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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516819/potential-role-of-ocular-microbiome-host-genotype-tear-cytokines-and-environmental-factors-in-corneal-infiltrative-events-in-contact-lens-wearers
#1
Cecilia Chao, Lakshmi Akileswaran, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Mark Willcox, Russell Van Gelder, Carol Lakkis, Fiona Stapleton, Kathryn Richdale
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore differences in genotype, ocular surface microbiome, tear inflammatory markers, and environmental and behavioral exposures in soft contact lens (SCL) wearers with and without a history of corneal infiltrative events (CIEs). Methods: Nine SCL wearers with a recent CIE and nine age-, sex-, and SCL material- and modality-matched controls were enrolled. The Contact Lens Risk Survey, slit-lamp examination data, basal tears, conjunctival microbial cultures, and peripheral blood samples were collected...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513251/b-part-of-it-study-a-longitudinal-study-to-assess-carriage-of-neisseria-meningitidis-in-first-year-university-students-in-south-australia
#2
Mark McMillan, Luke Walters, Mark Turra, Andrew Lawrence, Lex E X Leong, Thomas Sullivan, Geraint B Rogers, Ross M Andrews, Helen S Marshall
OBJECTIVES: N. meningitidis carriage in Australia is poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate prevalence and risk factors for carriage of N. meningitidis in South Australian university students. We also sought to identify whether delayed freezing of oro-pharyngeal samples altered PCR positivity, cycle threshold, or culture positivity. METHODS: Oro-pharyngeal swabs were taken from first year university students and repeated after 3 months, with risk factor questionnaires completed at both visits...
December 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489345/infantile-acute-conjunctivitis-induced-by-%C3%AE-lactamase-positive-amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant-strain-of-haemophilus-influenzae-a-report-of-three-cases
#3
Noriko Inada, Jun Shoji, Satoru Yamagami
This study is a retrospectively recruited case series. We report three infants with acute conjunctivitis induced by β-lactamase-positive, ampicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae (BLPACR). Patients with BLPACR-positive cultures were recruited from among 5,107 patients with inflammatory diseases of the ocular surface who underwent examinations, including bacterial culturing of conjunctival sac or corneal scrapings, between 2000 and 2015. Three BLPACR-positive patients were recruited, including a 10-month-old boy, a 4-month-old girl, and a 7-month-old girl...
November 22, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487502/laboratory-diagnosis-of-bacterial-vaginosis-and-potential-pathogens-other-than-group-b-streptococcus-in-vaginal-swab-of-pregnant-women-in-dhaka-medical-college-hospital
#4
M N Tarana, S M Shamsuzzaman
Pathogenic microorganisms are important cause of maternal and neonatal infections which are transmitted from colonized vagina of mother. The purpose of the present study was to detect the potential pathogens other than Group B Streptococcus in vaginal swab of pregnant women. This prospective cross sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 224 vaginal swab samples were studied. Gram stain Nugent score was applied for all vaginal smear to detect bacterial vaginosis...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474111/neonatal-gut-colonisation-by-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-with-certain-adhesins-and-superantigens-is-negatively-associated-with-subsequent-development-of-atopic-eczema
#5
F L Nowrouzian, A Ljung, S Nilsson, B Hesselmar, I Adlerberth, A E Wold
BACKGROUND: Insufficient early immune stimulation may predispose to atopic disease. Staphylococcus aureus, a skin and gut colonizer, produces the B-cell mitogen protein A and T-cell activating superantigens. Early gut colonization by S. aureus strains that possess the superantigens encoded by enterotoxin gene (egc) cluster and the elastin-binding protein, is negatively associated with development of atopic eczema. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether these findings could be replicated in a second birth-cohort, FARMFLORA and, secondly, whether nasal colonization by S...
November 25, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473976/microbiological-profile-of-chronic-tonsillitis-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#6
Raja Kalaiarasi, Kalaivani S Subramanian, Chellappa Vijayakumar, Ramakrishnan Venkataramanan
Introduction Tonsillitis is a very common disease in children. Understanding the microbiology and pathology of chronic tonsillitis is an important step in its management. The aim of the study was to describe the microbiological profile of core tonsillar tissue in chronic tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods Children under 16 years of age with chronic tonsillitis were recruited in the descriptive study. Children with recurrent tonsillitis and recurrent tonsillitis with obstructive symptoms were included...
September 22, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473448/multiplex-taqman-real-time-pcr-platform-for-detection-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-ceftriaxone
#7
Lihong Zhao, Aihua Liu, Ruiying Li, Shuping Zhao
A multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR platform was developed in this study for combined detection of opa and/or porA genes (identification of N. gonorrhoeae) and the key mutations (Ala501Val/Thr/Pro, and/or Gly545Ser) in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) associated with decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Firstly, the specificities of the TaqMan probes/primers for the multiplex TaqMan real time PCR platform were confirmed by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. Then the multiplex PCR platform was performed on 77 isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (CRO) and 100 isolates with full susceptibility to CRO under universal optimized reaction conditions...
