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Psychiatric medicine

Mark E M Obrenovich
'Leaky gut' syndrome, long-associated with celiac disease, has attracted much attention in recent years and for decades, was widely known in complementary/alternative medicine circles. It is often described as an increase in the permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which could allow bacteria, toxic digestive metabolites, bacterial toxins, and small molecules to 'leak' into the bloodstream. Nervous system involvement with celiac disease is know to occur even at subclinical levels. Gluten and gluten sensitivity are considered to trigger this syndrome in individuals genetically predisposed to celiac disease...
October 18, 2018: Microorganisms
R N Mustafin, R F Enikeeva, S B Malykh, R G Valinurov, E K Khusnutdinova
Molecular genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have demonstrated the involvement of multiple genes in the etiology of ADHD. A polygenic hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis was formulated without clear knowledge of common mechanisms of ADHD development. Twin, family and adoption studies have established the heritability of 70-80% for ADHD. Association studies have shown the relationship between ADHD and genes of dopaminergic (DRD4, DRD5, SLC6A3), serotoninergic (HTR1B, 5-HTTLPR), glutamatergic (mGluR, NDRG2) systems, metabolic pathways (SLC2A3, SLC6A4, CDH13, CFOD1, GFOD1), membrane proteins (KChIP1, ITGA1, SNAP-25) as well as tumour-suppressor (NDRG2, NF1) and cytokine genes...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Nela Van Donge, Natasha A Schvey, Timothy A Roberts, David A Klein
Introduction: Transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) youth are at greater risk for mental health and medical conditions than their cisgender peers; however, poor health outcomes and identity-based discrimination can be minimized in the context of optimal support. Approximately 1.7 million youth may be eligible for care covered by the Military Health System, which includes mental health and gender-affirming medications. The purpose of the current study is to identify sociodemographic characteristics, the psychosocial and behavioral risk profile, and health care utilization patterns of TGD dependent youth cared for in the U...
October 16, 2018: Military Medicine
Abby Pribish, Nadia Khalil, Rahul Mhaskar, Laurie Woodard, Abu-Sayeef Mirza
Variation between homeless populations due to socioeconomic and environmental factors necessitates tailoring medical, health policy, and public health interventions to the unique needs of the homeless population served. Despite the relatively large size of the homeless population in Florida, there is a paucity of research that characterizes the homeless population who frequent homeless clinics within the state. This project describes the demographics, disease prevalence, and other risk factors among homeless individuals in Tampa, Florida...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Krithika Chennapan, Samuel Mullinax, Eric Anderson, Mark J Landau, Kimberly Nordstrom, Rawle A Seupaul, Michael P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with psychiatric complaints often require medical screening to evaluate for a medical cause of their symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the existing literature on the medical screening of psychiatric patients and establish recommendations for ideal screening practices in Western-style EDs. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and were searched for clinical studies examining the medical screening of adult psychiatric patients in the ED or inappropriate referrals to psychiatry...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ai-Leng Foong, Kelly A Grindrod, Tejal Patel, Jamie Kellar
OBJECTIVE: To review the symptoms of serotonin toxicity (commonly referred to as serotonin syndrome ) and the causative drugs and their mechanisms of action, and to equip primary care providers with practical strategies to prevent and identify serotonin toxicity. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles on serotonin toxicity, the causes, and the differential diagnosis using search terms related to serotonin toxicity ( serotonin syndrome, serotonin toxicity, serotonin overdose ), causes (individual names of drug classes, individual drug names), and diagnosis ( differential diagnosis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, anticholinergic toxicity, discontinuation syndrome, malignant hyperthermia, serotonin symptoms )...
