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Bijan Ghorbanpour Oskouei, Soheil Abbaspour-Ravasjani, Seyed Jamal Musavinejad, Seyed Ahmad Salehzadeh, Alireza Abdolhosseinzadeh, Hamed Hamishehkar, Kazem Ghahremanzadeh, Behrooz Shokouhi
AIM: The evaluation of the positive and protective effects thymol as a natural compound on the STZ -induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, seven groups of the streptozotocin induced diabetic and normal rats (overall 42 males) were tested through various biochemical and histopathological factors such as: serum glucose, insulin, creatinine, lipids, lipoproteins, liver function-related enzymes, and antioxidant status in liver and kidney. RESULTS: The obtained results in this work indicated that thymol had a significant anti-hypoglycemic, anti-hypolipidemic activities on the STZ-induced diabetic rats...
August 13, 2018: Drug Research
Bilal Houshaymi, Nadine Nasreddine, Mamdouh Kedees, Zeina Soayfane
The bioavailability of ivermectin is modulated by lipid-based formulations and membrane efflux transporters such as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and P-glycoprotein (BCRP and P-gp). We have investigated the effect of oleic acid on the uptake of ivermectin in vitro using Caco-2 cells and in vivo in the intestines of wild-type mice. Complex micelles (M) with oleic acid induced a significant increase (e. g. for M3 was 7-fold, p≤0.001) in the uptake of the drug in a time-dependent manner with no involvement of cholesterol in the mechanism...
August 13, 2018: Drug Research
Ji Woong Lim, Seok Kyu Kim, Seo Yun Choi, Dong Hoi Kim, Changdev G Gadhe, Hae Nim Lee, Hyo-Ji Kim, Jina Kim, Sung Jin Cho, Hayoung Hwang, Jihye Seong, Kyu-Sung Jeong, Jae Yeol Lee, Sang Min Lim, Jae Wook Lee, Ae Nim Pae
SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) is a lipid phosphatase that produce phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2 ) from phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3 ), and is involved in many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases. A recent report demonstrating that SHIP2 inhibition decreased tau hyperphosphorylation induced by amyloid β and rescued memory impairment in a transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model indicates SHIP2 can be a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Elena Raffetti, Francesco Donato, Fabrizio Speziani, Carmelo Scarcella, Alice Gaia, Michele Magoni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been linked to the onset of cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic diseases, but no conclusive evidence has been provided so far. A chemical factory produced PCBs from 1938 to 1984 in Brescia (North Italy) resulting in environmental contamination and human exposure. We aimed to evaluate the association between PCB serum levels and subsequent incidence of chronic diseases through a prospective cohort study design. METHODS: Based on surveys conducted in Brescia province between 2001 and 2013, a cohort of 1331 subjects with at least one measure of PCB serum levels during the period was selected and followed longitudinally...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Madhulika Pradhan, Amit Alexander, Manju Rawat Singh, Deependra Singh, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Ajazuddin
Psoriasis is a consistently recurring, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of the skin, affecting about 2-5% of the world population. Abundant therapeutic agents are accessible for the treatment of psoriasis. Nevertheless, none of them are entirely secure and effective to treat the disease without compromising patient compliance. Furthermore, already existing drugs are supposed to restrain the ailment and alleviate the sign and symptoms with no complete cure. However, they focus on restraining the disease and alleviating the symptoms without providing an absolute cure...
August 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ghada Ali Omran, Hisham Diab Gaber, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamad Mostafa, Reham Maher Abdel-Gaber, Emadeldeen Ali Salah
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that is widely produced as a by-product in the plastics industry. The aim of the current study was to identify any association between urinary BPA levels and infertility related factors in patients who presented to the andrology clinic of a university hospital in Upper Egypt. In this case-control study, urinary BPA levels in 50 infertile patients and 50 matched controls were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Semen quality (sperm concentration, morphology, and motility) and oxidative stress (total antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels) were determined along with sperm DNA damage via alkaline comet assays...
