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Biomarkers and Alzheimer's

Keping Chen, Tianli Gao, Zhimao Bai, Zuanning Yuan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the early diagnosis and intervention are important for valid treatment of AD. However, there are few biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of AD. In the present study, circulating APP, NCAM, Aβ40, and Aβ42 were measured in order to identify which marker or combination of markers could be useful, cost-effective and noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosing and continuously monitoring AD. The results showed that circulating APP, NCAM, Aβ40, and Aβ42 were different between the AD group and the control group...
August 14, 2018: Brain Research
Hua Zhang, Joseph Therriault, Min Su Kang, Kok Pin Ng, Tharick A Pascoal, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Serge Gauthier
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that synaptic loss precedes neuronal loss and correlates best with impaired memory formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a newly discovered marker indicating synaptic damage. We here test CSF SNAP-25 and SNAP-25/amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) ratio as a diagnostic marker for predicting cognitive decline and brain structural change in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database...
August 16, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Victor T T Chan, Zihan Sun, Shumin Tang, Li Jia Chen, Adrian Wong, Clement C Tham, Tien Y Wong, Christopher Chen, M Kamran Ikram, Heather E Whitson, Eleonora M Lad, Vincent Mok, Carol Y Cheung
TOPIC: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive tool to measure specific retinal layers in the eye. The relationship of retinal spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) measurements with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the SD-OCT measurements in AD and MCI. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current methods of diagnosing early AD are expensive and invasive. Retinal measurements of SD-OCT, which are non-invasive, technically simple and inexpensive, are potential biomarkers of AD...
August 13, 2018: Ophthalmology
Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ione O C Woollacott, Jennifer M Nicholas, Amanda Heslegrave, Carolin Heller, Martha S Foiani, Katrina M Dick, Lucy L Russell, Ross W Paterson, Ashvini Keshavan, Nick C Fox, Jason D Warren, Jonathan M Schott, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan D Rohrer
BACKGROUND: Reliable biomarkers of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are currently lacking. FTD may be associated with chronic immune dysfunction, microglial activation and raised inflammatory markers, particularly in progranulin (GRN) mutation carriers. Levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but they have not been fully explored in FTD. METHODS: We investigated whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sTREM2 levels differ between FTD and controls, across different clinical and genetic subtypes of FTD, or between individuals with FTD due to AD versus non-AD pathology (based on CSF neurodegenerative biomarkers)...
August 16, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Baoxia Liu, Haoshuang Shen, Yuanqiang Hao, Xu Zhu, Suzhi Li, Yankai Huang, Peng Qu, Maotian Xu
Metal-organic coordination polymers (MOCPs) have been emerging as very attractive nano-materials due to their tunable nature and diverse applications. Herein, using Tb3+ as the luminescence center, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (BTC) as building block and Cu2+ as the signal modulator as well as a recognition unit, we propose a novel and effective lanthanide functionalized MOCP (LMOCP) fluorescent sensor (Cu-BTC/Tb) for amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) monomer, a biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD). Specifically, Cu-BTC/Tb, created by post-synthesis modification strategy under room temperature, is almost non-emissive due to the quenching effect of Cu2+ in the MOCP, exhilaratingly, the presence of Aβ1-40 triggered a significant emission enhancement of Cu-BTC/Tb assay due to the high binding affinity of Aβ1-40 for Cu2+ and the subsequent suppression of the quenching effect...
August 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Matías Niikado, Patricio Chrem-Méndez, Micaela Barbieri-Kennedy, Ismael Calandri, Horacio Martinetto, Mercedes Serra, Jorge Calvar, Jorge Campos, María Julieta Russo, Lucía Pertierra, Ricardo Allegri, Gustavo Sevlever, Ezequiel I Surace
Systematic evaluation of biomarkers in representative populations is needed to validate their clinical utility. In this work, we assessed the diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain (NfL) in a neurocognitive clinical setting. A total of 51 patients with different cognitive clinical syndromes and 11 cognitively normal individuals were evaluated in a memory clinic in Argentina. Clinical conditions included: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=12), Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT, n=14), Behavioral variant Frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n=13), and Primary Progressive Aphasia [logopenic (lvPPA, n=6), semantic (svPPA, n=2), and non-fluent (nfvPPA, n=4)]...
