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Health at every size

Xia Meng, Michael J Garay, David J Diner, Olga V Kalashnikova, Jin Xu, Yang Liu
Research efforts to better characterize the differential toxicity of PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 2.5 μm) speciation are often hindered by the sparse or non-existent coverage of ground monitors. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard NASA's Terra satellite is one of few satellite aerosol sensors providing information of aerosol shape, size and extinction globally for a long and continuous period that can be used to estimate PM2.5 speciation concentrations since year 2000...
May 2018: Atmospheric Environment
Ingridt Hildegard Vogler, Daniela Frizon Alfieri, Heloisa Damazio Bruna Gianjacomo, Elaine Regina Delicato de Almeida, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
The cascade of care for people living with HIV infection (PLHIV) describes steps in diagnosis, linkage and retention in care, as well as the provision and success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates regarding the retention in care, on cART, and suppressed viral load for PLHIV attended at a Brazilian public health network. Data on PLHIV from 116 cities of Paraná, Southern Brazil, attended from 2012 to 2015, were retrospectively collected through the Laboratory Tests Control System (SISCEL)...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Hong Liang, Ann M Vuong, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Wei Yuan, Maohua Miao, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Kimberly Yolton, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exist extensively in the environment and human beings. PBDE concentrations are higher in children than adults. A previous study found that prenatal PBDE exposure was associated with decreased reading skills in children; however, evidence is limited on the potential impact of childhood exposure to PBDEs. The study examined the association between childhood PBDE exposures and reading ability in children at ages 5 and 8 years. METHODS: The study included 230 children from an ongoing prospective pregnancy and birth cohort study, the Health Outcomes and Measures of Environment (HOME) Study, conducted in Cincinnati, Ohio...
November 28, 2018: Environment International
Chinedum O Ojinnaka, Colleen Heflin
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is a public policy program that aims to reduce food insecurity-a social determinant of health that has been associated with suboptimal blood pressure control in the United States. The aim of the article was to explore the association between SNAP benefit timing and size and probability of hypertension-related emergency department (ED) claims. This study used the SNAP data from the Missouri's Department of Social Services for January 2010 to December 2013 linked to Medicaid ED claims data...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Junhua Zhang
Every child deserves a fair chance in life. However, migrant children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The problem of migrant children who have left their hukou registration place for 6 months or longer with their parents from rural areas to cities in China has become a unique social issue in the social transformation of China. However, even up to this day, little is known about life satisfaction of migrant children in small and medium-sized cities. To investigate the current situation of migrant children's life satisfaction, several scales including Chinese Adolescent Students' Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Social Economic Status Scale, Social Support Rating Scale and big five inventory were used to obtain data on 142 migrant children and 165 local primary school students...
2018: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal: C & A
Carmen Domínguez-Baleón, Luis F Gutiérrez-Mondragón, Adrián I Campos-González, Miguel E Rentería
Background: With around 800,000 people taking their own lives every year, suicide is a growing health concern. Understanding the factors that underlie suicidality and identifying specific variables associated with increased risk is paramount for increasing our understanding of suicide etiology. Neuroimaging methods that enable the investigation of structural and functional brain markers in vivo are a promising tool in suicide research. Although a number of studies in clinical samples have been published to date, evidence about neuroimaging correlates for suicidality remains controversial...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Bradley H Wagenaar, Orvalho Augusto, Kristjana Ásbjörnsdóttir, Adam Akullian, Nelia Manaca, Falume Chale, Alberto Muanido, Alfredo Covele, Cathy Michel, Sarah Gimbel, Tyler Radford, Blake Girardot, Kenneth Sherr
BACKGROUND: Lack of accurate data on the distribution of sub-national populations in low- and middle-income countries impairs planning, monitoring, and evaluation of interventions. Novel, low-cost methods to develop unbiased survey sampling frames at sub-national, sub-provincial, and even sub-district levels are urgently needed. This article details our experience using remote satellite imagery to develop a provincial-level representative community survey sampling frame to evaluate the effects of a 7-year health system intervention in Sofala Province, Mozambique...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Swatantra R Kethireddy, Grace A Adegoye, Paul B Tchounwou, Francis Tuluri, H Anwar Ahmad, John H Young, Lei Zhang
Data enabled research with a spatial perspective may help to combat human diseases in an informed and cost-effective manner. Understanding the changing patterns of environmental degradation is essential to help in determining the health outcomes such as asthma of a community. In this research, Mississippi asthma-related prevalence data for 2003-2011 were analyzed using spatial statistical techniques in Geographic Information Systems. Geocoding by ZIP code, choropleth mapping, and hotspot analysis techniques were applied to map the spatial data...
