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Fiona D R Henkel, Antonie Friedl, Mark Haid, Dominique Thomas, Tiffany Bouchery, Pascal Haimerl, Marta de Los Reyes Jiménez, Francesca Alessandrini, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Nicola L Harris, Jerzy Adamski, Julia Esser-von Bieren
BACKGROUND: Eicosanoid lipid mediators play key roles in type 2 immune responses, e.g. in allergy and asthma. Macrophages represent major producers of eicosanoids and they are key effector cells of type 2 immunity. We aimed to comprehensively track eicosanoid profiles during type 2 immune responses to house dust mite (HDM) or helminth infection and to identify mechanisms and functions of eicosanoid reprogramming in human macrophages. METHODS: We established an LC-MS/MS workflow for the quantification of 52 oxylipins to analyze mediator profiles in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with HDM and during allergic airway inflammation (AAI) or nematode infection in mice...
December 16, 2018: Allergy
Anna Sokalska, Amanda B Hawkins, Toshia Yamaguchi, Antoni J Duleba
PURPOSE: To compare effects of lipid-soluble statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin) and water-soluble statin (pravastatin) on growth and invasiveness of human endometrial stromal (HES) cells. METHODS: Endometrial biopsies were collected during the proliferative phase from five volunteers. HES cells were isolated and cultured in the absence or in the presence of simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin. Effects of statins on DNA synthesis, cell viability, activity of caspases 3/7 and invasiveness were evaluated...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Kazuhiko Mizukami, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Eisuke Nozawa, Koichi Wada, Tohru Ugawa
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators of numerous physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in the kidney. PGE2 , the most abundant renal PG, plays a major role in renal physiology, including renin release and glomerular hemodynamics. We investigated the renoprotective properties of the novel PGE2 EP4 receptor-selective antagonist ASP7657 in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, a chronic kidney disease (CKD) model. Eight weeks of repeated administration of ASP7657 (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly reduced urinary protein excretion and attenuated the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage, including fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, without affecting blood pressure...
December 15, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Jaime Moreno-García, Minami Ogawa, C M Lucy Joseph, Juan C Mauricio, Juan Moreno, Teresa García-Martínez
Flor yeasts confer a wide range of organoleptic properties to Sherry-type wines during a process called "biological aging" that takes place after alcoholic fermentation. These kinds of yeasts adapt to a biological aging condition by forming a biofilm known as "flor velum" and by changing from fermentative to oxidative metabolism. It has been reported that some functions such as increase of cell surface hydrophobicity or changes to lipid metabolism are enhanced when yeasts switch to biofilm lifestyle...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jorge Alfonso Arvayo-Zatarain, Fernando Favela-Rosales, Claudio Contreras-Aburto, Efrain Urrutia-Bañuelos, Amir Maldonado
We report results of a molecular dynamics simulation study of the effect of one general anesthetic, halothane, on some properties of mixed DPPC/DPPE phospholipid membranes. This is a suitable model for the study of simple, two-phospholipid membrane systems. From the simulation runs, we determined several membrane properties for five different molecular proportions of DPPC/DPPE. The effect of halothane on the studied membrane properties (area per lipid molecule, density of membrane, order parameter, etc.) was rather small...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Xiaohong Wang, Na Shi, Huanling Shi, Hong Ye, Ning Li, Peng Sun, Dongfang Bai, Haipeng Yuan
BACKGROUND This study investigated the correlations between acute cerebral hemorrhage complicated with stress ulcer bleeding and corresponding indexes, including the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, vascular endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and blood lipid factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 53 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage complicated with stress ulcer bleeding were selected as the observation group and 50 patients with simple acute cerebral hemorrhage were selected as the control group...
