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Soyoun Um, Joo-Hee Lee, Byoung-Moo Seo
Bone formation is important for the reconstruction of bone-related structures in areas that have been damaged by inflammation. Inflammatory conditions such as those that occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, cystic fibrosis, and periodontitis have been shown to inhibit osteoblastic differentiation. This study focussed on dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), which are found in developing tooth germ and participate in the reconstruction of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue in periodontal disease. After bacterial infection of inflamed dental tissue, the destruction of bone was observed...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Lei Zhou, Tieqi Zhang, Shiwei Sun, Yueming Yu, Minghai Wang
AIMS: The exact mechanism underlying osteoblast differentiation and proliferation remains to be further elucidated. The circadian clock has been universally acknowledged controls behavioral activities and biological process in mammals. Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), one of the core circadian genes, is associated with bone metabolism. However, the exact role and potential mechanism of Cry1 in regulating osteogenesis are still unclear. MAIN METHODS: Western blotting and qRT-PCR were applied to detect Cry1 expression levels, molecules in osteogenesis related signaling pathways and osteogenic transcriptional markers...
October 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Mai Arima, Daigaku Hasegawa, Shinichiro Yoshida, Hiromi Mitarai, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Sayuri Hamano, Hideki Sugii, Naohisa Wada, Hidefumi Maeda
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we measured the expression of R-spondin 2 (RSPO2) in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and cells. Further, we examined the effects of RSPO2 on osteoblastic differentiation of immature human PDL cells (HPDLCs). BACKGROUND: R-spondin (RSPO) family proteins are secreted glycoproteins that play important roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. RSPO2, a member of the RSPO family, has been reported to enhance osteogenesis in mice...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Elzaan Booysen, Hanél Sadie-Van Gijsen, Shelly M Deane, William Ferris, Leon M T Dicks
Traditionally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is treated with vancomycin, administrated intravenously or applied directly onto infected tissue. The effect of direct (as opposed to systemic) vancomycin treatment on bone formation and remodelling is largely unknown. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined by adding 200 μL of different concentrations (1-20 μg/mL) to actively growing cultures of S. aureus Xen 31 (methicillin-resistant) and S. aureus Xen 36 (methicillin-sensitive), respectively, and recording changes in optical density over 24 h...
October 1, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Betiana Felice, María Alejandra Sánchez, María Cecilia Socci, Luciano David Sappia, María Inés Gómez, María Karina Cruz, Carmelo José Felice, Mercè Martí, María Isabel Pividori, Gabriela Simonelli, Andrea Paola Rodríguez
Up to date, tissue regeneration of large bone defects is a clinical challenge under exhaustive study. Nowadays, the most common clinical solutions concerning bone regeneration involve systems based on human or bovine tissues, which suffer from drawbacks like antigenicity, complex processing, low osteoinductivity, rapid resorption and minimal acceleration of tissue regeneration. This work thus addresses the development of nanofibrous synthetic scaffolds of polycaprolactone (PCL) - a long-term degradation polyester - compounded with hydroxyapatite (HA) and variable concentrations of ZnO as alternative solutions for accelerated bone tissue regeneration in applications requiring mid- and long-term resorption...
December 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yoo-Jung Lee, Seung-Cheol Lee, Seung Cheol Jee, Jung-Suk Sung, Avinash A Kadam
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are known to be the highly emerging materials in nano-medicinal applications. However, comprehensive exploitation of HNTs for the regenerative medicinal applications is still necessary to be done. Therefore, towards enhancing the osteogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs), this study synthesized a novel and multifunctional nanoscaffold of chitosan (CTs) functionalized supermagnetic halloysite nanotubes (M-HNTs) decorated with the calcium phosphate 2-D nanoflakes (CaP) (termed as; M-HNTs-CTs-CaP)...
