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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102961/assessing-the-use-of-4dct-ventilation-in-pre-operative-surgical-lung-cancer-evaluation
#2
Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy, Matthew Jackson, Leah Schubert, Bernard Jones, Richard Castillo, Edward Castillo, Thomas Guerrero, John Mitchell, Chad Rusthoven, Moyed Miften, Brian Kavanagh
PURPOSE: A primary treatment option for lung cancer patients is surgical resection. Patients who have poor lung function prior to surgery are at increased risk of developing serious and life-threatening complications after surgical resection. Surgeons use nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scans along with pulmonary function test (PFT) information to assess a patient's pre-surgical lung function. The nuclear medicine images and pre-surgery PFTs are used to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung tissue that would be lost with surgical resection...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102960/nine-degrees-of-freedom-flexmap-for-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-imaging-device-with-independently-movable-source-and-detector
#3
Peter Keuschnigg, Daniel Kellner, Karl Fritscher, Andrea Zechner, Ulrich Mayer, Philipp Huber, Felix Sedlmayer, Heinz Deutschmann, Philipp Steininger
PURPOSE: Couch-mounted cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging devices with independently rotatable x-ray source and flat-panel detector arms for acquisitions of arbitrary regions of interest (ROI) have recently been introduced in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). This work analyzes mechanical limitations and gravity-induced effects influencing the geometric accuracy of images acquired with arbitrary angular constellations of source and detector in nonisocentric trajectories, which is considered essential for IGRT...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102936/unbiased-and-quantitative-proteomics-reveals-highly-increased-angiogenesis-induction-by-the-secretome-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-isolated-from-fetal-rather-than-adult-skin
#4
Massimiliano Gaetani, Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Anna Paola Carreca, Claudia Di Pasquale, Giandomenico Amico, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Scarless wound healing and functional regeneration are typical processes of the fetus, gradually lost during post-natal life, and maximally attributed to fetal skin tissue and induced by fetal skin fibroblasts. The latter have been successfully applied to post-natal wounds, with clear advantages compared with autologous dermis grafts or adult fibroblast applications. Our goal was to functionally identify and uncover key factors and mechanisms through the analysis of secretomes, the principal players in all cell therapies based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102886/translational-research-in-surgical-oncology
#5
K Søreide, M Sund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102858/luminescent-immunoprecipitation-system-lips-for-detection-of-autoantibodies-against-atp4a-and-atp4b-subunits-of-gastric-proton-pump-h-k-atpase-in-atrophic-body-gastritis-patients
#6
Edith Lahner, Cristina Brigatti, Ilaria Marzinotto, Marilia Carabotti, Giulia Scalese, Howard W Davidson, Janet M Wenzlau, Emanuele Bosi, Lorenzo Piemonti, Bruno Annibale, Vito Lampasona
OBJECTIVES: Circulating autoantibodies targeting the H+/K+-ATPase proton pump of gastric parietal cells are considered markers of autoimmune gastritis, whose diagnostic accuracy in atrophic body gastritis, the pathological lesion of autoimmune gastritis, remains unknown. This study aimed to assess autoantibodies against ATP4A and ATP4B subunits of parietal cells H+, K+-ATPase in atrophic body gastritis patients and controls. METHODS: One-hundred and four cases with atrophic body gastritis and 205 controls were assessed for serological autoantibodies specific for ATP4A or ATP4B subunits using luminescent immunoprecipitation system (LIPS)...
January 19, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102754/enhancement-of-antibody-functions-through-fc-multiplications
#7
Qun Wang, Yan Chen, Mark Pelletier, Romana Cvitkovic, Jessica Bonnell, Chien-Ying Chang, Adem C Koksal, Ellen O'Connor, Xizhe Gao, Xiang-Qing Yu, Herren Wu, C Kendall Stover, William F Dall'Acqua, Xiaodong Xiao
Antibodies carry out a plethora of functions through their crystallizable fragment (Fc) regions, which can be naturally tuned by the adoption of several isotypes and post-translational modifications. Protein engineering enables further Fc function modulations through modifications of the interactions between the Fc and its functional partners, including FcγR, FcRn, complement complex, and additions of auxiliary functional units. Due to the many functions embedded within the confinement of an Fc, a suitable balance must be maintained for a therapeutic antibody to be effective and safe...