August 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Niklas Mattsson, Oscar Eriksson, Olof Lindberg, Michael Schöll, Björn Lampinen, Markus Nilsson, Philip S Insel, Ronald Lautner, Olof Strandberg, Danielle van Westen, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Sebastian Palmqvist, Erik Stomrud, Oskar Hansson
Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its importance for the clinical and biological heterogeneity in AD is unclear, particularly at the prodromal stage. We analyzed 151 prodromal AD patients (44 APOE ε4-negative and 107 APOE ε4-positive) from the BioFINDER study. We tested cognition, 18F-flutemetamol β-amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Aβ, tau and neurodegeneration, and magnetic resonance imaging of white matter pathology and brain structure...
July 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Suping Cai, Kexin Huang, Yafei Kang, Yuanyuan Jiang, Karen M von Deneen, Liyu Huang
The aim of this study is to identify potential biomarkers that may distinguish people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from cognitively intact elderly. We analyzed the features of rich-club hierarchical network between the AD and a control group by diffusion tensor imaging. We detected that the changes between the two groups were located mainly in the feeder and local connections. Then, we calculated the betweenness centrality of the rich nodes and the strength values of all feeder connections, and we chose the nodes and connections that showed the most significant differences as features...
August 11, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Anne-Brita Knapskog, Anne Braekhus, Knut Engedal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Chiara Zecca, Rosanna Tortelli, Francesco Panza, Simona Arcuti, Marco Piccininni, Rosa Capozzo, Maria Rosaria Barulli, Roberta Barone, Roberta Cardinali, Daniela Abbrescia, Davide Seripa, Vincenzo Brescia, Giancarlo Logroscino
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, the use of plasma β-Amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42 ) as biomarker for Alzheimer's disease is largely limited by the absence of reference values. The aim of this study was to evaluate Aβ1-42 plasma concentrations in cognitively normal subjects and to propose reference values. METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from 245 subjects, with a wide age-range (19-89 years), enrolled at the Unit of Laboratory Medicine of the "Azienda Ospedaliera Cardinale G...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ivan Zaletel, Marija Schwirtlich, Milka Perović, Mirna Jovanović, Milena Stevanović, Selma Kanazir, Nela Puškaš
 Dysregulation of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus has been related to cognitive deficits and memory loss in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Members of the B group of SOX transcription factors play critical roles in regulating neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult nervous system, including maintaining the multipotency, renewal, and cell fate decision of neural stem/progenitor cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected SOXB proteins in the SGZ, of 8-week-old male and female 5xFAD mice, which represent a transgenic model of AD with a severe and very early development of amyloid pathology...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Fermín Segovia, Manuel Gómez-Río, Raquel Sánchez-Vañó, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Eva Triviño-Ibáñez, Cristóbal Carnero Pardo, María Dolores Martínez Lozano, Pablo Sopena-Novales
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of neurodegeneration play a major role in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Information on both amyloid-β accumulation, e.g., from amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), and downstream neuronal injury, e.g., from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, would ideally be obtained in a single procedure. OBJECTIVE: On the basis that the parallelism between brain perfusion and glucose metabolism is well documented, the objective of this work is to evaluate whether brain perfusion estimated in a dual-point protocol of 18F-florbetaben (FBB) PET can be a surrogate of FDG PET in appropriate use criteria (AUC) for amyloid PET...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Zihan Jiang, Huilin Yang, Xiaoying Tang
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the influence that the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts upon the corpus callosum (CC) using a total of 325 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, 155 AD subjects, and 185 healthy control (HC) subjects. METHOD: Regionally-specific morphological CC abnormalities, as induced by AD, were quantified using a large deformation diffeomorphic metric curve mapping based statistical shape analysis pipeline. We also quantified the association between the CC shape phenotype and two cognitive measures; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Behavior Section (ADAS-cog)...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Friedrich Leblhuber, Kostja Steiner, Burkhard Schuetz, Dietmar Fuchs, Johanna M Gostner
