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CV Disease

Judy W M Cheng, Vincent J Colucci, James S Kalus, Sarah A Spinler
OBJECTIVE: While improving glycemic control with antihyperglycemics has been demonstrated to reduce microvascular complications, the benefits of reduction in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have not been demonstrated with older agents. This article reviews current evidence of the CV outcomes of newer antihyperglycemics approved since 2008. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE (1966 to October 31, 2018) using search terms exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, semaglutide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), and stroke...
December 5, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Keith C Norris, Opeyemi Olabisi, M Edwina Barnett, Yuan-Xiang Meng, David Martins, Chamberlain Obialo, Jae Eun Lee, Susanne B Nicholas
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable disease associated with high rates of premature morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (deficiency of 25(OH)D or 25D) is greater in racial/ethnic minorities and in patients with CKD than the general population. Low 25D is associated with bone and mineral disorders as well as immune, cardiometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Thus, it has been suggested that low 25D contributes to the poor outcomes in patients with CKD. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D rises progressively with advancing severity of kidney disease with over 30% of patients with CKD stage 3 and 70% patients with CKD stage 5 estimated to have low levels of 25D...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Simon Correa, Marc P Bonaca, Benjamin M Scirica, Sabina A Murphy, Erica L Goodrich, David A Morrow, Michelle L O'Donoghue
Patients with renal disease are often undertreated with antiplatelet therapy due to concerns about bleeding. Vorapaxar blocks platelet activation via the PAR-1 receptor and reduces cardiovascular events in patients with stable atherosclerosis, but with increased bleeding. We examined the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in patients with impaired renal function. TRA2°P-TIMI 50 randomized patients with stable atherosclerosis to vorapaxar or. We analyzed patients with eGFR assessed who qualified with a history of MI or PAD (without stroke or TIA) (n = 19,932)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Zuzana Cieslarova, Mariana Magaldi, Lucélia Alcantara Barros, Claudimir Lucio do Lago, Daniel Rossado Oliveira, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein Fonseca, Maria Cristina Izar, Aline Soriano Lopes, Marina Franco Maggi Tavares, Aline Klassen
A capillary electrophoresis with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection (CE-UV-MS/MS) method has been developed for the targeted assessment of cardiovascular biomarkers candidates, trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and l-carnitine, and creatinine in human urine samples. The dual detection was applied due to the high concentration of creatinine (monitored by UV detection at 200 nm) in relation to TMAO and l-carnitine (quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry), in human urine...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Martin G Schultz, Chloe Park, Abigail Fraser, Laura D Howe, Siana Jones, Alicja Rapala, George Davey Smith, James E Sharman, Deborah A Lawlor, Nish Chaturvedi, John Deanfield, Alun D Hughes
PURPOSE: Dynamic exercise results in increased systolic blood pressure (BP). Irrespective of resting BP, some individuals may experience exaggerated rise in systolic BP with exercise, which in adulthood is associated with risk of hypertension, and cardiovascular (CV) disease. It is unknown if exercise BP is associated with markers of CV structure during adolescence. We examined this question in a large adolescent cohort taking account of the possible confounding effect of body composition and BP status...
January 15, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Lesley-Anne Bissell, Bara Erhayiem, Graham Fent, Elizabeth M A Hensor, Agata Burska, Helena Donica, Sven Plein, Maya H Buch, John P Greenwood, Jacqueline Andrews
BACKGROUND: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has utility in stratification of the accelerated cardiovascular risk seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the technique has limitations. Carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a useful research tool in the general population, but has yet to be applied in RA populations. Our objectives were to describe the utility of carotid artery MRI (carotid-MRI) in patients with RA in comparison to healthy controls and to describe the association with RA disease phenotype...