October 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Sara Gasparini, Ettore Beghi, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Massimiliano Beghi, Vincenzo Belcastro, Klaus P Biermann, Gabriella Bottini, Giuseppe Capovilla, Rosa A Cervellione, Vittoria Cianci, Giangennaro Coppola, Cesare M Cornaggia, Pasquale De Fazio, Salvatore De Masi, Giovambattista De Sarro, Maurizio Elia, Giuseppe Erba, Lucia Fusco, Antonio Gambardella, Valentina Gentile, Anna T Giallonardo, Renzo Guerrini, Francesca Ingravallo, Alfonso Iudice, Angelo Labate, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Adriana Magaudda, Laura Mumoli, Costanza Papagno, Giovanni B Pesce, Eugenio Pucci, Pietrantonio Ricci, Antonino Romeo, Rui Quintas, Chiara Sueri, Giovanna Vitaliti, Riccardo Zoia, Umberto Aguglia
BACKGROUND: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a diagnostic scheme for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The debate on ethical aspects of the diagnostic procedures is ongoing, the treatment is not standardized, and management might differ according to the age groups. OBJECTIVE: To reach an expert and stakeholder consensus on PNES management. METHODS: A board comprising adult and child neurologists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, pharmacologists, experts in forensic medicine and bioethics as well as patients' representatives was formed...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
E Schmutzhard, B Pfausler
A severe, often fatal encephalitis needs to be extensively and carefully clarified, especially when it occurs in a patient weeks or months after an organ transplantation. If the donor was viremic at the time of the organ removal or living viruses were present in the organ tissue, many viruses can be transferred to the organ recipient. This has been repeatedly reported in recent years and decades. In this overview rabies is discussed as a particularly important form of viral encephalitis, which is transferred via organs and always has a fatal outcome, because patients carry a high risk of infection for all caregivers...
October 1, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Mitchel Otieno Okumu, Minal Naran Patel, Foram Rajnkant Bhogayata, Irene Awuor Olweny, Francis Okumu Ochola, Joshua Orungo Onono
The emergency department (ED) of the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JOOTRH) handles many cases of poisoning. However, there is scant information on the factors, agents, and outcomes of poisoning at the hospital. The aim of this work was to determine the factors, agents, and outcomes of poisoning at JOOTRH. Records of patients who presented to JOOTRH with symptoms of poisoning between January 2011 and December 2016 were retrieved. Data on age, gender, offending agents, time, and season of exposure were collected...
September 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Miro Jakovljevic, Fran Borovecki
Personalized or precision medicine is a relatively new promising concept which is gaining momentum in all branches of medicine including psychiatry and neurology. Psychiatry and neurology are medical specialties dealing with diagnosis, prevention and treatment of brain disorders which are the main causes of years lived with disability worldwide as well as shortened life. Despite a huge progress in clinical psychopharmacology and neuropharmacology, the treatment outcome for many psychiatric disorders and neurologic diseases has remained unsatisfactory...
September 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Niels Rokkjær, Søren Sølund
PURPOSE: It is an established consensus that patients suffering from Severe Mental Illness (SMI) often have somatic comorbidities and a shortened life expectancy. In this study, we examine to what extent previously unknown comorbidities can be revealed if patients suffering from SMI are examined by a specialist in general medicine using the new clinical tool of Systematic Somatic Examinations of Psychiatric Patients (SSEPP). METHODS: SSEPP is a detailed, in-depth questioning and clinical evaluation performed by a specialist in General medicine...
September 27, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Shuji Matsumoto
Balneotherapy is a treatment with healing waters, which includes bathing and physiotherapy in thermal water, therapeutic drinks, medical massage, and water jet massage. It is based on the buoyancy, physical properties, temperature, and chemical effects of mineral water. Throughout European and Japanese medical institutions, balneology and hot spring therapy is very much a part of routine medical treatment. The mechanism of balneotherapy is not yet completely understood. Balneotherapeutic procedures are mainly performed for the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal diseases, but they have also proven useful for various other indications such as for the treatment or rehabilitation of dermatological diseases, immuno-inflammatory diseases, chronic pain syndromes, chronic cardiac diseases, and metabolic syndromes or neurological diseases as well as in the rehabilitation of patients with psychiatric conditions...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Meriem Abderrahmane, Philippe Zhang, Sanae Mazouri-Karker
Modern communication technologies have opened up new perspectives for modern medicine. Developed and used in many countries since the 1990s, teleconsultation responds to societal change. It facilitates communication between doctors but also between doctors and patients. It helps to improve access to care and reduce health costs. The studies showing its interest in practice are numerous as for example: follow-up of chronic diseases, psychiatric follow-up or post-operative follow-up in outpatient surgery, etc...
