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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423237/metabolic-analyses-reveal-different-mechanisms-of-leaf-color-change-in-two-purple-leaf-tea-plant-camellia-sinensis-l-cultivars
#1
Jiazhi Shen, Zhongwei Zou, Xuzhou Zhang, Lin Zhou, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, Xujun Zhu
Purple-leaf tea plants, as anthocyanin-rich cultivars, are valuable materials for manufacturing teas with unique colors or flavors. In this study, a new purple-leaf cultivar "Zixin" ("ZX") was examined, and its biochemical variation and mechanism of leaf color change were elucidated. The metabolomes of leaves of "ZX" at completely purple, intermediately purple, and completely green stages were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)...
2018: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317677/isolation-and-characterization-of-key-genes-that-promote-flavonoid-accumulation-in-purple-leaf-tea-camellia-sinensis-l
#2
Xiujuan He, Xuecheng Zhao, Liping Gao, Xingxing Shi, Xinlong Dai, Yajun Liu, Tao Xia, Yunsheng Wang
There were several high concentrations of flavonoid components in tea leaves that present health benefits. A novel purple-leaf tea variety, 'Mooma1', was obtained from the natural hybrid population of Longjing 43 variety. The buds and young leaves of 'Mooma1' were displayed in bright red. HPLC and LC-MS analysis showed that anthocyanins and O-Glycosylated flavonols were remarkably accumulated in the leaves of 'Mooma1', while the total amount of catechins in purple-leaf leaves was slightly decreased compared with the control...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763966/novel-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-from-zijuan-tea-and-biosynthetic-pathway-of-caffeoylated-catechin-in-tea-plant
#3
Wei Wang, Xi-Wen Fu, Xin-Long Dai, Fang Hua, Gang-Xiu Chu, Ming-Jie Chu, Feng-Lin Hu, Tie-Jun Ling, Li-Ping Gao, Zhong-Wen Xie, Xiao-Chun Wan, Guan-Hu Bao
Zijuan tea is a special cultivar of Yunnan broad-leaf tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) with purple buds, leaves, and stems. Phytochemical study on this tea led to the discovery of three hydroxycinnamoylated catechins (HCCs) (1-3), seven other catechins (4-10), three proanthocyanidins (11-13), five flavones and flavone glycosides (14-18), two alkaloids (19, 20), one steroid (21), and one phenylpropanoid glycoside (22). The isolation and structural elucidation of the caffeoylated catechin (1) by means of spectroscopic techniques were described...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720952/anthocyanins-enriched-purple-tea-exhibits-antioxidant-immunostimulatory-and-anticancer-activities
#4
Robin Joshi, Ajay Rana, Vinay Kumar, Dharmesh Kumar, Yogendra S Padwad, Sudesh Kumar Yadav, Ashu Gulati
Purple coloured tea shoot clones have gained interest due to high content of anthocyanins in addition to catechins. Transcript expression of genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase ( ANR ), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase ( DFR ), anthocyanidin synthase ( ANS ), flavonol synthase ( FLS ) and leucoantho cyanidin reductase ( LAR ) enzymes in three new purple shoot tea clones compared with normal tea clone showed higher expression of CsDFR , CsANR , CsANS and lower expression of CsFLS and CsLAR in purple shoot clones compared to normal clone...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630625/quantification-of-antioxidant-phenolic-compounds-in-a-new-chrysanthemum-cultivar-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detection-and-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#5
Ah-Reum Han, Hyo Young Kim, Yangkang So, Bomi Nam, Ik-Soo Lee, Joo-Won Nam, Yeong Deuk Jo, Sang Hoon Kim, Jin-Baek Kim, Si-Yong Kang, Chang Hyun Jin
The flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. have been used as an herbal tea and in traditional medicine, and the plant has been developed to produce horticultural cultivars of various colors and shapes. In this study, a new chrysanthemum cultivar with dark purple petals (C. morifolium cv. ARTI-Dark Chocolate; ADC) was developed by radiation-induced mutation breeding of its original cultivar with purple striped white petals (C. morifolium cv. Noble Wine, NW). The phenolic profile and antioxidant property of ADC were investigated and compared with NW and the commercially available medicinal herb, C...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520776/proteomic-analysis-of-tea-plants-camellia-sinensis-with-purple-young-shoots-during-leaf-development
#6
Qiongqiong Zhou, Zhidan Chen, Jinwook Lee, Xinghui Li, Weijiang Sun
Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis) plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL) and mature green leaves (MGL) included: 1) the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2) the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and flavonol synthase (FLS) likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3) higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4) the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422049/regulation-of-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-purple-leaves-of-zijuan-tea-camellia-sinensis-var-kitamura