December 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Takeshi Yamada, Akihisa Matsuda, Michihiro Koizumi, Seiichi Shinji, Goro Takahashi, Takuma Iwai, Kohki Takeda, Kohji Ueda, Yasuyuki Yokoyama, Keisuke Hara, Masahiro Hotta, Satoshi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yoshida
Liquid biopsy is a collective term that refers to the analysis of tumor-derived biomarkers isolated from biological fluids of cancer patients. Recently, many authors reported the usefulness of liquid biopsy for the management of malignancy. Summary and Key Messages: The peripheral blood of cancer patients is a pool of cells and/or cell products derived from the primary or metastatic tumor, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating free (cf) DNA or RNA, and exosomes containing proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids...
December 14, 2018: Digestion
Armin Zittermann, Jana B Ernst, Sylvana Prokop, Uwe Fuchs, Jens Dreier, Joachim Kuhn, Cornelius Knabbe, Jochen Börgermann, Heiner K Berthold, Stefan Pilz, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Jan F Gummert
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to investigate the effect of a moderately high vitamin D dose on lipid parameters and biochemical markers of vascular calcification (VC) in patients with established cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We included in this pre-specified secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial 161 patients with advanced heart failure and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations < 75 nmol/L (vitamin D group: n = 80; placebo group: n = 81), who received a daily vitamin D3 supplement of 4,000 IU for 3 years...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Cyrus Tan, Eamon F X Byrne, Casey Ah-Cann, Melissa J Call, Matthew E Call
The membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases regulates the levels of cell-surface membrane proteins, many of which are involved in immune responses. Although their role in ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis and degradation of cell-surface proteins is extensively documented, the features of MARCH proteins and their substrates that drive the molecular recognition events leading to ubiquitin transfer remain poorly defined. In this study, we sought to determine the features of human MARCH9 that are required for regulating the surface levels of its substrate proteins...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Omid Reza Tamtaji, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Esmat Aghadavod, Alireza Mafi, Ehsan Dadgostar, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Javad Abolhassani, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on gene expression related to inflammation, insulin and lipid in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 40 subjects with PD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 1000 mg/day of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil plus 400 IU/day of vitamin E supplements or placebo (n = 20 each group) for 12 weeks...
December 8, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Carmelina Petrungaro, Benoît Kornmann
Over the last years, the importance of inter-organelle communication has become more and more evident, attested by the fast growing number of newly-identified membrane contact sites (MCS). At MCSs two organelles are connected via protein tethers that bring them in close proximity to facilitate metabolite exchange. In this review, we will focus on the MCSs connecting the ER and mitochondria, which have been implicated in phospholipid transport. While we already know the molecular identity of some tethers, we are still far from understanding the mechanisms underlying the phospholipid transport processes...
December 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Gina M Broom, Ian C Shaw, Julia J Rucklidge
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, a chronic neurodegenerative condition, is increasing as is the need for effective treatments and preventions. The underlying pathology of Alzheimer's is not yet fully understood, so existing research has focused on understanding the prominent features of the disease. These include amyloid plaques, which accumulate in the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease; impaired glucose metabolism; and neuronal cell death. Emerging evidence suggests that a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet may help to mitigate the damage associated with these pathologies...
October 10, 2018: Nutrition
Magali Deleu, Estelle Deboever, Mehmet Nail Nasir, Jean-Marc Crowet, Manuel Dauchez, Marc Ongena, Haïssam Jijakli, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Laurence Lins
Linoleic and linolenic acid hydroperoxides (HPOs) constitute key intermediate oxylipins playing an important role as signaling molecules during plant defense processes in response to biotic or abiotic stress. They have also been demonstrated in vitro as antimicrobial agents against plant fungi and bacteria. To reach the phytopathogens in vivo, the HPOs biosynthesized in the plant cells must cross the plant plasma membrane (PPM) where they can also interact with plasma membrane lipids and have an effect on their organization...
December 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Makoto Noiri, Keiichiro Kushiro, Shodai Togo, Ken Sato, Hiroshi Y Yoshikawa, Madoka Takai, Yuji Teramura
The involvement of intercellular interactions in various biological events indicates the importance of studying cell-cell interactions using fluid model surfaces. Here, we propose a fluid surface composed of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives, which can be an alternative to supported lipid membranes. The modification of SAM surfaces with PEG-lipids carrying functional peptides resulted in the formation of the fluid surfaces with different mobility, which was quantitatively determined by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)...