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in the elderly can cause a leaky gut, which may result in silent systemic inflammation and promote neuroinflammation - a relevant pathomechanism in the early course of Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: The rebalancing of the microbiome could benefically impact on gut inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: In this study, routine laboratory tests in twenty outpatients (9 females, 11 males, aged 77...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Jun-Ting Yang, Zhao-Jun Wang, Hong-Yan Cai, Li Yuan, Meng-Ming Hu, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly, characterized by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation in the brain, as well as impaired cognitive behaviors. A sex difference in the prevalence of AD has been noted, while sex differences in the cerebral pathology and relevant molecular mechanisms are not well clarified. In the present study, we systematically investigated the sex differences in pathological characteristics and cognitive behavior in 12-month-old male and female APP/PS1/tau triple-transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD mice) and examined the molecular mechanisms...
August 11, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Francisco Morales-Zavala, Nathalie Casanova-Morales, Raúl B Gonzalez, América Chandía-Cristi, Lisbell D Estrada, Ignacio Alvizú, Victor Waselowski, Fanny Guzman, Simón Guerrero, Marisol Oyarzún-Olave, Cristian Rebolledo, Enrique Rodriguez, Julien Armijo, Heman Bhuyan, Mario Favre, Alejandra R Alvarez, Marcelo J Kogan, Jerónimo R Maze
BACKGROUND: Stable and non-toxic fluorescent markers are gaining attention in molecular diagnostics as powerful tools for enabling long and reliable biological studies. Such markers should not only have a long half-life under several assay conditions showing no photo bleaching or blinking but also, they must allow for their conjugation or functionalization as a crucial step for numerous applications such as cellular tracking, biomarker detection and drug delivery. RESULTS: We report the functionalization of stable fluorescent markers based on nanodiamonds (NDs) with a bifunctional peptide...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Sabine Hellwig, Lars Frings, Tobias Bormann, Werner Vach, Ralph Buchert, Philipp T Meyer
PURPOSE: Cerebral beta-amyloid and regional glucose metabolism assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) are used as diagnostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study validates the incremental diagnostic value of amyloid PET in addition to clinical diagnosis and [18 F]FDG PET in a real-life memory clinic population. METHODS: Of 138 consecutive patients with cognitive impairment who received combined [18 F]FDG and [11 C]PIB PET, 84 were diagnosed with major neurocognitive disorder (DSM-5) and included...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jennifer H Lingler, J Scott Roberts, Hyejin Kim, Jonna L Morris, Lu Hu, Meghan Mattos, Eric McDade, Oscar L Lopez
Introduction: Given mounting calls to disclose biomarker test results to research participants, we explored factors underlying decisions by patients with mild cognitive impairment to receive amyloid imaging results. Methods: Prospective, qualitative interviews were conducted with 59 participants (30 = mild cognitive impairment patients, 29 = care partners) from the scan arm of a randomized controlled trial on the effects of amyloid PET results disclosure in an Alzheimer Disease Research Center setting...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Lindsay Wallace, Olga Theou, Kenneth Rockwood, Melissa K Andrew
Introduction: Frailty and dementia appear to be closely linked, although mechanisms remain unclear. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of the association between frailty and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in humans. Methods: Three databases, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase, were searched for articles using the following search terms: "frail elderly", "Alzheimer's disease", "dementia biomarkers" and their synonyms. Inclusion was limited to original research in humans published before 2017, which included a frailty measure and AD biomarker (fluid markers, neuroimaging, and neuropathology)...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
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