September 20, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Zhi Tang, Hongzan Xie, Shengping Jiang, Shen Cao, Yunqing Pu, Biao Zhou, Xuqiao Zhang, Hui Xiong
OBJECTIVE: Safflower yellow (SY) is an active component ofCarthamus tinctorius L. that is widely used in orthopedics. This study aimed to evaluate the role of SY in angiogenesis and osteogenic differentiation. METHODS: The migration and in vitro angiogenesis of SY (4.5, 9.0, 18 μg/ml)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-12) were assessed by transwell and tube formation assay, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation ability was detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin Red S staining...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bahram Kamarehie, Ali Jafari, Mansour Ghaderpoori, Mohammad Amin Karami, Khadijeh Mousavi, Afshin Ghaderpoury
Three types of adsorbents of powdered activated carbon (PAC), treated PAC, and PAC/γ ≈ Fe2 O3 nanocomposite were used. The adsorption experiments were performed in batch conditions. pHZPC of PAC/γ ≈ Fe2 O3 was 6.7. As a result, at lower than pHZPC , acidic pH, the adsorption of alizarin red S on PAC/γ ≈ Fe2 O3 was favourable. The maximum of alizarin red S adsorption of PAC, treated PAC, and PAC/γ ≈ Fe2 O3 was 24.5 mg/g, 57.8 mg/g, and 112.56 mg/g, respectively. The models of Langmuir and pseudo-first-order were a fit model to describe the adsorption isotherm and the Kinetic, respectively...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Zhenfei Huang, Zhihong Wu, Bupeng Ma, Lingjia Yu, Yu He, Derong Xu, Yuanhao Wu, Hai Wang, Guixing Qiu
Titanium (Ti) is an ideal bone substitute due to its superior bio-compatibility and remarkable corrosion resistance. However, in order to improve the osteoconduction and osteoinduction capacities in clinical applications, different kinds of surface modifications are typically applied to Ti alloys. In this study, we fabricated a tightly attached polydopamine-assisted Fe3 O4 nanoparticle coating on Ti with magnetic properties, aiming to improve the osteogenesis of the Ti substrates. The PDA-assisted Fe3 O4 nanoparticle coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tiantian Wu, Chen Xu, Rong DU, Yang Wen, Jiang Chang, Zhiguang Huan, Yaqin Zhu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a silicate-based composite material on proliferation and mineralization of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs), which was compared with those of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 , CH) and tricalcium silicate (Ca3 SiO5 , C3S). HDPCs were cultured with CH, C3S and tricalcium silicate/dicalcium silicate (Ca3 SiO5 /Ca2 SiO4 , C3S/C2S) composites extract. The CCK-8 assay showed that the composite material stimulated the proliferation of hDPCs. The odontogenic marker genes and DSPP protein expression were more significantly up-regulated by the C3S/C2S composite material compared with pure CH and C3S...
September 14, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Yi Zhu, Wen-Qi Ma, Xi-Qiong Han, Ying Wang, Xin Wang, Nai-Feng Liu
Arterial media calcification is associated with diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have shown that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are responsible for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), one of the major factors during hypoxia, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), an important mitochondrial matrix enzyme in cellular metabolism shift, have been reported in VSMC calcification. The potential link among HIF-1α, PDK4, and AGEs-induced vascular calcification was investigated in this study...
September 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiao Mo, Renhua Yang, Fan Li, Bo He, Xiaochao Zhang, Yuqin Zhao, Zhiqiang Shen, Peng Chen
Abnormal osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been correlated with the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Geraniin, a polyphenolic compound isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, is effective in preventing osteoporosis, but the mechanisms of action of geraniin and the impact of osteoporotic condition on drug action are not known. In this study we compared the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potential of BMSCs from normal rats with that from osteoporotic rats, and examined the responses of both BMSCs to geraniin in parallel...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Hyeongjoon Ji, Kyuhyun Ahn, Hyejoung Cho, Hye-Eun Kim, Young Kim, Okjoon Kim
Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays an important role in adipogenesis and osteogenesis. To search for novel activators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, we screened plant extracts and found that Sangusorba officinalis L. extracts (SOE) could increase β-catenin expression level and nuclear accumulation in 3T3-L1 and MC3T3-E1 cells. It was confirmed that SOE could effectively control adipo-osteogenic differentiation. SOE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, markedly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation, and decreased expression levels of key adipogenic transcription factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c...