#7
Lingxia Wang, Dezhuo Pan, Meng Liang, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Jian Li, Jinke Lin, Shipin Chen, Wei Chen
Plant anthocyanin biosynthesis is well understood, but the regulatory mechanism in purple foliage tea remains unclear. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 815 differential proteins were identified in the leaves of Zijuan tea, among which 20 were associated with the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. We found that the abundances of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzymes such as chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanin synthetase, as well as anthocyanin accumulation-related UDP-glucosyl transferase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the purple leaves were all significantly higher than those in the green leaves...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416872/impact-of-light-irradiation-on-black-tea-quality-during-withering
#8
Zeyi Ai, Beibei Zhang, Yuqiong Chen, Zhi Yu, Huacai Chen, Dejiang Ni
Black tea manufacture usually involves the processes of withering, cutting, fermentation and drying. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of the relationship between the quality and withering with different light sources (ultraviolet, yellow, blue, purple, orange, red, cyan, green and white) an quality attribute of tea. The results indicated that the yellow, orange and red light withering significantly improved the aroma and taste, imparting the tea a sweet flavor and a fresh and mellow taste...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388918/tea-camellia-sinensis-infusions-ameliorate-cancer-in-4ti-metastatic-breast-cancer-model
#9
Karori S Mbuthia, Paul O Mireji, Raphael M Ngure, Francesca Stomeo, Martina Kyallo, Chalo Muoki, Francis N Wachira
BACKGROUND: Tea (Camellia sinensis) infusions are widely consumed beverages with numerous health benefits. However, physiological and molecular responses mediating these activities are poorly understood. METHOD: Three replicates of 4TI cancer cell suspension (2.0 × 10(5) cells/ml) were challenged in vitro with various concentrations of green, black and purple tea infusions to asseses their cytoxicity and associated differentially expressed genes in the cells...
April 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249298/the-modern-japanese-color-lexicon
#10
Ichiro Kuriki, Ryan Lange, Yumiko Muto, Angela M Brown, Kazuho Fukuda, Rumi Tokunaga, Delwin T Lindsey, Keiji Uchikawa, Satoshi Shioiri
Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581206/purple-foliage-coloration-in-tea-camellia-sinensis-l-arises-from-activation-of-the-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-csan1
#11
Binmei Sun, Zhangsheng Zhu, Panrong Cao, Hao Chen, Changming Chen, Xin Zhou, Yanhui Mao, Jianjun Lei, Yanpin Jiang, Wei Meng, Yingxi Wang, Shaoqun Liu
Purple foliage always appears in Camellia sinensis families; however, the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is unknown. The tea bud sport cultivar 'Zijuan' confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in a mutant phenotype that has a striking purple color in young foliage and in the stem. In this study, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthetic regulation in C. sinensis. Our results revealed that activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) anthocyanin1 (CsAN1) specifically upregulated the bHLH TF CsGL3 and anthocyanin late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) to confer ectopic accumulation of pigment in purple tea...
September 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374573/stabilization-of-natural-colors-and-nutraceuticals-inhibition-of-anthocyanin-degradation-in-model-beverages-using-polyphenols
#12
Cheryl Chung, Thananunt Rojanasasithara, William Mutilangi, David Julian McClements
Anthocyanins are widely used as natural colorants in foods, but they are highly susceptible to chemical degradation during storage leading to color fading. This study examined the potential of natural quillaja saponin and polyphenols (vanillin, epigallocatechin gallate, green tea extract, and protocatechualdehyde) at inhibiting color fading of anthocyanins in model beverages. The purple carrot anthocyanin (0.025%) in model beverages (citric acid, pH 3.0) containing l-ascorbic acid (0.050%) degraded with a first-order reaction rate during storage (40°C/7days in light)...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362295/gene-expression-analysis-of-bud-and-leaf-color-in-tea
#13
Kang Wei, Yazhen Zhang, Liyun Wu, Hailin Li, Li Ruan, Peixian Bai, Chengcai Zhang, Fen Zhang, Liyi Xu, Liyuan Wang, Hao Cheng
Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas...
