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Psychiatric medicine

Bruce N Cuthbert
The PRISM (Psychiatric Ratings using Intermediate Stratified Markers) project was funded under the auspices of the European Union Innovative Medicine Initiative (EU-IMI) to explore quantitative approaches to the biological and behavioral aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders. PRISM focuses specifically on social withdrawal, although its principles are applicable to a wide range of disorders. This commentary explores some of the major aspects of the PRISM design from the perspective of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project initiated by the National Institute of Mental Health...
August 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
F Watson, C Rusbridge, R M A Packer, R A Casey, S Heath, H A Volk
Psychiatric comorbidities affect a large percentage of people with epilepsy and have a detrimental impact on their quality of life. Recently, behavioural comorbidities, with similar characteristics to human psychiatric diseases, have been identified in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. In particular, behaviours motivated by the fear-anxiety emotional system have been found to be associated with the occurrence of idiopathic epilepsy in both dogs receiving anti-epileptic drugs, and drug-naïve dogs. There has been little research into the relationship between epilepsy and behavioural signs, and even less into potential treatment protocols...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
Camilla Strøm, Jakob S Stefansson, Maria Louise Fabritius, Lars S Rasmussen, Thomas A Schmidt, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Short-stay units are hospital units that provide short-term care for selected patients. Studies have indicated that short-stay units might reduce admission rates, time of hospital stays, hospital readmissions and expenditure without compromising the quality of care. Short-stay units are often defined by a target patient category, a target function, and a target time frame. Hypothetically, short-stay units could be established as part of any department, but this review focuses on short-stay units that provide care for participants with internal medicine diseases and conditions...
August 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Najla Halouani, Mariem Turki, Rihab Ennaoui, Jihène Aloulou, Othman Amami
Anesthesia and intensive care medicine is considered one of the specialties involving more professional stress (PS). On this basis, our study aimed to assess the level of anxiety and PS in the personnel in anesthesia and intensive care and to identify the associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study including 54 participants (38 technicians and 16 residents) working in the Departments of Anesthesia and Intensive Care at Habib Bourguiba and Hedi Chaker University Hospitals, Sfax, Tunisia...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Rajan Kharb, Lokesh S Shekhawat, Ram Pratap Beniwal, Triptish Bhatia, Smita N Deshpande
Background: The role of craving in alcohol dependence and its relationship with relapse has been studied widely in the past decade. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of craving in short-term relapse of patients seeking treatment for alcohol dependence and changes in craving score at the end of detoxification and at follow-up. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 male individuals with alcohol dependence (excluding comorbid drug dependence, organic or psychiatric disorder), after detoxification and discharge, consented...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Kenji Sugiyama, Takao Nozaki, Tetsuya Asakawa, Tetsuro Sameshima, Schinichiro Koizumi, Hisaya Hiramatsu, Hiroki Namba
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat symptoms by modulating the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop in the central nervous system (CNS), and attempts to research loop circuit disorders have been globally initiated among the intractable neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS treatment has been evaluated for all these newly found CNS loop circuit disorders. In 2011, neurosurgical treatments for psychiatric disorders were renamed from "psychosurgery" to "neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders (NPD)" by the World Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (WSSFN)...
August 9, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Regis Airault, Thomas H Valk
Background: Travel-related psychosis (TrP) can be difficult for both the traveller and treating clinician. This review focuses upon a particular subset of TrP occurring during travel to destinations with high religious, spiritual, cultural or aesthetic value (high valence destinations) because it is both interesting and informative. Method: Psychiatric, occupational and travel medicine literature was reviewed using PubMed with search terms of 'travel' AND 'psychosis' and 'international travel' AND 'psychosis' from 1998 to the present...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Kay Seden, Daniel Kiiza, Eva Laker, Walter J Arinaitwe, Catriona Waitt, Mohammed Lamorde, Saye Khoo
Background: Efavirenz-related nervous system or psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are conventionally reported to resolve soon after initiation, with incidence of dizziness at 8.5% in large clinical trials. Patients of black ethnicity are genetically at greater risk of elevated efavirenz exposure, which has been linked to nervous system toxicity. Patients and methods: The current data derive from a prospective longitudinal observational study of adult HIV-positive outpatients taking current antiretrovirals, at three diverse clinics in central Uganda...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
L Tönges, D Bartig, S Muhlack, W Jost, R Gold, C Krogias
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and the fastest-growing neurological disease in the world. The diagnostic spectrum, demographic characteristics, comorbidities and case number developments of inpatient treatment in Germany with resulting implications for patient care have so far been insufficiently investigated. METHODS: Data from the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) statistics were analyzed in patients with a main and secondary diagnosis of primary Parkinson's syndrome (PS), secondary PS or other degenerative disease of the basal ganglia...