September 26, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Gregory L Fricchione
Clinical neuroscience struggles with poor scientific validity of neuropsychiatric diagnosis and its negative impact on management. Sydenham's ancient conformity of type approach to nosology with its assumption that the symptom cluster and course of a disorder are due to a common etiology, has proven no match for the complicated comorbidities faced in neuropsychiatry. In the absence of accurate pathological biomarkers there is a challenge in finding a solid foundation for modern neuropsychiatry. We find standard psychiatric nosology to be of limited benefit at the general hospital bedside in evaluating and treating neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 2018: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Raúl Montoya-Chinchilla, Álvaro Caballero-González, Leandro Reina-Alcaina, Asensio García-Nicolás, Pablo Velilla-Asurmendi, María Dolores Piqueras-Acevedo, Inés Bello-Pombo, Antonio Rosino-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: Due to the scarcity of scientific articles that review the technical alternatives available for aesthetic modifications in the penis that are the cause of subsequent uro-andrological problems, the existing literature is reviewed after the assistance of a penile infection by injection of subcutaneous hyaluronic acid with aesthetic purposes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 38-year-old male patient with no medical or psychiatric remarkable reports who came to the emergency room due to inflammation and abscess in penile skin after injection of hyaluronic acid...
September 20, 2018: Revista Internacional de Andrología
Stacy Todd, S Bertel Squire, Robert Bartlett, Peter Lepping
Background: Delusional infestation (DI) is a well-recognised delusional disorder presenting as the persisting belief in the presence of parasitic or other infestations. Combined clinics have been run by dermatology and psychiatry in a small number of centres. Here we report the first few years of a unique combined clinic run with experts in infectious diseases/tropical medicine and psychiatric management of DI. Methods: We reviewed all patients seen at the combined assessment clinics run at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine between 19 December 2011 and 31 October 2016...
September 20, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nicolas Franchitto, Benjamin Rolland, Fanny Pelissier, Nicolas Simon
Specialists in addiction medicine continue to debate whether baclofen is still indicated to treat alcohol use disorders in view of conflicting results as to its efficacy. This review summarizes current knowledge on self-poisoning with baclofen focusing of alcohol-use disorder in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on management of such an intoxication. Moreover, as alcohol-dependent patients experience many psychiatric co-morbidities, the risk in suicide attempt using baclofen seems real...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jarl Torgerson, Lise-Lotte Risö Bergerlind
Patients with severe mental illness suffer an increased somatic mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Furthermore, they are less likely to have adequate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for somatic disorders. Life style issues, side effects of pharmacotherapy, cognitive impairment and suboptimal organization of the health care system all contribute. In total, a challenging situation that has to be addressed by the health care system. In Region Västra Götaland, Sweden, new medical routines for psychiatric patients are currently implemented...
September 17, 2018: Läkartidningen
Alexander J Ehrenberg, Claudia K Suemoto, Elisa de Paula França Resende, Cathrine Petersen, Renata Elaine Paraizo Leite, Roberta Diehl Rodriguez, Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Michelle You, Jun Oh, Ricardo Nitrini, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Joel H Kramer, Jennifer R Gatchel, Lea T Grinberg
Clarifying the relationships between neuropsychiatric symptoms and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology may open avenues for effective treatments. Here, we investigate the odds of developing neuropsychiatric symptoms across increasing burdens of neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid-β pathology. Participants who passed away between 2004 and 2014 underwent comprehensive neuropathologic evaluation at the Biobank for Aging Studies from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of São Paulo. Postmortem interviews with reliable informants were used to collect information regarding neuropsychiatric and cognitive status...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Laurent Karila, Maude Marillier, Boris Chaumette, Joel Billieux, Nicolas Franchitto, Amine Benyamina
Synthetic opioids (SO) are a major risk for public health across the world. These drugs can be divided into 2 categories, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls. A new generation of SO has emerged on the drug market since 2010. North America is currently facing an opioid epidemic of morbi-mortality, caused by over-prescription of opioids, illegally diverted prescribed medicines, the increasing use of heroin and the emergence of SO. Furthermore, this opioid crisis is also seen in Europe. SO are new psychoactive substances characterized by different feature such as easy availability on the Internet, low price, purity, legality, and lack of detection in laboratory tests...
September 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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