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Psychiatric medicine

Patrick V Stutz, Lalit Kumar Golani, Jeffrey M Witkin
Fatigue is common in a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression and often continues unabated even after primary symptoms of disease are treated. Its high estimated prevalence combined with the lack of effective medicines has engaged the preclinical research community to search for fatigue models. The present review briefly summarizes the most common animal models that have been brought forward along with some of the associated pharmacological validation data. Like all preclinical models, these models have issues that need to be appreciated in the generation and interpretation of data for the purposes of translation to human disease; specifically, there are deficiencies in construct validity, a lack of medicines that effectively address residual fatigue symptoms, and difficulties in defining specificity with respect to drug effects on fatigue per se...
December 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Linden Spital, Robert Chang, Anupama Goyal
OBJECTIVES: The increasing behavioral acuity and complexity of hospitalized patients overwhelms providers' capacity to effectively manage their behaviors. Hospitals must train their providers in how to cope with these behaviors to provide high-quality care. In addition to improved patient care, increased capacity to manage these challenging patients may improve resilience and reduce the risk and rates of provider burnout. We created a novel service to address this need via point-of-care resources...
December 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Des Spence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Agnes Monica Victor
PURPOSE: Telemedicine in psychiatry is a validated and effective practice of medicine that increases access to health care. Telepsychiatry is also termed as telemental health or E-mental health using video conferencing which is broadly defined to provide and support psychiatric mental health services across distances. The consumption of knowledge in the mental health field has been renowned sporadically since the sixth decade of the last century. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: It is imperative for nurses to see the telehealth technology as a medium for care, and not a tool to replace high-quality nursing practices...
November 26, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Stefan Gebhardt, Ilka Dammann, Klaus Loescher, Peter M Wehmeier, Helmut Vedder, Richard von Georgi
OBJECTIVES: Music therapy is a well-established non-verbal treatment method in psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine. However, empirical data of its impact on emotion modulation processes and personality dimensions are still sparce. An interesting concept is the use of music for emotion modulation in everyday life. The purpose of this interim study was to assess the interplay of personality dimensions and emotion modulation strategies in patients treated with music therapy versus patients without music therapy...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Paul-Jer Chen
Generally regarding as a safe treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) for the past 20 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is also an example of precision medicine where surgeons need to titrate individual patient's stimulating electrodes one by one down to the scale of micrometer for the maximum therapeutic effect. In order to prevent operation induced psychiatric complications and minimize any other potential side effects, we have followed 103 patients received this treatment provided by a single surgeon in the same medical institution from 2004 to 2017...
December 2018: BioMedicine
Danilo De Gregorio, Justine P Enns, Nicolas A Nuñez, Luca Posa, Gabriella Gobbi
Depression and anxiety are psychiatric diagnoses commonly associated with low quality of life and low percentage of responsiveness by patients treated with currently available drugs. Thus, research into alternative compounds to treat these disorders is essential to guarantee a patient's remission. The last decade has witnessed a revamped interest for the application of psychedelic medicine for the treatment of mental disorders due to anecdotal reports and clinical studies which show that low doses of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin may have antidepressant effects...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Kornelia Kajary, Sarolta Szekeres, Mate Lazar, Andrea Nemeth, Hajna Galgoczy, Peter Molnar, Zsolt Lengyel
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a medical imaging method belonging to the realm of nuclear medicine. It has been a clinical research tool since the sixties but during the late nineties it became widely utilized in clinical practice too. PET technique requires special radioactive isotopes, which may be generated only in particle accelerators (cyclotrons) and their transport is limited owing to the short physical half-life. PET/CT was born from the combination of PET and CT (computer tomography). The first combined PET/CT scanner began to operate in 1998 and the method has been used in clinical practice since 2001...
September 2018: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Florian J Raabe, Sabrina Galinski, Sergi Papiol, Peter G Falkai, Andrea Schmitt, Moritz J Rossner
Postmortem studies in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have revealed deficits in myelination, abnormalities in myelin gene expression and altered numbers of oligodendrocytes in the brain. However, gaining mechanistic insight into oligodendrocyte (OL) dysfunction and its contribution to SCZ has been challenging because of technical hurdles. The advent of individual patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), combined with the generation of in principle any neuronal and glial cell type, including OLs and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), holds great potential for understanding the molecular basis of the aetiopathogenesis of genetically complex psychiatric diseases such as SCZ and could pave the way towards personalized medicine...
November 19, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Fanni A Boros, Péter Klivényi, József Toldi, László Vécsei
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder. Despite the severe motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms and the great socioeconomic burden caused by the disease, available treatment is mainly symptomatic. The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the main metabolic route of tryptophan degradation, in the course of which several neuroactive compounds are generated. The imbalance of the neurotoxic and neuroprotectant metabolites can lead to excitotoxicity and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which both contribute to the progression of HD...
November 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Paolo Emilio Adami, Maria Rosaria Squeo, Filippo Maria Quattrini, Fernando Maria Di Paolo, Cataldo Pisicchio, Barbara Di Giacinto, Erika Lemme, Viviana Maestrini, Antonio Pelliccia
OBJECTIVE: To promote sports participation in young people, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) introduced the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in 2007. In 2009, the IOC Consensus Statement was published, which highlighted the value of periodic health evaluation in elite athletes. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a comprehensive protocol for illness and injury detection, tailored for adolescent athletes participating in Summer or Winter YOG. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, a total of 247 unique adolescent elite Italian athletes (53% females), mean age 16±1,0 years, competing in 22 summer or 15 winter sport disciplines, were evaluated through a tailored pre-participation health evaluation protocol, at the Sports Medicine and Science Institute of the Italian Olympic Committee...