December 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Nicole B Bisset, Graham R Webster, Yao Da Dong, Ben J Boyd
The use of liquid crystalline nanoparticles as potential agrochemical delivery agents or adjuvant systems is gaining traction due to the possibility that the systems can enhance penetration of the active and increase adhesion of the formulation to the leaf, increasing overall efficacy and decreasing the harmful environmental impact. However the interaction between liquid crystalline nanoparticles and active products is not well understood. Using small angle X-ray scattering we investigated the structural changes that occur to liquid crystalline nanoparticles upon addition of three common herbicides, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate and haloxyfop-p-methyl ester active agrochemicals in the form of emulsions...
November 27, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Noha Said Hussein, Azza S Helmy, Naglaa M Sherif, Hassan Z Ghanem, Nabaweya A Ibrahim, Abdel Nasser G El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in western countries. The current study aimed to detect and evaluate lipidomic biomarkers for early detection of NAFLD as well as the potential efficiency of methanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata (E. prostrata) on disease management. In this study, Phytochemical screening of E. prostrata methanolic extract was performed using HPLC. NAFLD was induced in albino rats using a high-fat diet together with cholesterol and cholic acid. Comprehensive lipidomic analyses on sera from rats bearing NAFLD as well as normal healthy animals were carried out based on GCMS and multivariate data analysis...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sonia Errico, Marianna Portaccio, Carla Nicolucci, Rosaria Meccariello, Rosanna Chianese, Marika Scafuro, Maria Lepore, Nadia Diano
An innovative complementary approach using a liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometer method and infrared spectroscopy is proposed for measuring internal biological exposure to dangerous chemical contaminants and for monitoring biochemical changes in target organs. The proposed methodologies were validated and applied in the case of rats exposed to low-doses of Bisphenol A (BPA). A liquid chromatographic method coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer was used in order to measure BPA concentration in rat livers...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Dong-Liang Lu, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Hong-Bo Lv, Qiang Ma, Li-Qiao Chen, Mei-Ling Zhang, Zhen-Yu Du
Dietary α-lipoic acid (LA), β-glucan (Gluc) and l-carnitine (L-Ca) are commonly used additives to promote fish growth and stress resistance in aquaculture production. However their mechanisms and efficiencies in helping fish to resist diseases have not been compared before. In this study, we fed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with diets containing appropriate doses of LA, Gluc and L-Ca for five weeks and further intraperitoneally injected the fish with Aeromonas hydrophila. After dietary treatment, none of the additives affected the fish growth, but dietary Gluc and L-Ca reduced protein and lipid body contents in fish, respectively...
December 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sajjad Pourmozaffar, Abdolmajid Hajimoradloo, Hamed Paknejad, Hossein Rameshi
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Apple cider vinegar (ACV) and propionic acid (PA) on biochemical parameters of hemolymph, intestinal microbiota and histology of hepatopancreas in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Five experimental diets were evaluated in this study including diets supplemented with 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% of ACV, 0.5% propionic acid, and a control diet with no supplements. Shrimps (initial weight of 10.2 ± 0.04 g) in triplicate groups with the density of 25 shrimps per tank were fed the diets for 60 days...
December 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Katsuyuki Nakajima, Yoshiharu Tokita, Akira Tanaka
We have long thought that remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in the postprandial plasma contain CM remnants (exogenous remnants; RLP-apoB48) and VLDL remnants (endogenous remnants; RLP-apoB100) of different origin, i.e. produced in the intestine and liver, respectively. However, the majority of CM remnants incorporated into liver from the circulation are degraded in liver and may be reused for the remodeling of VLDL. Namely, the most of the apoB48 in CM remnants are smoothly incorporated into the liver after fat intake along with lipids and other apolipoproteins via the LDL receptor and LDL-receptor-related protein (LRP)...
December 13, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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