyunka Hayashi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the changes in body weight and those of glycemic and non-glycemic parameters in drug-naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin monotherapy. METHODS: Subjects received 50-100 mg/day canagliflozin monotherapy for 3 months (n = 36), and were then divided into two groups: (1) those who lost weight [changes in (Δ)BMI ≤ - 0.45, p < 0.00001: Group L(ost), n = 20); and (2) those who did not lose weight [ΔBMI > - 0...
October 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Gemma Mazzuoli-Weber, Eva Maria Kugler, Carina Ines Bühler, Florian Kreutz, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Onur Güralp Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Michael Schemann
Piezo channels play fundamental roles in many physiological processes. Their presence and functional role in the enteric nervous system is still not known. We hypothesize that they play a role in mechanotransduction in enteric neurons. Our aims are to quantify the presence of both Piezo1 and 2 in enteric neurons throughout the gastrointestinal tract using immunohistochemistry and analyze their function(s) using neuroimaging techniques and pharmacological investigations. In order to perform a systematic and comparative study, we performed our experiments in gastrointestinal tissue from guinea pigs, mice and humans...
October 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yolice Tembo, Angela G Mkindi, Prisila A Mkenda, Nelson Mpumi, Regina Mwanauta, Philip C Stevenson, Patrick A Ndakidemi, Steven R Belmain
In the fight against arthropod crop pests using plant secondary metabolites, most research has focussed on the identification of bioactive molecules. Several hundred candidate plant species and compounds are now known to have pesticidal properties against a range of arthropod pest species. Despite this growing body of research, few natural products are commercialized for pest management whilst on-farm use of existing botanically-based pesticides remains a small, but growing, component of crop protection practice...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yoshiaki Tanaka, Fumihiko Toyoda, Machiko Shimmura-Tomita, Nozomi Kinoshita, Hiroko Takano, Yoh Dobashi, Shigeki Yamada, Hiroto Obata, Akihiro Kakehashi
Purpose: The aim of this case series was to clarify the clinicopathological features of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) that developed in eyes after silicone oil (SO) tamponade to treat rhegmatog-enous retinal detachments (RRDs). Patients and methods: In the Department of Ophthalmology, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, patients with idiopathic ERMs (23 eyes) and ERMs in eyes filled with SO (SO ERMs) after vitreous surgery to treat RRDs (nine eyes) were enrolled from July 2012 to March 2014...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
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