September 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Joo-Hee Lee, Hyungkeun Kim, Jae Hoon Shim, Junhee Park, Sun Kyoung Lee, Kwang-Kyun Park, Won-Yoon Chung
OBJECTIVE: Remodeling of alveolar bone is controlled by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-induced bone formation. LPS of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major causative agent of periodontitis, produces proinflammatory cytokines in host immune cells, which thereby triggers osteoclastogenesis and leads to alveolar bone resorption. We investigated the anti-periodontitis potential of Platycarya strobilacea leaf extract (PLE), which is used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries...
August 24, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Xiaobei Li, Yunfei Zheng, Yan Zheng, Yiping Huang, Yixin Zhang, Lingfei Jia, Weiran Li
BACKGROUND: Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are considered as candidate cells for the regeneration of periodontal and alveolar bone tissues. Antisense to the cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1 transcript (CDR1as), which is a newly discovered circular RNA (circRNA), has been reported to act as an miR-7 sponge and to be involved in many biological processes. Here, we investigated the potential roles of CDR1as and miR-7 in the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. METHODS: The expression pattern of CDR1as and miR-7 in PDLSCs during osteogenesis was detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
August 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
C Liu, L Wang, R Zhu, H Liu, R Ma, B Chen, L Li, Y Guo, Q Jia, S Shi, D Zhao, F Mo, B Zhao, J Niu, M Fu, A N Orekhov, D Brömme, S Gao, D Zhang
Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (RRP) improves bone quality in OVX rats through the regulation of bone homeostasis via increasing osteoblastogenesis and decreasing osteoclastogenesis, suggesting it has a potential for the development of new anti-osteoporotic drugs. INTRODUCTION: Determine the anti-osteoporotic effect of RRP in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and identify the signaling pathway involved in this process. METHODS: OVX rats were treated with RRP aqueous extract for 14 weeks...
August 27, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Xue-Juan Ma, Xue-Mei Liu, Jing Bi, Yao Liu, Xu Chen
PURPOSE: Cell sheets of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) were constructed. Their histological and biological properties were studied to provide experimental basis for its application in dental pulp regeneration in immature permanent teeth. METHODS: SCAP were isolated and cultured from immature permanent third molars. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate surface marker expression of SCAP. Alizarin red S staining was used to test osteo/odontogenic differentiation capacity of SCAP...
April 2018: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Zhen Cui, Chenshuang Li, Nan Jiang, Ci Zhang, Yiran Wang, Hongyun Gao, Yanheng Zhou
Human subcutaneous adipose tissue has been recognized as a rich source of tissue resident mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) in recent years. The current study was designed to sort the minipig (mp) perivascular stem cells (PSCs) and investigate the osteogenic potential. Purification of human PSCs was achieved via fluorescence‑activated cell sorting (FACS) from human liposuction samples [cluster of differentiation (CD)45‑CD34‑CD146+ perithelial cells and CD45‑CD34+CD146‑ adventitial cells]. Subsequently, PSCs were isolated from mp adipose tissue samples (n=9), characterized and, using purified mpPSCs (obtained by FACS, which is used in human PSC purification), the mpPSC osteogenic and adipogenic potential was evaluated by Alizarin Red S and Oil Red O staining in vitro, respectively...
August 21, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Patrina S P Poh, Claudine Seeliger, Marina Unger, Karsten Falldorf, Elizabeth R Balmayor, Martijn van Griensven
Extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF) devices have been used in the clinic for the treatment of bone disorders over the past 30 years. However, the underlying mechanism of which ELF-PEMFs exert an effect on tissues at a cellular level is not well understood. Hence, in this study, we explored the potential of different ELF-PEMF signals in modulating human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells' (hAMSC) osteogenic capability. The cell proliferation rate was assessed using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) method...
2018: Stem Cells International
Chiara Anna D'Amato, Rita Giovannetti, Marco Zannotti, Elena Rommozzi, Marco Minicucci, Roberto Gunnella, Andrea Di Cicco
The effect of surface modification using ascorbic acid as a surface modifier of nano-TiO₂ heterogeneous photocatalyst was studied. The preparation of supported photocatalyst was made by a specific paste containing ascorbic acid modified TiO₂ nanoparticles used to cover Polypropylene as a support material. The obtained heterogeneous photocatalyst was thoroughly characterized (scanning electron microscope (SEM), RAMAN, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL), and Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS) and successfully applied in the visible light photodegradation of Alizarin Red S in water solutions...
August 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
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