August 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ana Carolina Negrin, Mariana Marcielo de Jesus, Caroline Maria Christante, Danilo Grünig Humberto da Silva, Sebastião Roberto Taboga, Maria Etelvina Pinto-Fochi, Rejane Maira Góes
This study evaluated the consequences of gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters of the adult gerbil and the interference of corn oil (co), a vehicle widely used for administration of liposoluble agents, on DBP effects. Pregnant gerbils received no treatment or were treated from gestational day 8 to 23 via gavage with 0.1 mL/day of co only or containing DBP (100 mg/kg/day). Maternal co intake enhanced serum estradiol levels and testicular content of ERα, and reduced sperm reserve of adult offspring...
August 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
C Behr, S Ramírez-Hincapié, H J Cameron, V Strauss, T Walk, M Herold, K Beekmann, I M C M Rietjens, B van Ravenzwaay
The importance of the gut microorganisms and their wide range of interactions with the host are well-acknowledged. In this study, lincomycin and clindamycin were used to modulate microbial communities of Wistar rats to gain a comprehensive understanding of the implications of microbiome alterations. A metabolomics approach and taxonomic profiling were applied to characterize the effects of these antibiotics on the functionality of the microbiome and to identify microbiome-related metabolites. After treatment, the diversity of the microbial community was drastically reduced...
August 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Yibao Ma, Sarah M Temkin, Adam M Hawkridge, Chunqing Guo, Wei Wang, Xiang-Yang Wang, Xianjun Fang
Cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming such as enhanced aerobic glycolysis, mutations in the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, and upregulation of de novo lipid synthesis and glutaminolysis. These alterations are pivotal to the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype of cancer cells in unfavorable tumor microenvironment or metastatic sites. Although mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) is a primary bioenergetic source, it has not been generally recognized as part of the metabolic landscape of cancer...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
Ann M Dixon, Syamal Roy
Class II Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) is a polymorphic heterodimer that binds antigen-derived peptides and presents them on the surface of antigen presenting cells. This mechanism of antigen presentation leads to recognition by CD4 T-cells and T-cell activation, making it a critical element of adaptive immune response. For this reason, the structural determinants of MHC-II function have been of great interest for the past 30 years, resulting in a robust structural understanding of the extracellular regions of the complex...
August 10, 2018: Human Immunology
Michelle L Hernandez, Radhika Dhingra, Allison J Burbank, Krista Todorich, Ceila E Loughlin, Marcia Frye, Kelly Duncan, Carole Robinette, Katherine Mills, Robert B Devlin, David B Peden, David Diaz-Sanchez
In a cohort of African American adolescents with persistent asthma on guidelines-based daily controller therapies, short-term elevation of low ozone levels below the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 70 ppb were associated with lung function decrements and elevated lipid levels.
August 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Arnaud Bernard, Déborah Ancel, Patricia Passilly-Degrace, Jean-François Landrier, Laurent Lagrost, Philippe Besnard
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with a decreased oral fat detection in rodents. This alteration has been explained by an impairment of the lipid-mediated signaling in taste bud cells (TBC). However, factors responsible for this defect remain elusive. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids is known to elicit a metabolic inflammation by promoting intestinal permeation to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Gram-negative bacteria-derived endotoxins. To determine whether a local inflammation of the gustatory tissue might explain the obese-induced impairment of the oro-sensory detection of lipids, mice were subjected to a DIO protocol...
August 10, 2018: Biochimie
Chaiyasit Sittiwet, Piia Simonen, Markku J Nissinen, Helena Gylling, Timo E Strandberg
Cerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether also the extracerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed is not known. Thus, we studied whole-body cholesterol synthesis and absorption with serum noncholesterol sterols in men without AD (n = 114) or with (n = 18) "pure" AD (no concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) in a long-term cohort (the Helsinki Businessmen Study) of home-dwelling older men without lipid-lowering drugs and on their habitual home diet...
