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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103243/risk-score-for-prediction-of-10-year-atrial-fibrillation-a-community-based-study
#1
Doron Aronson, Varda Shalev, Rachel Katz, Gabriel Chodick, Diab Mutlak
PURPOSE:  We used a large real-world data from community settings to develop and validate a 10-year risk score for new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and calculate its net benefit performance. METHODS:  Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate effects of risk factors in the derivation cohort ( n  = 96,778) and to derive a risk equation. Measures of calibration and discrimination were calculated in the validation cohort ( n  = 48,404)...
August 13, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103205/school-based-versus-after-school-delivery-of-a-universal-wellness-programme-a-randomized-controlled-multi-arm-trial
#2
Moria Golan, Wiessam Abu Ahmad
Positive self-image and body image as well as high self-esteem and media literacy are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviours. Investigation of the optimal setting for body image prevention programmes is important to maximize outcomes from such programmes. Most universal wellness programmes are school based and thus delivered to a "captive" population. Only a few reports have been published about wellness programmes delivered in after-school settings, and none of them compared delivery after school to delivery in a school-based setting...
August 10, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103180/predicting-body-movements-for-person-identification-under-different-walking-conditions
#3
Duc-Phong Nguyen, Cong-Bo Phan, Seungbum Koo
Human motion during walking provides biometric information which can be utilized to quantify the similarity between two persons or identify a person. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying a person using their walking motion when another walking motion under different conditions is given. This type of situation occurs frequently in forensic gait science. Twenty-eight subjects were asked to walk in a gait laboratory, and the positions of their joints were tracked using a three-dimensional motion capture system...
August 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102918/serum-non-cholesterol-sterols-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-helsinki-businessmen-study
#4
Chaiyasit Sittiwet, Piia Simonen, Markku J Nissinen, Helena Gylling, Timo E Strandberg
Cerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether also the extracerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed is not known. Thus, we studied whole-body cholesterol synthesis and absorption with serum noncholesterol sterols in men without AD (n = 114) or with (n = 18) "pure" AD (no concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) in a long-term cohort (the Helsinki Businessmen Study) of home-dwelling older men without lipid-lowering drugs and on their habitual home diet...
July 26, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102726/association-of-weight-gain-and-fifteen-adipokines-with-declining-beta-cell-function-in-mexican-americans
#5
Anny H Xiang, Mary Helen Black, Yu-Hsiang Shu, Jun Wu, Adrienne MacKay, Corinna Koebnick, Richard M Watanabe, Thomas A Buchanan
Obesity and adipokines are associated with development of type 2 diabetes. However, limited longitudinal studies have examined their roles on declining β-cell function over time. This report assessed three adiposity measures (BMI, percent body fat, trunk fat), insulin resistance, and fifteen adipokines in relationship to longitudinal change in β-cell function measured by disposition index (DI) from frequently-sampled-intravenous-glucose-tolerance testing. The results showed that three factors were significantly and independently associated with rate of change in DI over time: rate of change in BMI (negative), rate of change in IL-6 (negative), and baseline adiponectin (positive)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102500/prevalence-of-risk-factors-in-cardiovascular-diseases-in-selected-population-of-the-czech-republic
#6
Vladimír Pavlík, Jana Fajfrová, Václav Šafka, Lucie Pravdová, Miroslav Urban, Pavla Krutišová, Milan Tuček
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to describe current prevalence of selected risk factors in the Czech general population in a particular region and to compare the data with recently published results in the selected population of Czech soldiers. The work also deals with the advantages and disadvantages of methods determining overweight and obesity. METHODS: Within medical preventive examinations the data of 1,051 individuals (482 men, 569 women) were obtained...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102499/prevalence-of-malnutrition-risk-among-institutionalized-elderly-from-north-bohemia-is-higher-than-among-those-in-the-capital-city-of-prague-czech-republic
#7
Miroslava Slavíková, Bohumír Procházka, Pavel Dlouhý, Michal Anděl, Jolana Rambousková
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the risk of malnutrition among institutionalized elderly individuals in North Bohemia and compare it to the risk of malnutrition in the capital city of Prague, Czech Republic. In the Czech Republic, very few studies have been conducted with the goal of describing and evaluating the nutritional status of the institutionalized elderly. METHODS: In this study, data was collected from 254 elderly individuals (aged ≥ 65) residing in retirement homes in North Bohemia and then compared with similar data for the elderly living in retirement homes in Prague (the data from Prague were previously published in 2013)...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102369/sow-stress-levels-and-behavior-and-piglet-performances-in-farrowing-crates-and-farrowing-pens-with-temporary-crating