August 6, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Julie-Anne Tanner, Paige E Davies, Nicholas C Voudouris, Anashe Shahmirian, Deanna Herbert, Nicole Braganza, Ana Gugila, Bryan M Dechairo, James L Kennedy
Failed medication trials are common in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD); however, the use of combinatorial pharmacogenomics to guide medication selection has been previously associated with improved outcomes in the psychiatric care setting. The utility of combinatorial pharmacogenomics in patients with MDD in primary care and psychiatric care settings was evaluated here. Patients enrolled in a naturalistic, open-label, prospective study [Individualized Medicine: Pharmacogenetics Assessment and Clinical Treatment (IMPACT)] with MDD were evaluated (N = 1871)...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Christopher Baethge, Markus Deckert, Andreas Stang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reporting of statistical inference in psychiatry. METHOD: We searched 63,928 abstracts, published in 15 leading psychiatric journals (1975-2015). RESULTS: Median abstract length increased from 664 (1975) to 1,323 (2015) characters, and median use of numbers from two to 14/abstract. A total of 3.6% of all abstracts exclusively contained significance terminology in a nonstatistical sense, and 45% showed some form of statistical inference, increasing from 26% to 52%...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Heshu Abdullah-Koolmees, Helga Gardarsdottir, Lotte A Minnema, Kamjar Elmi, Lennart J Stoker, Judith Vuyk, Laurette E Goedhard, Toine C G Egberts, Eibert R Heerdink
Background: Prediction of rehospitalization in patients treated with antipsychotics is important for identifying patients in need of additional support to prevent hospitalization. Our aim was to identify factors that predict rehospitalization in patients treated with antipsychotics at discharge from a psychiatric hospital. Methods: Adult patients suffering from schizophrenia, psychotic or bipolar I disorders who had been hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital for ⩾7 days and were treated with oral antipsychotics at discharge were included...
August 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Sara Qadeer, Shaista Emad, Tahira Perveen, Sarwat Yousuf, Sheeza Sheikh, Yousra Sarfaraz, Sana Sadaf, Saida Haider
Stress has become an integral feature of everyday living. Each individual that lives encounters some manifestation of stress in life. Stress causes certain alterations in the structure and functions of the body and is considered to be a major factor in many health problems. Many synthetic and natural compounds are used for the attenuation of stress induced changes in the body. Medicinal plants are used since ancient times to prevent from neurological disorders. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is very efficacious and possesses the ability to improve several neurological disorders...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Anna Rebecca Mattinson, Sarah Jane Cheeseman
Delivering high quality care in acute psychiatry requires a coordinated approach from a multidisciplinary team (MDT). Weekly ward rounds are an important forum for reviewing a patient's progress and developing a personalised care plan for the coming week. In general medicine, structured ward rounds and check lists have been shown to prevent omissions and improve patient safety; however, they are not widely used in psychiatry. At the Royal Edinburgh Hospital, the format of ward rounds differed between psychiatry wards and clinical teams, and care plans were not standardised...
2018: BMJ open quality
Andrew T Gabrielson, Rita A Sartor, Wayne J G Hellstrom
BACKGROUND: Individually, thyroid disease and sexual dysfunction are common conditions that can have a detrimental effect on quality of life. Recent reports have documented an increased prevalence of sexual dysfunction among patients with thyroid disorders. As such, it is important for sexual medicine physicians to be primed on the presentation of patients with overlying sexual and thyroid dysfunction to allow for proper management. AIM: To review the available literature exploring the relationship between thyroid disease and sexual dysfunction in men and women...
July 26, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Jennifer Radden
The first decades of the 21st century have seen increasing dissatisfaction with the diagnostic psychiatry of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSMs). The aim of the present discussion is to identify one source of these problems within the history of medicine, using melancholy and syphilis as examples. Coinciding with the 19th-century beginnings of scientific psychiatry, advances that proved transformative and valuable for much of the rest of medicine arguably engendered, and served to entrench, mistaken, and misleading conceptions of psychiatric disorder...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Anastasia Levchenko, Innokentiy S Losenkov, Natalia M Vyalova, German G Simutkin, Nikolay A Bokhan, Bob Wilffert, Anton Jm Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Purpose: GSK3B and AKT1 genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Furthermore, their genetic variants are associated with response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. As the evidence is still incomplete and inconsistent, continuing efforts to investigate the role of these two genes in the pathogenesis and treatment of brain disorders is necessary. The aim of our study was thus to evaluate the association of variants of these two genes with depressive disorders and drug treatment response...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Vahap Ozan Kotan, Zeynep Kotan, Gamze Özçürümez Bilgili
The diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry practice which are used worldwide extensively, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) are far away from the psychoanalytical point of view. It is thought that this gap results in the difficulty to understand psychiatric patients in clinical practice for many years. It has also created an obstacle to scientific researches addressing the validity and reliability of the psychoanalytical principles...
March 2018: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
Tetsuya Akaishi
Overlap of multiple mental disorders in each psychiatric patient has been emphasized and the style of assessment and intervention in each patient has been gradually changed. A new practical structured model that can comprehensively explain and assess the major mental disorders integratedly has been desired. In this report, the relationships between each of the major mental disorders and each neuropsychiatric component like personality, reward system, or reinforcement learning have been comprehensively reviewed to construct a new integrated structured model for assessing the overlapped mental conditions in primary care psychiatry...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Tilman Wetterling, Klaus Junghanns
OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is an increasing challenge in geriatric medicine, also in psychiatric patients. The question arises where an adequate treatment should be carried out. METHODS: This exploratory study was part of the Gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of all admissions of older inpatients (>65 years) to a psychiatric hospital within 3 years. A total of 1266 admissions to a hospital in Berlin could be analyzed. RESULTS: Of the patients primarily admitted to the psychiatric department, 17...
July 20, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
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