December 3, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Esther von Stebut, Kristian Reich, Diamant Thaçi, Wolfgang Koenig, Andreas Pinter, Andreas Körber, Tienush Rassaf, Ari Waisman, Venkatesh Mani, Denise Yates, Jennifer Frueh, Christian Sieder, Nima Melzer, Nehal N Mehta, Tommaso Gori
Psoriasis increases the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against IL-17A, shows significant efficacy in psoriasis, but effects on CV markers are unknown. CARIMA was a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis without clinical CV disease. Patients were randomized to 300 mg or 150 mg secukinumab until week 52, or placebo until week 12 then 300 mg or 150 mg secukinumab until week 52...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Ralph Stewart
BACKGROUND: In aging populations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and frailty are common and often coexist. It is possible that common risk factors and pathophysiological pathways increase the risk of both CVD and frailty. CONTENT: Frailty is a complex clinical syndrome with multiple causes and contributing factors. It is characterized by multisystem impairment that decreases physiological reserve and increases vulnerability to stress. Diverse methods have been used to evaluate frailty...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Álvaro Sosa-Liprandi, María Inés Sosa Liprandi, Erick Alexánderson, Álvaro Avezum, Fernando Lanas, José Patricio López-Jaramillo, Felipe Martínez, Carlos I Ponte-Negretti N, Fernando Wyss, José Ramón González Juanatey, Pablo Perel
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing, particularly in low-middle-income countries such as most of Latin America. This region presents specific socioeconomic characteristics, generating a high incidence of CVD despite efforts to control the problem. A consensus statement has been developed by Inter-American Society of Cardiology with the aim of answering some important questions related to CVD in this region and the role of the polypill in cardiovascular (CV) prevention as an intervention to address these issues...
November 27, 2018: Global Heart
Zi-Xuan Ding, Hong Liu, Jun-Dan Xie, Hong Yao, Liang Ma, Qiao-Chen Qiu, Hong-Jie Shen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of sensitive and quantitative detection of MYD88 gene L265P mutation in lymphoma patients by using ARMS-PCR combined with capillary electrophoresis. METHODS: ARMS-PCR amplified MYD88 gene was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis in ABI 3730 sequencer; Exon 5 of the same gene was sequenced bi-directionally as reported. RESULTS: The sensitivity of detection L265P mutations by the ARMS-PCR combined with capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing was 0...
December 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Yali Zhang, Linsheng Wang
Leymus racemosus had a high resistant capacity to wheat scab (Fusarum head blight). The transfer of scab resistant gene from L. racemosus to Triticum aestivum is of great significance for broadening the germplasm of wheat resistance. To obtain Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation line with scab resistance, we irradiated the pollen of T. aestivum-L. racemosus disomic addition line DA7Lr by ⁶⁰Co-γ-rays 1 200 R (100 R/min) prior to pollinating to emasculation T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. One plant with one translocation chromosome was detected in the M1 by GISH...
November 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Long Chen, Xiang-Jie Yao, Shao-Jian Xu, Hong Yang, Chun-Li Wu, Jing Lu, Wen-Bo Xu, Hai-Long Zhang, Jun Meng, Yong Zhang, Ya-Qing He, Ren-Li Zhang
Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) of the genotypes B1a and B1b have co-circulated in mainland China in the past decades. From 2013 to 2017, a total of 3,008 specimens from 3,008 patients with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease were collected in the present study. Viral RNA was tested for CV-A16 by a real-time RT-PCR method, and complete VP1 sequences and full-length genome sequences of CV-A16 strains from this study were determined by RT-PCR and sequencing. Sequences were analyzed using a series of bioinformatics programs...