#8
S Goumon, I Leszkowova, M Šimecková, G Illmann
Farrowing pens with temporary crating have been developed as a compromise between conventional farrowing crates and pens to better accommodate the welfare of both sow and piglets during lactation. However, not much is known about the behavioral and physiological consequences of early removal of confinement on the sow and piglets during lactation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on sow and piglet performance of temporary crating until 3 days post-partum at two times points; immediately after confinement removal and 25 days into lactation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102236/biological-material-collection-to-advance-translational-research-and-treatment-of-children-with-cns-tumours-position-paper-from-the-siope-brain-tumour-group
#9
REVIEW
Stefan Rutkowski, Piergiorgio Modena, Daniel Williamson, Kornelius Kerl, Karsten Nysom, Barry Pizer, Ute Bartels, Stephanie Puget, François Doz, Antony Michalski, Katja von Hoff, Mathilde Chevignard, Shivaram Avula, Matthew J Murray, Stefan Schönberger, Thomas Czech, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Uwe Kordes, Christof M Kramm, Dannis G van Vuurden, Esther Hulleman, Geert O Janssens, Guirish A Solanki, Marie-Luise C van Veelen, Ulrich Thomale, Martin U Schuhmann, Chris Jones, Felice Giangaspero, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Torsten Pietsch, Steve C Clifford, Stefan M Pfister, Stefaan W Van Gool
Paediatric CNS tumours are the most common cause of childhood cancer-related morbidity and mortality, and improvements in their diagnosis and treatment are needed. New genetic and epigenetic information about paediatric CNS tumours is transforming the field dramatically. For most paediatric CNS tumour entities, subgroups with distinct biological characteristics have been identified, and these characteristics are increasingly used to facilitate accurate diagnoses and therapeutic recommendations. Future treatments will be further tailored to specific molecular subtypes of disease, specific tumour predisposition syndromes, and other biological criteria...
August 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101708/deformation-based-statistical-shape-analysis-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Zihan Jiang, Huilin Yang, Xiaoying Tang
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the influence that the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts upon the corpus callosum (CC) using a total of 325 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, 155 AD subjects, and 185 healthy control (HC) subjects. METHOD: Regionally-specific morphological CC abnormalities, as induced by AD, were quantified using a large deformation diffeomorphic metric curve mapping based statistical shape analysis pipeline. We also quantified the association between the CC shape phenotype and two cognitive measures; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Behavior Section (ADAS-cog)...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101329/sleep-nutrition-and-physical-activity-interventions-to-prevent-obesity-in-infancy-follow-up-of-the-prevention-of-overweight-in-infancy-poi-randomized-controlled-trial-at-ages-3-5-and-5-y
#11
Rachael W Taylor, Andrew R Gray, Anne-Louise M Heath, Barbara C Galland, Julie Lawrence, Rachel Sayers, Dione Healey, Gerald W Tannock, Kim A Meredith-Jones, Maha Hanna, Burt Hatch, Barry J Taylor
Background: Our Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study suggested that a brief sleep intervention in infancy reduced the risk of obesity at age 2 y. In contrast, we observed no benefit from the nutrition and activity intervention. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine how these interventions influenced growth at ages 3.5 and 5 y compared with usual care (Control). Design: A follow-up of a parallel, 4-arm, single-blind, 2-y, randomized controlled trial in 802 women (86% European, 48% primiparous) recruited in pregnancy (58% response rate) was undertaken...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101221/difficult-airway-management-in-children-and-young-adults-with-arthrogryposis
#12
REVIEW
Glenn Isaacson, Elizabeth T Drum
Objective: To review current evidence and experience with anesthesia and airway management issues in children and young adults with arthrogryposis. Data sources: Review of existing world literature and description of personal experience at a center for children's orthopedic surgery and rehabilitation over 2 decades. Methods: Description of common problems and their solutions in this unusual and diverse group of patients. Results: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital includes more than 400 conditions that lead to congenital joint contractures affecting more than one body area...
June 2018: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100929/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-meditation-on-empathy-compassion-and-prosocial-behaviors
#13
Christina M Luberto, Nina Shinday, Rhayun Song, Lisa L Philpotts, Elyse R Park, Gregory L Fricchione, Gloria Y Yeh
Increased attention has focused on methods to increase empathy, compassion, and pro-social behavior. Meditation practices have traditionally been used to cultivate pro-social outcomes, and recently investigations have sought to evaluate their efficacy for these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of meditation for pro-social emotions and behavior. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane databases (inception-April 2016) using the search terms: mindfulness, meditation, mind-body therapies, tai chi, yoga, MBSR, MBCT, empathy, compassion, love, altruism, sympathy, or kindness...