October 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472293/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-shortens-the-colonization-period-and-allows-the-re-entry-of-patients-carrying-carbapenamase-producing-bacteria-into-medical-care-facilities
#8
Nadia Saïdani, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Nadim Cassir, Matthieu Million, Sophie Baron, Grégory Dubourg, Carole Eldin, Jad Kerbaj, Camille Valles, Didier Raoult, Philippe Brouqui
BACKGROUND: Colonization with carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae or Acinetobacter (CPE/A) is associated with complex medical care requiring implementation of specific isolation policies and limitation of patient discharge to other medical facilities. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has been proposed in order to reduce the duration of gut colonization. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether a dedicated protocol of FMT could reduce the negativation time of CPE/A intestinal carriage in patients whose medical care has been delayed due to such colonization...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469075/a-versatile-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-microchip-platform-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-testing-at-the-point-of-care
#9
Hua Wang, Zhan Ma, Juanxiu Qin, Zhen Shen, Qian Liu, Xiaoyin Chen, Hengliang Wang, Zhenghua An, Wu Liu, Min Li
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality in children under five years of age, globally. Given that Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) are the most common pathogens associated with CAP requiring hospital admission, a simple, low cost, highly sensitive method is in great need for immediate and early diagnosis of CAP. Herein, we report a versatile microfluidic chip platform integrated with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for simultaneous S...
November 12, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468260/foodborne-bacterial-viral-and-protozoan-pathogens-in-field-and-market-strawberries-and-environment-of-strawberry-farms
#10
Radka Dziedzinska, Petra Vasickova, Jakub Hrdy, Michal Slany, Vladimir Babak, Monika Moravkova
Field-grown strawberries, the environment of strawberry farms and fresh strawberries from marketplaces were examined for bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens. The presence of bacteria was determined using culture and real-time PCR (qPCR), presence of protozoa and viruses using qPCR and reverse transcription qPCR, respectively. The highest proportion of positivity was observed for Escherichia coli both in field and purchased strawberries (up to 48.6%). Finding of Cronobacter ranged from 0.6% to 9% both for field and market strawberries...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30464548/acute-epiglottitis-caused-by-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-healthy-infant
#11
Jumpei Fujisawa, Tomokazu Mutoh, Kengo Kawamura, Nami Sawada, Daisuke Ono, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Ichiro Morioka
Haemophilus influenzae was the main causative organism for acute epiglottitis in the pre- Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era. However, with current widespread Hib vaccination, the causative organisms may have changed. Here, we report the case of a healthy infant with acute epiglottitis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The patient was a healthy 17-day-old male infant without a family history of immunodeficiency syndrome. He had not been started on any vaccines...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30464547/noninvasive-screening-identifies-patients-at-risk-for-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#12
Philip G Ferstl, Mona Müller, Natalie Filmann, Michael Hogardt, Volkhard Aj Kempf, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Christian M Lange, Johannes Vermehren, Stefan Zeuzem, Claudia Reinheimer, Oliver Waidmann
Background and aims: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication of decompensated cirrhosis. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in patients with cirrhosis is increasing. Identification of patients at risk for SBP due to MDROs (ie, SBP with the evidence of MDROs or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in ascitic culture, MDRO-SBP) is crucial to the early adaptation of antibiotic treatment in such patients. We therefore investigated whether MDROs found in ascitic cultures can also be found in specimens determined by noninvasive screening procedures...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463895/multicenter-evaluation-of-neumodx%C3%A2-group-b-streptococcus-gbs-assay-on-the-neumodx%C3%A2-288-molecular-system
#13
C L Emery, R F Relich, T H Davis, S Young, M Sims, B L Boyanton
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in developed countries. Recommendations for antepartum GBS detection include enriched culture with several options for identifying GBS, some of which are time consuming. To reduce time-to-identification and determination of maternal GBS colonization status, rapid nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed and commercialized. For rapid detection of GBS, a 3-site clinical study was conducted to evaluate the NeuMoDx™ GBS Assay, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test performed for vaginal/rectal swab specimens in Lim broth enrichment culture on the NeuMoDx™ 288 Molecular System (NeuMoDx™ System); this data was used to a support 510(k) submission...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463893/multicenter-clinical-evaluation-of-the-automated-aries-%C3%A2-group-a-strep-pcr-assay-from-throat-swabs
#14
N Kanwar, J Crawford, C Ulen, T S Uphoff, J Dien Bard, R Dunn, A Drain, R Selvarangan