January 19, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102713/factors-associated-with-the-status-of-meniscal-tears-following-meniscal-repair-concomitant-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#8
Takehiko Matsushita, Kanto Nagai, Daisuke Araki, Toshikazu Tanaka, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Kotaro Nishida, Masahiro Kurosaka, Ryosuke Kuroda
Purpose Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are often accompanied by meniscal tears. Meniscal repair is typically performed during ACL reconstruction. However, retear of the meniscus after repair is frequent. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors associated with meniscal healing after meniscal repair concomitant with ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods Eighty-seven meniscal repairs in 87 patients who received meniscal repair combined with ACL reconstruction and received second-look arthroscopy at a mean of postoperatively 15...
January 19, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102617/feasibility-of-a-psychosis-information-intervention-to-improve-mental-health-literacy-for-professional-groups-in-contact-with-young-people
#9
Marie Sutton, Donal O'Keeffe, Timothy Frawley, Kevin Madigan, Felicity Fanning, Elizabeth Lawlor, Eric Roche, Aine Kelly, Niall Turner, Arielle Horenstein, Eadbhard O'Callaghan, Mary Clarke
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a psychosis information intervention for professionals in contact with young people in Ireland. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design was used. One thousand and thirty-two professionals received an information intervention designed to improve mental health literacy (MHL) and confidence in providing help to people with psychosis. Seven hundred and fifty-five participants completed the Psychosis Information and Confidence Questionnaire pre- and post-intervention...
January 19, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102615/comparative-effectiveness-of-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-options-for-the-patient-undergoing-total-hip-and-knee-replacement-a-network-meta-analysis
#10
A Kapoor, A Ellis, N Shaffer, J Gurwitz, A Chandramohan, J Saulino, A Ishak, T Okubanjo, F Michota, E Hylek, T A Trikalinos
: Essentials Despite trial data, guidelines have not endorsed direct oral Xa inhibitors above other options. We provide profiles of venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage risk for 12 options. Direct oral Xa inhibitors had a favorable profile compared with low-molecular-weight heparin. Other options did not have favorable profiles compared with low-molecular-weight heparin. SUMMARY: Background There are numerous trials and several meta-analyses comparing venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis options after total hip and knee replacement (THR and TKR)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102593/a-case-for-cannabidiol-in-wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome-seizure-management
#11
Karen S Ho, E Robert Wassman
Complex, and sometimes intractable, seizures affect the quality of life and cognitive development of over 90% of individuals with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Fine resolution genotype-phenotype mapping of the WHS locus recently identified a candidate gene whose probable function has led to insights into a mechanism connecting WHS seizures with those of Dravet syndrome, a distinct condition caused by mutations in SCN1A and SCN1B. In addition to this possible molecular mechanistic connection, these disorders' seizures share a strikingly similar constellation of features, including clinical presentation, seizure types, early age of onset, EEG pattern, and responses to specific anti-epileptic drugs...
February 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102510/influence-of-dose-reduction-and-iterative-reconstruction-on-ct-calcium-scores-a-multi-manufacturer-dynamic-phantom-study
#12
N R van der Werf, M J Willemink, T P Willems, M J W Greuter, T Leiner
To evaluate the influence of dose reduction in combination with iterative reconstruction (IR) on coronary calcium scores (CCS) in a dynamic phantom on state-of-the-art CT systems from different manufacturers. Calcified inserts in an anthropomorphic chest phantom were translated at 20 mm/s corresponding to heart rates between 60 and 75 bpm. The inserts were scanned five times with routinely used CCS protocols at reference dose and 40 and 80% dose reduction on four high-end CT systems. Filtered back projection (FBP) and increasing levels of IR were applied...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102482/the-role-of-text-messaging-in-cardiovascular-risk-factor-optimization
#13
REVIEW
Harry Klimis, Mohammad Ehsan Khan, Cindy Kok, Clara K Chow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many cases of CVD may be avoidable through lowering behavioural risk factors such as smoking and physical inactivity. Mobile health (mHealth) provides a novel opportunity to deliver cardiovascular prevention programs in a format that is potentially scalable. Here, we provide an overview of text messaging-based mHealth interventions in cardiovascular prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Text messaging-based interventions appear effective on a range of behavioural risk factors and can effect change on multiple risk factors-e...