October 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110378/fortification-of-alcoholic-beverages-12-v-v-with-tea-camellia-sinensis-reduces-harmful-effects-of-alcohol-ingestion-and-metabolism-in-mouse-model
#14
S O Ochanda, K Rashid, J K Wanyoko, M Ngotho, A K Faraj, C A Onyango, F N Wachira, D N Maranga
BACKGROUND: An animal model was used to study the health benefits inherent in tea fortified alcoholic beverages fed to laboratory mice. OBJECTIVES: An investigation of the effects of tea fortified alcoholic beverages 12% alcohol (v/v) on antioxidant capacity and liver dysfunction indicators in white Swiss mice including packed cell volume (PCV), albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutathione (GSH) was carried out. METHODS: Plain, black, green and purple tea fortified alcohols were developed with varying tea concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 g/250 mL in 12% v/v...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034897/effect-of-the-purple-corn-beverage-chicha-morada-in-composite-resin-during-dental-bleaching
#15
Eric Dario Acuña, Leyla Delgado-Cotrina, Francisco Aurelio Rumiche, Lidia Yileng Tay
During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada), green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n = 5): purple corn (P), purple corn + bleaching (PB), green tea (T), green tea + bleaching (TB), distilled water (W), and distilled water + bleaching (WB)...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996195/the-dark-purple-tea-cultivar-ziyan-accumulates-a-large-amount-of-delphinidin-related-anthocyanins
#16
Yun-Song Lai, Sha Li, Qian Tang, Huan-Xiu Li, Shen-Xiang Chen, Pin-Wu Li, Jin-Yi Xu, Yan Xu, Xiang Guo
Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%)...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26471610/determination-of-dpph-free-radical-scavenging-activity-application-of-artificial-neural-networks
#17
Khalid Hamid Musa, Aminah Abdullah, Ahmed Al-Haiqi
A new computational approach for the determination of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA) in food is reported, based on the concept of machine learning. Trolox standard was mix with DPPH at different concentrations to produce different colors from purple to yellow. Artificial neural network (ANN) was trained on a typical set of images of the DPPH radical reacting with different levels of Trolox. This allowed the neural network to classify future images of any sample into the correct class of RSA level...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448565/comparison-between-folin-ciocalteu-and-prussian-blue-assays-to-estimate-the-total-phenolic-content-of-juices-and-teas-using-96-well-microplates
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tiago Margraf, Ariadne Roberto Karnopp, Neiva Deliberali Rosso, Daniel Granato
UNLABELLED: Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay (FC) is the most widely used assay to estimate the total phenolic content in foods, beverages, herbs and other plant extracts, but many chemical compounds may act as interfering agents, producing inaccurate estimations of the real concentration of phenolic compounds in the matrix. Based on this limitation, the objective of this study was to compare, quantitatively, the Folin-Ciocalteu and Prussian Blue (PB) assays in estimating the total phenolic content in purple grape juices (n = 20; Vitis labrusca L...
November 2015: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202241/polyphenols-inhibit-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-by-a-new-mechanism-of-action
#19
Noémie Calland, Marie-Emmanuelle Sahuc, Sandrine Belouzard, Véronique Pène, Pierre Bonnafous, Ahmed Atef Mesalam, Gaspard Deloison, Véronique Descamps, Sevser Sahpaz, Czeslaw Wychowski, Olivier Lambert, Priscille Brodin, Gilles Duverlie, Philip Meuleman, Arielle R Rosenberg, Jean Dubuisson, Yves Rouillé, Karin Séron
UNLABELLED: Despite the validation of direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C treatment, the discovery of new compounds with different modes of action may still be of importance for the treatment of special patient populations. We recently identified a natural molecule, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) targeting the viral particle. The aim of this work was to discover new natural compounds with higher anti-HCV activity than that of EGCG and determine their mode of action...
October 2015: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26199579/purple-tea-and-its-extract-suppress-diet-induced-fat-accumulation-in-mice-and-human-subjects-by-inhibiting-fat-absorption-and-enhancing-hepatic-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-expression
#20
Hiroshi Shimoda, Shoketsu Hitoe, Seikou Nakamura, Hisashi Matsuda
A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins...
June 2015: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
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