June 2018: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100880/basal-endogenous-steroid-hormones-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-physical-fitness-and-health-risk-factors-in-young-adult-men
#14
Sheila S Gagnon, Bradley C Nindl, Jani P Vaara, Matti Santtila, Keijo Häkkinen, Heikki Kyröläinen
Purpose: Few large-scale population-based studies have adequately examined the relationships between steroid hormones, health status and physical fitness. The purpose of the study was to describe the relationship of serum basal endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, TES; empirical free testosterone, EFT; cortisol, COR) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) to body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical fitness in young healthy men. Methods: Male reservists (25 ± 4 years, N = 846) participated in the study...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100839/use-of-ultrasound-guided-preoperative-diaphragmatic-thickness-as-a-predictor-of-postoperative-weaning-failure-in-recipients-and-donors-scheduled-for-living-donor-liver-transplant-surgery
#15
Ankur Sharma, Sunaina Tejpal Karna, Manish Tandon, Chandra Kant Pandey, Ravindra Chaturvedi, Varuna Vyas, Akhil Dhanesh Goel
Background and Objectives: The present study was designed to explore the utility of ultrasound-guided diaphragmatic thickness in the preoperative period in healthy controls scheduled for live-related donor hepatectomy and patients suffering from chronic liver disease scheduled for liver transplantation (LT) and its use as a predictor of postoperative weaning failure. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary health care center and 65 adult (18-70 years) participants (30 healthy liver donors and 35 liver transplant recipients) were enrolled for this study...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100498/therapeutic-effects-of-kefir-grain-lactobacillus-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-mice-with-2-4-6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-induced-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
M K Seo, E J Park, S Y Ko, E W Choi, S Kim
Kefir is a fermented product from yeast and lactic acid bacteria, and has been associated with various health benefits including relieving inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, it has been shown that gram-positive bacteria produce extracellular vesicles (EV). The EV could be appearing as potentially important mediators of cell to cell interaction. In this study, we explored the role of kefir grain Lactobacillus-derived EV in modulating inflammation responses via alleviating the production of inflammatory cytokines in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammation in Caco-2 cells and the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease mouse model...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100249/p-096-differences-in-postural-stability-in-the-elderly-not-all-tests-measure-the-same
#17
Patrik Kutílek, Slávka Vítečková, Ana Carolina D'Angeles, Eva Kutílková, Miroslav Janura, Lucia Bizovská, Zdenek Svoboda, Marketa Hamrikova
Measurements of the center of pressure (CoP) acquired with a person positioned on a force plate is one of the most commonly used tool to investigate a balance. Several studies show a significant degradation of the body stability after the age of 60 years, however, these conclusions were based on a limited number of indicators. Also, these studies don't take into consideration the change in stability in very old age groups and sex of subjects.In our study, not all parameters lead to the same conclusions. The vast majority of the results didn't show any statistically significant difference when considering the age groups...
July 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100245/cartilage-oligomeric-matrix-protein-is-differentially-expressed-in-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-regulates-adipogenesis
#18
Nathan Denton, Katherine E Pinnick, Fredrik Karpe
OBJECTIVE: The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) impacts adipocyte function and might determine adipose tissue (AT) function and distribution. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a matricellular protein usually studied in bone and cartilage, is highly differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT. This study aimed to explore COMP's role in human subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal AT and preadipocyte biology. METHODS: COMP mRNA levels were measured in whole AT and immortalised preadipocytes via quantitative (q)-PCR...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100158/metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-as-risk-factors-for-prolonged-corrected-qt-interval-in-apparently-healthy-korean-men-and-women
#19
Byoungjin Park, Yong-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is clinically important because of its association with increased risk of sudden cardiac death, as well as cardiovascular disease-related mortality. Data between MetS and prolonged corrected QT (QTc) intervals, a useful predictor of sudden cardiac death, are limited in apparently healthy adults. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the association between MetS and QTc interval in apparently healthy Korean men and women. METHODS: We examined the association between MetS and QTc interval in 2157 Korean adults (1317 men and 840 women) in a health examination program but excluded participants with a history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, cardiac arrhythmia, cancer, thyroid, respiratory, renal, hepatobiliary, or rheumatologic disease...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100150/a-new-method-for-the-performance-of-external-chest-compressions-during-hypogravity-simulation
#20
Christina Mackaill, Gregori Sponchiado, Ana K Leite, Paola Dias, Michele Da Rosa, Elliot J Brown, Julio C M de Lima, Lucas Rehnberg, Thais Russomano
INTRODUCTION: 2015 UK resuscitation guidelines aim for 50-60 mm depth when giving external chest compressions (ECCs). This is achievable in hypogravity if the rescuer flexes and extends their arms during CPR, or using a new method trialed; the 'Mackaill-Russomano' (MR CPR) method. METHODS: 10 participants performed 3 sets of 30 ECCs in accordance with 2015 guidelines. A control was used at 1Gz, with eight further conditions using Mars and Moon simulations, with and without braces in the terrestrial position and using the MR CPR method...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
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