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CV Disease

John Vincent
Plasma levels of atherogenic lipoproteins reflect a key risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD and treatments that lower these lipoproteins improve CV outcomes. Statins and PCSK9 inhibitors reduce LDL-C remarkably to low levels but do not eliminate residual cardiovascular risk as a result of other atherogenic lipoproteins or pathways for ASCVD, including inflammation, that are independent of LDL-C. Statins and PCSK9 inhibitors have complex mechanisms of action which appear to be additive and hence beneficial...
August 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
James G Boyle, Rachel Livingstone, John R Petrie
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) carries risks of both cardiovascular (CV) (myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular (retinopathy/nephropathy/neuropathy) complications. Glucose-lowering is an effective strategy for preventing microvascular complications, but the extent to which it can reduce CV complications is less certain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are potent glucose-lowering agents but also have potentially beneficial effects on other traditional (body weight, blood pressure (BP), and LDL cholesterol) and non-traditional risk factors (low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction)...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Eunjeong Kang, Joongyub Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Miyeun Han, Woo Wan Kim, Kyu-Beck Lee, Suah Sung, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Wookyung Chung, Curie Ahn, Kook-Hwan Oh
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality. However, the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and LVH in chronic kidney disease remains unclear. METHODS: Data were collected from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD, NCT01630486 at ). Subjects with CKD and aged ≥50 were included. SES was characterized based on monthly income and educational attainment, each of which was divided into three strata...
August 16, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Ashley D Troutman, Edgar J Gallardo, Mary Beth Brown, Andrew R Coggan
Studies of rats have indicated that skeletal muscle plays a central role in whole-body nitrate (NO3 - )/nitrite (NO2 - )/nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Extending these results to humans, however, is challenging due to the small size of needle biopsy samples. We therefore developed a method to precisely and accurately quantify NO3 - and NO2 - in biopsy-sized muscle samples. NO3 - and NO2 - were extracted from rat soleus samples using methanol combined with mechanical homogenization + ultrasound, bead beating, pulverization at liquid N2 temperature, or pulverization + 0...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Pei Ching Foo, Ze Hong Lee, Chee Keong Chin, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Bee Lynn Chew
Solanum melongena L. commonly known as the eggplant or brinjal comes from the family of Solanaceae, sharing the same ancestor with the tomato and potato. It is an economically important crop worldwide, being well studied for its medicinal properties, nutritional values and its role as an alternative model plant. The eggplant fruit has been previously used for treatments of various diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, arthritis and diabetes as well as its nutritive properties that are beneficial to the human diet...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Ashkan Hashemi, Sormeh Nourbakhsh, Samaneh Asgari, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND: To explore the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP respectively) and pulse pressure (PP) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality events among Iranian patients with prevalent CKD. METHODS: Patients [n = 1448, mean age: 60.9 (9.9) years] defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 , were followed from 31 January 1999 to 20 March 2014. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were applied to examine the associations between different components of BP with outcomes...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kelly K Shum K, Tripti Gupta T, Mary Canobbio, Jennifer Durst, Sangeeta B Shah
With advances in congenital heart disease management, there are an increasing number of women reaching reproductive age. Pregnancy results in a surge of hormones and increased demands on both the cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory systems. Depending on the heart defect and the treatments the mother has undergone, these hemodynamic changes can result in an increased risk of maternal CV events and an increased risk of fetal morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to have a comprehensive approach to adult congenital heart disease patients involving pre-pregnancy planning in addition to diligent peri- and post-partum care...
August 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Vanesa Palau, Marta Riera, Xavier Duran, José Manuel Valdivielso, Angels Betriu, Elvira Fernández, Julio Pascual, Maria José Soler
Background: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17, also known as tumour necrosis factor α-converting enzyme (TACE), is a metalloproteinase that releases the ectodomains of most growth factors, cytokines, receptors and enzymes and has been associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular (CV) disease. The role of circulating ADAMs in the progression of renal function and CV events in CKD patients is unknown. Methods: A total of 2570 subjects from an observational and multicentre study with CKD Stages 3-5, CKD Stage 5D and controls without any history of CV disease were studied...
August 8, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Eugenio Cersosimo, John M Miles
BACKGROUND & INTRODUCTION: The advent of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors [SGLT-2i] provides an additional tool to combat diabetes and complications. The use of SGLT-2i leads to effective and durable glycemic control with important reductions in body weight/fat and blood pressure. These agents may delay beta-cell deterioration and improve tissue insulin sensitivity, which might slow the progression of the disease. METHODS & RESULTS: In response to glycosuria, a compensatory rise in endogenous glucose production, sustained by a decrease in plasma insulin with an increase in glucagon has been described...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Grazia Canciello, Costantino Mancusi, Maria Angela Losi, Raffaele Izzo, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni de Simone, Nicola De Luca
BACKGROUND: Aortic root (AR) dimension (ARD) at the Valsalva sinuses has been associated with incident cardiovascular (CV) events in population-based studies, but this effect could be due to the association with increased left ventricular (LV) mass. There is also uncertainty on how to define clear-cut AR dilatation. Thus, we analyzed the Campania Salute Network (CSN) registry to (i) establish criteria for evaluation of ARD, (ii) propose cut-points for AR dilatation, and (iii) determine whether AR dilatation has prognostic value independent of LV hypertrophy (LVH)...