July 26, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Stephanie Dynczuki Navarro, Lucas Roberto Pessatto, Alisson Meza de Souza, Edwin José Torres de Oliveira, Sarah Alves Auharek, Lizia Colares Vilela, Dênis Pires de Lima, Ricardo Bentes de Azevedo, Candida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Osmar Ignacio Ayala Cáceres, Roberto da Silva Gomes, Adilson Beatriz, Rodrigo Juliano de Oliveira, Marco Antonio Utrera Martines
AIMS: Previous studies performed by our research group indicated that cytosporone analogues are capable of prevent or repair DNA damages. This work presents the evaluation of the activity of AMS35AA for metastatic murine melanoma cells (B16F10) in experimental model in vitro and, in pre-clinic assay of metastatic melanoma in vivo, using mice lineage C57BL/6. MAIN METHODS: In vitro assays were performed: MTT and comet assay, flow cytometry evaluation, gene expression assay by RT-PCR, qualitative evaluation of cell death using B16F10 cells...
August 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Eric S Melby, Caley Allen, Isabel Foreman-Ortiz, Emily Caudill, Thomas R Kuech, Ariane M Vartanian, Xi Zhang, Catherine J Murphy, Rigoberto Hernandez, Joel A Pedersen
Molecular understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on cell membranes is critical for the prediction of effects that span environmental exposures to nano-enabled therapies. Experimental and computational studies employing phospholipid bilayers as model systems for membranes have yielded important insights but lack the biomolecular complexity of actual membranes. Here, we increase model membrane complexity by incorporating the peripheral membrane protein cytochrome c and studying the interactions of the resulting membrane systems with two types of anionic nanoparticles...
August 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Per Fahlberg, Nathalie Buhot, Oskar N Johansson, Mats X Andersson
Non-specific lipid transfer proteins are involved in transport of lipophilic compounds to the cuticular surface on the epidermal cells and defense against pathogens. The role of GPI-anchored LTPs (LTPGs) in resistance against non-host mildews in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated using reverse genetics. Loss of either LTPG1, LTPG2, LTPG5 or LTPG6 increased the susceptibility to penetration of the epidermal cell wall by Blumeria graminis sp hordei (Bgh). No impact on pre-penetration defense against another non-host mildew, Erysiphe pisi (Ep) was however observed...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Viola Jeck, Ansgar Korf, Christian Vosse, Heiko Hayen
RATIONALE: Lipids are a group of biomolecules known for their importance in a broad variety of biological tasks, which is attributed to their diversity of molecular structures. The exact position of a lipids' double bond is affecting its biological properties. Therefore, the determination of its position is highly important. Nevertheless, the unambiguous assignment is still a challenging task and requires the development of new approaches. METHODS: A novel method for pinpointing double bond positions in lipids is presented, based on the photochemical Paternὸ Büchi reaction...
August 13, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Silvia Sookoian, Marco Arrese, Carlos J Pirola
Knowledge of the genetic component of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has significantly contributed to the understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Genetic studies based either on genome wide association-strategies or candidate-genes approaches showed that variants in loci involved in lipid metabolism and/or lipid-droplets biology have predominant and reproducible effects on the disease phenotype (1). However, it has been a major challenge to translate this information into molecularly-plausible and clinically-safe therapeutic targets...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Stephanie L Brandt, Nathan Klopfenstein, Soujuan Wang, Seth Winfree, Brian P McCarthy, Paul R Territo, Lloyd Miller, C Henrique Serezani
The early events that shape the innate immune response to restrain pathogens during skin infections remain elusive. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection engages phagocyte chemotaxis, abscess formation, and microbial clearance. Upon infection, neutrophils and monocytes find a gradient of chemoattractants that influence both phagocyte direction and microbial clearance. The bioactive lipid leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is quickly (seconds to minutes) produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and signals through the G protein-coupled receptors LTB4R1 (BLT1) or BLT2 in phagocytes and structural cells...
August 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ramsia Sreij, Sylvain François Prévost, Rajeev Dattani, Carina Dargel, Yvonne Hertle, Oliver Wrede, Thomas Hellweg
The understanding of the interaction of drugs with biologically active compounds in biological membranes is of fundamental importance for the evaluation of physiological effects and the development and improvement of medicinal formulations. In the present study we investigate the interaction of the saponin aescin, a biosurfactant which is derived from the horse chestnut tree aesculus hippocastanum, with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) model membranes...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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