2018: AIMS Environmental Science
Silvia Cerroni, Guido Pasquantonio, Roberta Condò, Loredana Cerroni
Background: Periodontal implications of orthodontic therapy are frequent, gingival and periodontal conditions need to be evaluated for every appointment. Several studies have analyzed the effects of fixed appliance on periodontal health. Objective: To evaluate whether there is updated scientific evidence on the relationship between fixed orthodontic therapy and periodontal health. Methods: A literature search was performed using the Pubmed and Cochrane databases and manual search; the search was carried out using the keywords "orthodontic" and "periodontal"...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Marielena Gutt-Will, Michael Murek, Christa Schwarz, Ekkehard Hewer, Sonja Vulcu, Jürgen Beck, Andreas Raabe, Philippe Schucht
BACKGROUND: In contrast to isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation analysis, which is homogenous within a given tumor, diagnostic errors in histological analysis following the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification could be due to small samples because of histological heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the sample size sent to histopathology influences the tumor grading in IDH wild-type gliomas. METHODS: Histologically diagnosed WHO grade, sample volume, and preoperative tumor volume data of 111 patients aged who received resection of IDHwt gliomas between January 2007 and December 2015 at our hospital were evaluated...
October 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
Marlon P Mundt, Larissa I Zakletskaia
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to determine how changes in electronic health record (EHR) communication patterns in primary care teams relate to quality of care and costs for patients with diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: EHR-extracted longitudinal observational study. METHODS: A total of 83 health professionals in 19 care teams at 4 primary care clinics associated with a large Midwestern university participated in the study. Counts of messages routed between any 2 team members in the EHR in the past 18 months were extracted...
October 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Jie Hu, Yang Peng, Tongzhang Zheng, Bin Zhang, Wenyu Liu, Chuansha Wu, Minmin Jiang, Joseph M Braun, Simin Liu, Stephen L Buka, Aifen Zhou, John Pierce Wise, Yiming Zhang, Yangqian Jiang, Chen Hu, Xiaomei Chen, Zheng Huang, Dan Zheng, Kunchong Shi, Xichi Zhang, Ashley Truong, Zhengmin Qian, Wei Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Identification of windows of heightened vulnerability to environmental factors has substantial public health implications. Prenatal exposure to vanadium has been linked to adverse birth outcomes; however, critical windows for such exposure during fetal growth remain unknown. We aimed to assess trimester-specific associations of vanadium exposure with ultrasound measures of fetal growth and birth size in a Chinese longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The present study was embedded in our ongoing prospective prenatal cohort study at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Care Center (Wuhan, Hubei, China)...
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry, Sheila M Alessi, Nancy P Barnett
Rates of heavy alcohol use in soup kitchen attendees range from 30% to 38%, but these data are based entirely on self-reported drinking. Little is known about the intensity or frequency of drinking in this population. We assessed alcohol use transdermally every 30 minutes over a 3-week period among heavy drinkers who attended local soup kitchens. In addition to transdermal alcohol monitoring, participants were randomly assigned to daily breath alcohol monitoring with or without reinforcement for alcohol-negative breath samples (BrAC)...
