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Health at every size

Marielena Gutt-Will, Michael Murek, Christa Schwarz, Ekkehard Hewer, Sonja Vulcu, Jürgen Beck, Andreas Raabe, Philippe Schucht
BACKGROUND: In contrast to isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation analysis, which is homogenous within a given tumor, diagnostic errors in histological analysis following the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification could be due to small samples because of histological heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the sample size sent to histopathology influences the tumor grading in IDH wild-type gliomas. METHODS: Histologically diagnosed WHO grade, sample volume, and preoperative tumor volume data of 111 patients aged who received resection of IDHwt gliomas between January 2007 and December 2015 at our hospital were evaluated...
October 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
Marlon P Mundt, Larissa I Zakletskaia
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to determine how changes in electronic health record (EHR) communication patterns in primary care teams relate to quality of care and costs for patients with diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: EHR-extracted longitudinal observational study. METHODS: A total of 83 health professionals in 19 care teams at 4 primary care clinics associated with a large Midwestern university participated in the study. Counts of messages routed between any 2 team members in the EHR in the past 18 months were extracted...
October 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Jie Hu, Yang Peng, Tongzhang Zheng, Bin Zhang, Wenyu Liu, Chuansha Wu, Minmin Jiang, Joseph M Braun, Simin Liu, Stephen L Buka, Aifen Zhou, John Pierce Wise, Yiming Zhang, Yangqian Jiang, Chen Hu, Xiaomei Chen, Zheng Huang, Dan Zheng, Kunchong Shi, Xichi Zhang, Ashley Truong, Zhengmin Qian, Wei Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Identification of windows of heightened vulnerability to environmental factors has substantial public health implications. Prenatal exposure to vanadium has been linked to adverse birth outcomes; however, critical windows for such exposure during fetal growth remain unknown. We aimed to assess trimester-specific associations of vanadium exposure with ultrasound measures of fetal growth and birth size in a Chinese longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The present study was embedded in our ongoing prospective prenatal cohort study at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Care Center (Wuhan, Hubei, China)...
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry, Sheila M Alessi, Nancy P Barnett
Rates of heavy alcohol use in soup kitchen attendees range from 30% to 38%, but these data are based entirely on self-reported drinking. Little is known about the intensity or frequency of drinking in this population. We assessed alcohol use transdermally every 30 minutes over a 3-week period among heavy drinkers who attended local soup kitchens. In addition to transdermal alcohol monitoring, participants were randomly assigned to daily breath alcohol monitoring with or without reinforcement for alcohol-negative breath samples (BrAC)...
October 8, 2018: Alcohol
Natasha H Dolgin, Andrew J Smith, Samantha G Harrington, Babak Movahedi, Paulo N A Martins, Adel Bozorgzadeh
OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence shows that frailty and functional performance predict liver transplant outcomes. The Organ Procurement and Transplant Network uses the Karnofsky Performance Status scale to adjust for transplant center case mix in assessing quality measures. This study explores the strength of the relationship between Karnofsky Performance Status scores and objective measures of frailty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study includes 136 adult, first-time liver transplant recipients at UMass Memorial (2006-2015) who had 2 abdominal computed tomography scans available (at ≤ 90 days pretransplant and ≥ 7 days before that)...
October 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
M D Ulian, L Aburad, M S da Silva Oliveira, A C M Poppe, F Sabatini, I Perez, B Gualano, F B Benatti, A J Pinto, O J Roble, A Vessoni, P de Morais Sato, R F Unsain, F Baeza Scagliusi
CONTEXT: The growing use of interventions based on the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) in obesity management. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to summarize the health-related effects of HAES®-based interventions on people with overweight and obesity. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Google Scholar, OpenGrey and Grey Literature Report. STUDY SELECTION: A systematic review of studies published until January 2017 reporting on HAES®-based randomized and non-randomized controlled trials in people with overweight and/or obesity...
September 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Hugh J W Sturrock, Katelyn Woolheater, Adam F Bennett, Ricardo Andrade-Pacheco, Alemayehu Midekisa
Having accurate maps depicting the locations of residential buildings across a region benefits a range of sectors. This is particularly true for public health programs focused on delivering services at the household level, such as indoor residual spraying with insecticide to help prevent malaria. While open source data from OpenStreetMap (OSM) depicting the locations and shapes of buildings is rapidly improving in terms of quality and completeness globally, even in settings where all buildings have been mapped, information on whether these buildings are residential, commercial or another type is often only available for a small subset...
2018: PloS One
Titus H Divala, Randy G Mungwira, Patricia M Mawindo, Osward M Nyirenda, Maxwell Kanjala, Masiye Ndaferankhande, Lufina E Tsirizani, Rhoda Masonga, Francis Muwalo, Gail E Potter, Jessie Kennedy, Jaya Goswami, Blair J Wylie, Atis Muehlenbachs, Lughano Ndovie, Priscilla Mvula, Yamikani Mbilizi, Tamiwe Tomoka, Miriam K Laufer
BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in pregnancy and associated maternal and newborn adverse outcomes...
September 5, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Justin Thielman, Daniel Harrington, Laura C Rosella, Heather Manson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether combining three cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) produces provincially representative and valid estimates of overweight and obesity in Ontario and Quebec. SETTING: An ongoing, nationally representative health survey in Canada, with data released every 2 years. Objective measures of height and weight were taken at mobile examination centres located within 100 km of participants' residences. To increase sample size, we combined three cycles completed during 2007-2013...
September 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Patrick M O'Neil, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Barbara McGowan, Ofri Mosenzon, Sue D Pedersen, Sean Wharton, Charlotte Giwercman Carson, Cecilie Heerdegen Jepsen, Maria Kabisch, John P H Wilding
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health issue, and new pharmaceuticals for weight management are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue semaglutide in comparison with liraglutide and a placebo in promoting weight loss. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo and active controlled, multicentre, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial. The study was done in eight countries involving 71 clinical sites...