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is one of the leading causes of bacterial pharyngitis. Early GAS diagnosis is critical for appropriate antibiotic administration that reduces the risk of GAS sequela and limits spread of the infection. The ARIES® Group A Strep (GAS) Assay (Luminex, Austin, TX) is a fully automated PCR assay for direct detection of GAS in throat swab specimens in less than two hours with minimum hands-on time. This multicenter prospective study evaluated the clinical performance of the ARIES® GAS Assay as compared to Streptococcus pyogenes culture...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30456961/molecular-analysis-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-non-o157-strains-isolated-from-calves
#15
Maryam Kohansal, Ali Ghanbari Asad
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-O157 are food-borne pathogens and contaminants of foods of animal origin. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of virulence and integrase genes in STEC isolates from diarrhoeic calves in Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and forty diarrheic neonatal calves were randomly selected for sampling. Rectal swabs were collected and cultured for isolation and identification of E. coli following standard methods. The isolates were analysed for the presence of class 1 integrons and bacterial virulence factors using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 17, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30453916/high-rate-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-pneumococci-carried-by-healthy-children-in-the-eastern-part-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#16
Archippe M Birindwa, Matilda Emgård, Rickard Nordén, Ebba Samuelsson, Shadi Geravandi, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Balthazar Muhigirwa, Théophile Kashosi, Eric Munguakonkwa, Jeanière T Manegabe, Didace Cibicabene, Lambert Morisho, Benjamin Mwambanyi, Jacques Mirindi, Nadine Kabeza, Magnus Lindh, Rune Andersson, Susann Skovbjerg
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been introduced in the infant immunisation programmes in many countries to reduce the rate of fatal pneumococcal infections. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) a 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in 2013. Data on the burden of circulating pneumococci among children after this introduction are lacking. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors related to pneumococcal carriage in healthy Congolese children after the vaccine introduction and to assess the antibiotic resistance rates and serotype distribution among the isolated pneumococci...
November 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30453437/-epidemiological-and-pathogenic-characteristics-of-mumps-in-fujian-province-2005-2017
#17
D Li, Z F Chen, X H Yang, W Y Pan, Q Wang, S H Zhang, N X Zheng, L F Huang, Y Zhou
Objective: To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of mumps in Fujian province, 2005-2017. Methods: All the reported mumps cases were collected through the National Notifiable Disease Information Management System, 2005-2017. Active search and interviews were conducted to collect the information on vaccination of mumps. Throat swab specimens were collected for cells culture, genotyping and gene sequence analysis on mumps virus (MuV). Results: A total of 83 959 cases of mumps were reported in Fujian province from 2005 to 2017, with an average annual incidence of 17...
October 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447976/a-survey-on-the-incidence-of-prototheca-mastitis-in-dairy-herds-in-lublin-province-poland
#18
Tomasz Jagielski, Katarzyna Roeske, Zofia Bakuła, Tomasz Piech, Łukasz Wlazło, Mariola Bochniarz, Piotr Woch, Henryk Krukowski
Prototheca mastitis has recently become an emerging disease; although its incidence is increasing steadily, its epidemiology remains largely understudied. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of Prototheca spp. in dairy cows and their environment in Lublin province, covering most of southeastern Poland. Between December 2015 and July 2016, a total of 172 milking cows from 10 dairy farms were inspected for mastitis using clinical examination and the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Quarter milk samples (QMS, n = 179) and body site swabs (n = 151) from CMT-positive cows were collected for microbiological culture...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447058/frequent-human-poultry-interactions-and-low-prevalence-of-salmonella-in-backyard-chicken-flocks-in-massachusetts
#19
Alyssa McDonagh, Jessica H Leibler, Jean Mukherjee, Anil Thachil, Laura B Goodman, Cassidy Riekofski, Amanda Nee, Khrysti Smyth, Janet Forrester, Marieke H Rosenbaum
The backyard chicken (BYC) movement in the USA has increased human contact with poultry and subsequently, human contact with the pathogen Salmonella. However, to date, there have been few studies assessing prevalence of Salmonella in backyard flocks, despite the known public health risk this zoonotic bacterium poses. The objective of this study was to characterize human-BYC interactions and assess the prevalence of Salmonella among BYC flocks. We interviewed 50 BYC owners using a structured questionnaire to determine flock and household characteristics that facilitate contact with BYC and that may be associated with Salmonella in the BYC environment...
November 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442635/chlamydia-muridarum-plasmid-induces-mouse-oviduct-pathology-by-promoting-chlamydial-survival-and-ascending-infection-and-triggering-host-inflammation
#20
Shuping Hou, Lu Yue, Rong Xu, Congzhong Zhu, Shijun Shan, Huiping Wang, Quanzhong Liu
BACKGROUND: Infection with plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum fails to induce severe pathology, however, the mechanisms underlying this phenotype are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the mechanisms of chlamydial plasmid-mediated pathology in mouse oviducts. MATERIALS & METHODS: BALB/c mice were intravaginally infected with either plasmid-competent or plasmid-free C. muridarum strains. To compare the survival and ascending infection of these strains, vaginal swabs and genital tract tissues were collected and cultured with HeLa cells to monitor the recovery of live organisms...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
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