July 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Jiun-Chi Huang, Yi-Chun Tsai, Pei-Yu Wu, Jia-Jung Lee, Szu-Chia Chen, Yi-Wen Chiu, Ya-Ling Hsu, Jer-Ming Chang, Hung-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fluid overload is common and associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. The relationship between fluid overload and cardiac function is complex, and whether fluid overload is associated with adverse outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) independently of systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle (LV) remains unclear. METHODS: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between overhydration and all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality after adjusting for LV function in 178 maintenance HD patients...
August 10, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Sahar Nakhl, Ghassan Sleilaty, Salam El Samad, Youakim Saliba, Ramez Chahine, Nassim Farès
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have associated vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. The underlying mechanism remains elusive. Lipid and non-lipid markers of CVD and their relationship to vitamin D deficiency have not been assessed simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between vitamin D deficiency and non-lipid markers of CVD after adjustment of lipid markers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the following biological data, which was routinely collected in a general hospital laboratory database between 2011 and 2016: 25OH vitamin D [25(OH)D], creatinine, CKD-EPI eGFR (eGFR), fasting blood glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), uric acid, γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT), C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and a surrogate for CVD...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Chun-Fu Lai, Yen-Ting Chen, Jian Gu, Jeanne M Nerbonne, Chin-Hsien Lin, Kai-Chien Yang
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are major causes of mortality in uremic patients. Conventional risk factors fail to identify uremic patients with increased propensity for adverse CV outcomes. We aimed to test the hypothesis that circulating long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) could be a prognostic marker to predict adverse CV outcomes in uremic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma lncRNAs were profiled in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, n = 28) or chronic kidney disease (CKD, n = 8) and in healthy (n = 12) subjects by RNA sequencing...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Yuan Wang, Yi Jin, Xinming Yun, Meijing Wang, Yue Dai, Yufeng Xia
AIMS: Sinomenine, an anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug used in China for decades, is usually co-administered with cardiovascular (CV) drugs to reduce arthritis-related risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate whether and how CV drugs affect the pharmacokinetic profile of sinomenine. MAIN METHODS: In rat liver microsomes (RLMs), the key metabolic enzymes of sinomenine were identified by using specific inhibitors. The influences of CV drugs, including propranolol, verapamil, warfarin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin, on the metabolism of sinomenine were examined...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Michèle Bally, Lyne Nadeau, James M Brophy
PURPOSE: There are clinical trial data on risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients at increased cardiovascular (CV) risk requiring chronic daily treatment. This study investigated whether risks of acute MI with real-world prescription NSAIDs, such as low-dose or intermittent use, vary according to an individual's CV profile. METHODS: Nested case-control analyses were carried out on an administrative health cohort from Quebec, Canada by randomly selecting 10 controls per case matched on age ± 1 year, sex, and month and year of cohort entry...
2018: PloS One
Chih-Yeu Fang, Chia-Chyi Liu
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood illness commonly caused by enterovirus A. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the most commonly identified viruses associated with HFMD. Recently, outbreaks caused by different enterovirus A including CV-A6 and CV-A10. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines are available to protect against EV-A71 infection; however, these vaccines cannot prevent coxsackievirus infections, thus limiting their general application in controlling HFMD. Multivalent HFMD vaccines are suggested to have broad cross-neutralizing responses against these emerging enteroviruses...
August 10, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Patrick Leuthold, Matthias Schwab, Ute Hofmann, Stefan Winter, Steffen Rausch, Michael N Pollak, Jörg Hennenlotter, Jens Bedke, Elke Schaeffeler, Mathias Haag
Tissue analysis represents a powerful tool for the investigation of disease pathophysiology. However, the heterogeneous nature of tissue samples, in particular of neoplastic, may affect the outcome of such analysis and hence obscure interpretation of results. Thus comprehensive isolation and extraction of transcripts and metabolites from an identical tissue specimen would minimize variations and enable the economic use of biopsy material which is usually available in limited amounts. Here we demonstrate a fast and simple protocol for combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis in homogenates prepared from one single tissue sample...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Lei Wei, Yan Cai, Lijun Yang, Ying Zhang, Haojie Lu
Quantitative N-glycomics provides an effective tool for detecting glycosylation changes in cancer and other diseases. However, the lability of sialic acid and its lower ionization efficiency compared with neutral glycans make their analysis by mass spectrometry complicated, and prevent the simultaneous quantitation and distinction of sialylated and neutral N-glycans by MS. To address this problem, we developed a novel approach duplex stable isotope labeling (DuSIL), to relatively quantify neutral and sialylated glycans concurrently by MALDI-MS...
August 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Małgorzata Jacewicz-Święcka, Irina Kowalska
The purpose of this study was to perform a review of the longitudinal studies to determine whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with higher prevalence of metabolic complications and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. The primary outcomes included body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components [waist circumference (WC), lipids profile, arterial hypertension (AH), abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose IFG, impaired glucose tolerance IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM)], insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) like stroke, angina and coronary heart disease (CHD)...
August 8, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Thomas D Stuckey, Roger S Gammon, Robi Goswami, Jeremiah P Depta, John A Steuter, Frederick J Meine, Michael C Roberts, Narendra Singh, Shyam Ramchandani, Tim Burton, Paul Grouchy, Ali Khosousi, Ian Shadforth, William E Sanders
BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (CV) medicine in arenas ranging from genomics to cardiac imaging analysis. Cardiac Phase Space Tomography Analysis (cPSTA), employing machine-learned linear models from an elastic net method optimized by a genetic algorithm, analyzes thoracic phase signals to identify unique mathematical and tomographic features associated with the presence of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD). This novel approach does not require radiation, contrast media, exercise, or pharmacological stress...
2018: PloS One
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