November 29, 2018: Archives of Virology
Rosetta Melfi, Elisabetta Ricottini
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease represents one of leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. An increased risk of CV events was identified in patients with peripheral arterial diseases (PADs), which include all arterial diseases, other than coronary arteries and the aorta. In particular, lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and/or carotid artery disease present growing incidence in general population and a consequent increase in mortality and morbidity. Medical treatment, including antiplatelet therapy, is a cornerstone in management of these patients, even when they are treated with endovascular or surgical procedures...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Davide Lazzeroni, Matteo Bini, Umberto Camaiora, Paolo Castiglioni, Luca Moderato, Pietro Tito Ugolotti, Lorenzo Brambilla, Valerio Brambilla, Paolo Coruzzi
BACKGROUND: An abnormal frontal QRS-T angle (fQRSTa) is associated with increased risk of death in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fQRSTa prognostic role in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization and/or cardiac valve surgery. METHODS: We enrolled and prospectively followed for 48 ± 26 months 939 subjects with available QRS and T axis data; mean age was 68 ± 12 years, 449 patients (48%) underwent myocardial revascularization, 333 (35%) cardiac valve surgery, 94 (10%) valve plus bypass graft surgery and 63 (7%) cardiac surgery for other cardiovascular (CV) diseases...
November 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Sunny Lihua Cheng, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Brian Phillips, Danny Shen, Julia Yue Cui
The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a second genome that contributes to the health and diseases of the host. A major function of the gut microbiota is to convert primary bile acids (BAs) produced from cholesterol in the liver into secondary BAs that activate distinct host receptors to modulate xenobiotic metabolism and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to investigate to what extent oral exposure to an environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs mixture), namely the Fox River mixture, impacts gut microbiome and BA homeostasis...
December 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Charilaos Triantafyllou, Maria Nikolaou, Ignatios Ikonomidis, Giorgos Bamias, Ioannis Papaconstantinou
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), largely represented by Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), alter gastrointestinal physiology and mucosal immunity through a complex inflammatory process. These diseases can lead to significant arterial endothelial dysfunction. There is also evidence linking IBD with a modification of cardiac structure and function. A growing body of research has associated IBD with an acceleration of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality...
November 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Paul Skolik, Martin R McAinsh, Francis L Martin
ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with subsequent multivariate analysis non-destructively identifies plant-pathogen interactions during disease progression, both directly and indirectly, through alterations in the spectral fingerprint. Plant-environment interactions are essential to understanding crop biology, optimizing crop use, and minimizing loss to ensure food security. Damage-induced pathogen infection of delicate fruit crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are therefore important processes related to crop biology and modern horticulture...
November 28, 2018: Planta
Mohga Khater, Alfredo de la Escosura-Muñiz, Daniel Quesada-González, Arben Merkoçi
Tristeza is one of the destructive diseases of citrus causing by citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Historically, CTV has been associated with serious outbreaks of quick decline of citrus, therefore CTV monitoring is important aspect for avoiding such re-emerging epidemics, which would threat citrus production through the world. In this context, we have designed for the first time a label-free impedimetric biosensor for the detection of nucleic acid of CTV. The sensing platform based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which allowed to efficiently immobilizing thiolated ssDNA probes as well to enhance the electrode conductivity...
January 10, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
L Hou, X X Wang, H L Jiang, T Zhang, L Li, W Y Zhang, X Wang
Objectives: To explore the chromosomal analysis for fetuses with nasal bone absence or hypoplasia. Methods: This was a retrospective study on 29 pregnancies nasal bone absence or hypoplasia which underwent prenatal diagnosis, including chorionic villi (CV), amniotic fluid or cordocentesis.The indication of the procedures and results were evaluated. Result: Fifteen (51.7%, 15/29) of chromosome abnormities were diagnosed with indication of fetal nasal bone absence or hypoplasia, including eight with trisomy 21, two with trisomy 13, two with X chromosome aneuploidy and three with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) respectively...
November 20, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Muthiah Vaduganathan, William B White, David M Charytan, David A Morrow, Yuyin Liu, Faiez Zannad, Christopher P Cannon, George L Bakris
A deeper understanding of the interplay between the renal axis and cardiovascular (CV) disease is needed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to explore the prognostic value of a comprehensive panel of renal biomarkers in patients with T2DM at high CV risk. We evaluated the prognostic performance of both serum (Cystatin C) and urine renal biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1 protein, and indices of urinary protein excretion) in 5,380 patients with T2DM and recent acute coronary syndromes in the EXAMINE trial...
November 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
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