August 25, 2018: Lancet
Tanja Louise Ibsen, Siren Eriksen, Grete Grindal Patil
Background: Day care services provide meaningful activities and coping experiences in a safe environment for people with dementia, as well as improve quality of life. Such services vary in types and settings. Farm-based day care (FDC) services are described as services that have been adapted from the farm setting, using farm resources to promote health. There is limited knowledge on the service offered in both FDC and regular day care services for people with dementia. The present study aims to investigate FDC in Norway and describe the services and the participants' care environment...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Paul V Beirne, Sarah Hennessy, Sharon L Cadogan, Frances Shiely, Tony Fitzgerald, Fiona MacLeod
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2015. The conclusions have not changed.Hypodermic needles of different sizes (gauges and lengths) can be used for vaccination procedures. The gauge (G) refers to the outside diameter of the needle tubing. The higher the gauge number, the smaller the diameter of the needle (e.g. a 23 G needle is 0.6 mm in diameter, whereas a 25 G needle is 0.5 mm in diameter). Many vaccines are recommended for injection into muscle (intramuscularly), although some are delivered subcutaneously (under the skin) and intradermally (into skin)...
August 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Biao Fu, Guijian Liu, Mei Sun, James C Hower, Md Manik Mian, Dun Wu, Ruwei Wang, Guangqing Hu
Emission of hazardous trace elements (HTEs) from energy production is receiving much attention due to concerns about the toxicity to the ecosystem and human health. This study presented new field measurement data on the HTEs partitioning behavior and size-segregated elemental compositions of gaseous particular matter (PM) generated from a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plant. Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of combustion ash and PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 μm) were determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS)...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Stella Babalola, Sulaimon T Adedokun, Anna McCartney-Melstad, Mathew Okoh, Sola Asa, Ian Tweedie, Andrew Tompsett
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains endemic in Nigeria despite programmes and policies put in place toward malaria elimination. Long-lasting insecticidal nets have been documented to offer protection from malaria by preventing mosquito bites. While many studies have examined the factors associated with the use of bed nets in Nigeria and across Africa, little information is available on the factors associated with consistency of use of bed nets. METHODS: The data for this study were derived from a household survey conducted in three states in Nigeria (Akwa Ibom, Kebbi and Nasarawa) between July and September 2015 by the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative, a 5-year cooperative agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development and the US President's Malaria initiative and led by the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs...
August 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
B S Chavan, Subhash Das, Rohit Garg, Sonia Puri, Aravind Ba Banavaram
BACKGROUND: Mental illness results in a plethora of distressing issues, has tremendous socio-economic impact and causes socio-occupational dysfunction in the individual as well as the caregivers. There is a felt need to explore the disability caused by mental illness and the associated socio-economic impact at the population level in a developing nation like India. AIMS: To elucidate the disability and socio-economic impact associated with mental illness at the individual and household levels for the state of Punjab in India...
September 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Anirban Basu, Carmela Benson, Larry Alphs
BACKGROUND: Once-monthly and once-every-3-months long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of paliperidone palmitate (PP1M and PP3M, respectively) are available for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. However, information on the comparative effectiveness and costs of using these LAIs versus oral antipsychotics (OAs) is not available. The population effectiveness of using these treatments is also not known. OBJECTIVE: To project the effect of using PP1M and PP3M LAIs on psychiatric (Psych) and all-cause (AC) hospitalization rates over 18 months in patients with schizophrenia receiving Medicaid and treated with OAs...
August 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Alexandra Rodney
In this paper, I investigate the contribution of healthy living blogs to discourse about healthy eating, seeking to understand how blogs compare to mass-media magazine sources. This is done by comparatively analysing 459 healthy living blog posts and 141 health and fitness magazine articles. These were collected between 2011 and 2013 and provide rich data about what food content looks like in media designed for an audience of American women. I analyze how each source establishes the purpose of healthy eating and what foods are considered part of a healthy diet...
September 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Sandra Strong, Jennifer Federico, Ron Banks, Cathy Williams
Companion-animal hoarding is a significant problem in the United States and internationally. Hoarding situations can incubate for years before a case is reported to law enforcement or animal control agencies. According to a survey by Gary Patronek, animal control agencies have estimated there are approximately 3000 reportable cases of animal hoarding annually in the United States. Animal hoarding cases vary in size from fewer than 20 animals to hundreds of animals. Every case of animal hoarding results in suboptimal animal welfare...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ahmed Aboelnaga, Moustafa Elmasry, Osama A Adly, Mohamed A Elbadawy, Ashraf H Abbas, Islam Abdelrahman, Omar Salah, Ingrid Steinvall
BACKGROUND: The current treatment for partial thickness burns at the trial site is silver sulphadiazine, as it minimises bacterial colonisation of wounds. Its deleterious effect on wound healing, together with the need for repeated, often painful, procedures, has brought about the search for a better treatment. Microbial cellulose has shown promising results that avoid these disadvantages. The aim of this study was therefore to compare microbial cellulose with silver sulphadiazine as a dressing for partial thickness burns...
July 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Shala Chetty-Mhlanga, Wisdom Basera, Samuel Fuhrimann, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Steven Delport, Mufaro Mugari, Jennifer Van Wyk, Martin Röösli, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: Research on reproductive health effects on children from low-level, long-term exposure to pesticides currently used in the agricultural industry is limited and those on neurobehavioral effects have produced conflicting evidence. We aim at investigating the association between pesticide exposure on the reproductive health and neurobehavior of children in South Africa, by including potential relevant co-exposures from the use of electronic media and maternal alcohol consumption...
July 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
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