October 8, 2018: Alcohol
Natasha H Dolgin, Andrew J Smith, Samantha G Harrington, Babak Movahedi, Paulo N A Martins, Adel Bozorgzadeh
OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence shows that frailty and functional performance predict liver transplant outcomes. The Organ Procurement and Transplant Network uses the Karnofsky Performance Status scale to adjust for transplant center case mix in assessing quality measures. This study explores the strength of the relationship between Karnofsky Performance Status scores and objective measures of frailty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study includes 136 adult, first-time liver transplant recipients at UMass Memorial (2006-2015) who had 2 abdominal computed tomography scans available (at ≤ 90 days pretransplant and ≥ 7 days before that)...
October 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
M D Ulian, L Aburad, M S da Silva Oliveira, A C M Poppe, F Sabatini, I Perez, B Gualano, F B Benatti, A J Pinto, O J Roble, A Vessoni, P de Morais Sato, R F Unsain, F Baeza Scagliusi
CONTEXT: The growing use of interventions based on the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) in obesity management. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to summarize the health-related effects of HAES®-based interventions on people with overweight and obesity. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Google Scholar, OpenGrey and Grey Literature Report. STUDY SELECTION: A systematic review of studies published until January 2017 reporting on HAES®-based randomized and non-randomized controlled trials in people with overweight and/or obesity...
September 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Hugh J W Sturrock, Katelyn Woolheater, Adam F Bennett, Ricardo Andrade-Pacheco, Alemayehu Midekisa
Having accurate maps depicting the locations of residential buildings across a region benefits a range of sectors. This is particularly true for public health programs focused on delivering services at the household level, such as indoor residual spraying with insecticide to help prevent malaria. While open source data from OpenStreetMap (OSM) depicting the locations and shapes of buildings is rapidly improving in terms of quality and completeness globally, even in settings where all buildings have been mapped, information on whether these buildings are residential, commercial or another type is often only available for a small subset...
2018: PloS One
Titus H Divala, Randy G Mungwira, Patricia M Mawindo, Osward M Nyirenda, Maxwell Kanjala, Masiye Ndaferankhande, Lufina E Tsirizani, Rhoda Masonga, Francis Muwalo, Gail E Potter, Jessie Kennedy, Jaya Goswami, Blair J Wylie, Atis Muehlenbachs, Lughano Ndovie, Priscilla Mvula, Yamikani Mbilizi, Tamiwe Tomoka, Miriam K Laufer
BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in pregnancy and associated maternal and newborn adverse outcomes...
October 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Justin Thielman, Daniel Harrington, Laura C Rosella, Heather Manson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether combining three cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) produces provincially representative and valid estimates of overweight and obesity in Ontario and Quebec. SETTING: An ongoing, nationally representative health survey in Canada, with data released every 2 years. Objective measures of height and weight were taken at mobile examination centres located within 100 km of participants' residences. To increase sample size, we combined three cycles completed during 2007-2013...
September 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Patrick M O'Neil, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Barbara McGowan, Ofri Mosenzon, Sue D Pedersen, Sean Wharton, Charlotte Giwercman Carson, Cecilie Heerdegen Jepsen, Maria Kabisch, John P H Wilding
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health issue, and new pharmaceuticals for weight management are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue semaglutide in comparison with liraglutide and a placebo in promoting weight loss. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo and active controlled, multicentre, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial. The study was done in eight countries involving 71 clinical sites...
August 25, 2018: Lancet
Tanja Louise Ibsen, Siren Eriksen, Grete Grindal Patil
Background: Day care services provide meaningful activities and coping experiences in a safe environment for people with dementia, as well as improve quality of life. Such services vary in types and settings. Farm-based day care (FDC) services are described as services that have been adapted from the farm setting, using farm resources to promote health. There is limited knowledge on the service offered in both FDC and regular day care services for people with dementia. The present study aims to investigate FDC in Norway and describe the services and the participants' care environment...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
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