January 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102360/modification-of-distinct-ion-channels-differentially-modulates-ca-2-dynamics-in-primary-cultured-rat-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#14
Xichun Li, Liping Shen, Fang Zhao, Xiaohan Zou, Yuwei He, Fan Zhang, Chunlei Zhang, Boyang Yu, Zhengyu Cao
Primary cultured cardiomyocytes show spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations (SCOs) which not only govern contractile events, but undergo derangements that promote arrhythmogenesis through Ca(2+) -dependent mechanism. We systematically examined influence on SCOs of an array of ion channel modifiers by recording intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using Ca(2+) specific fluorescence dye, Fluo-8/AM. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) activation elongates SCO duration and reduces SCO frequency while inhibition of VGSCs decreases SCO frequency without affecting amplitude and duration...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102336/differential-effects-of-phytotherapic-preparations-in-the-hsod1-drosophila-melanogaster-model-of-als
#15
Francescaelena De Rose, Roberto Marotta, Giuseppe Talani, Tiziano Catelani, Paolo Solari, Simone Poddighe, Giuseppe Borghero, Francesco Marrosu, Enrico Sanna, Sanjay Kasture, Elio Acquas, Anna Liscia
The present study was aimed at characterizing the effects of Withania somnifera (Wse) and Mucuna pruriens (Mpe) on a Drosophila melanogaster model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In particular, the effects of Wse and Mpe were assessed following feeding the flies selectively overexpressing the wild human copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (hSOD1-gain-of-function) in Drosophila motoneurons. Although ALS-hSOD1 mutants showed no impairment in life span, with respect to GAL4 controls, the results revealed impairment of climbing behaviour, muscle electrophysiological parameters (latency and amplitude of ePSPs) as well as thoracic ganglia mitochondrial functions...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102297/whsc1l1-mediated-egfr-mono-methylation-enhances-the-cytoplasmic-and-nuclear-oncogenic-activity-of-egfr-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
Vassiliki Saloura, Theodore Vougiouklakis, Makda Zewde, Xiaolan Deng, Kazuma Kiyotani, Jae-Hyun Park, Yo Matsuo, Mark Lingen, Takehiro Suzuki, Naoshi Dohmae, Ryuji Hamamoto, Yusuke Nakamura
While multiple post-translational modifications have been reported to regulate the function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the effect of protein methylation on its function has not been well characterized. In this study, we show that WHSC1L1 mono-methylates lysine 721 in the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR, and that this methylation leads to enhanced activation of its downstream ERK cascade without EGF stimulation. We also show that EGFR K721 mono-methylation not only affects the function of cytoplasmic EGFR, but also that of nuclear EGFR...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102237/tracking-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-fluorescence-endomicroscopy-imaging-in-radiotherapy-induced-lung-injury
#17
Jessica R Perez, Norma Ybarra, Frederic Chagnon, Monica Serban, Sangkyu Lee, Jan Seuntjens, Olivier Lesur, Issam El Naqa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential for reducing inflammation and promoting organ repair. However, limitations in available techniques to track them and assess this potential for lung repair have hindered their applicability. In this work, we proposed, implemented and evaluated the use of fluorescence endomicroscopy as a novel imaging tool to track MSCs in vivo. MSCs were fluorescently labeled and injected into a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury via endotracheal (ET) or intravascular (IV) administration...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101926/alan-baron-a-pioneer-in-translational-science
#18
EDITORIAL
Michael Perone, Dean C Williams, Mark Galizio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101920/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-hiv-1-tat-induced-dysregulation-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#19
Tariq Ganief, Putuma Gqamana, Shaun Garnett, Jackie Hoare, Dan J Stein, John Joska, Nelson Soares, Jonathan M Blackburn
Despite affecting up to 70% of HIV-positivepatients and being the leading cause of dementia in patients under 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not well understood. To address this, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis on HIV-Tat treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Isolated protein was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and analysed by nLC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Velos. Using MaxQuant, we identified and quantified 3077 unique protein groups, of which 407 were differentially regulated...
January 19, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101874/bioengineered-collagens
#20
Barbara Brodsky, John A M Ramshaw
There is a great deal of interest in obtaining recombinant collagen as an alternative source of material for biomedical applications and as an approach for obtaining basic structural and biological information. However, application of recombinant technology to collagen presents challenges, most notably the need for post-translational hydroxylation of prolines for triple-helix stability. Full length recombinant human collagens have been successfully expressed in cell lines, yeast, and several plant systems, while collagen fragments have been expressed in E...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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