November 17, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Eric Badu, Anthony Paul O'Brien, Rebecca Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: The importance of accessible mental health treatment is a global concern, particularly when one in five people will experience a mental health problem in their lifespan. This is no less important in Ghana; however, no studies have yet attempted to appraise and synthesise the potential enablers and barriers to accessing services in Ghana. The aim of this integrative review is therefore to identify and synthesise existing evidence on the barriers and enablers to accessing mental health services in Ghana...
November 16, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Halit Necmi Uçar, Şafak Eray, Ömer Kocael, Lütfi Uçar, Müslüm Kaymak, Emanuele Lettieri, Ayşe Pinar Vural
BACKGROUND: Fascinating developments in big data technologies and unprecedented diffusion of social networking sites (SNSs) generate unseen opportunities for scientific fields, including psychiatry. This study focuses on the use of SNSs by adolescent psychiatric patients and the potential use of SNS-generated data to help medical practitioners diagnose and treat patients' mental health. Our objective is to understand and measure the psychiatric and individual conditions in which symptom-sharing occurs on SNSs and the frequency of these conditions...
December 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Joel T Braslow, Luke Messac
A 55-year-old man, Mr. N. presented to the UCLA emergency department (ED) reporting auditory hallucinations and thoughts of suicide. This was his sixth visit to the UCLA ED over a period of a few months; each visit was precipitated by his losing his medication and experiencing worsening psychotic..
November 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Charlie L Swanson, Robert L Trestman
Assertive community treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based treatment for patients with severe and persistent mental illness. ACT has been shown to reduce inpatient hospitalization and is increasingly being used as a mainstay of evidence-based psychiatric practice for these clinical populations. The increasing implementation of evidence-based practices has led to the expansion of ACT in rural areas. Variability in the adaptation of ACT in rural areas has included accommodation by teams to multiple barriers. One way to increase psychiatric professional efficiency in rural areas is with telepsychiatry and possibly with rural ACT, but with unknown effects on fidelity and outcomes...
July 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Fatma Tuğçe Gürağaç Dereli, Mert Ilhan, Esra Küpeli Akkol
Depression, a risk factor for several serious diseases, is a highly prevalent and life-threatening psychiatric disorder. It can affect the individual's position in life and reduce the living standards. The research on the use of medicinal plants in treating this disease has increased enormously because of the possible low rehabilitation rate and side effects of available synthetic drugs, such as sexual dysfunction, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, hypersomnia, and weight gain. Therefore, this review aimed to draw attention to the antidepressant effects of culinary herbs and traditional medicinal plants and their active components, thereby promoting their use in the development of more potent antidepressants with improved side effect profile...
November 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ignacio Aznar-Lou, Maria Iglesias-González, Maria Rubio-Valera, M Teresa Peñarrubia-Maria, Juan M Mendive, Ana G Murrugarra-Centurión, Montserrat Gil-Girbau, Laura González-Suñer, Carmen Peuters, Antoni Serrano-Blanco
Objective: The study assessed the predictive factors of diagnostic accuracy and treatment approach (antidepressants versus active monitoring) for depression in primary care. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that uses information from a naturalistic prospective controlled trial performed in Barcelona (Spain) enrolling newly diagnosed patients with mild to moderate depression by GPs. Treatment approach was based on clinical judgement. Diagnosis was later assessed according to DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview by an external researcher...
November 12, 2018: Family Practice
Moon Joo Cheong, Sung-Eun Son, Hyung Won Kang, Youngseop Lee, Kwang-Ho Bae, Yeonseok Kang, Eun Mi Lee, Go-Eun Lee, Joo-Hee Seo, Hee-Wook Weon, Ji-Yoon Lee, Yeoung-Su Lyu
BACKGROUND: The heart continuously transmits information to the cerebrum during each pulse, and influences information processing such as perception, cognition, and emotion, which are processed in the cerebrum. This is the basis for the theory of oriental medicine widely used in psychiatric medicine and clinical practice, so-called Simjushinji (heart and brain) theory, that the heart controls the mind. The present study aims to analyze the correlation between heart and brain function by 24-hour active electrocardiogram and quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement under meditation...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Charles E Dean
Given the failure of psychiatry to develop clinically useful biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, and the concomitant failure to develop significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 2010 launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), a framework for research based on the assumption that mental disorders are disorders of identifiable brain neural circuits, with neural circuitry at the center of units of analysis ranging from genes, molecules, and cells to behavior, self-reports, and paradigms...
November 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Rachael Horne, Jane A Foster
Advances in understanding the role of the microbiome in physical and mental health are at the forefront of medical research and hold potential to have a direct impact on precision medicine approaches. In the past 7 years, we have studied the role of microbiota-brain communication on behavior in mouse models using germ-free mice, mice exposed to antibiotics, and healthy specific pathogen free mice. Through our work and that of others, we have seen an amazing increase in our knowledge of how bacteria signal to the brain and the implications this has for psychiatry...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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