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Neurological Illness

Duncan K Hau, Neema Chami, Aynsley Duncan, Luke R Smart, Adolfine Hokororo, Neema M Kayange, Robert N Peck
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of child mortality worldwide. Little is known about post-hospital outcomes after an index hospitalization for older children. We determined 12-month post-hospital mortality rate and identified factors associated with higher mortality. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled children 2-12 years of age admitted to the pediatric wards of two public hospitals in northwestern Tanzania. Participants or proxies were contacted at 3, 6 and 12 months post-hospitalization...
2018: PloS One
Joseph J Titano, Marcus Badgeley, Javin Schefflein, Margaret Pain, Andres Su, Michael Cai, Nathaniel Swinburne, John Zech, Jun Kim, Joshua Bederson, J Mocco, Burton Drayer, Joseph Lehar, Samuel Cho, Anthony Costa, Eric K Oermann
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of acute neurological illnesses such as stroke, hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus are critical to achieving positive outcomes and preserving neurologic function-'time is brain'1-5 . Although these disorders are often recognizable by their symptoms, the critical means of their diagnosis is rapid imaging6-10 . Computer-aided surveillance of acute neurologic events in cranial imaging has the potential to triage radiology workflow, thus decreasing time to treatment and improving outcomes...
August 13, 2018: Nature Medicine
Suzanne Gazda, David Lagoro Kitara
Introduction: Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a neurological disorder affecting children 5-15 years at onset in East Africa. A major criterion for diagnosis is atonic seizure with dorso-ventral "nodding" of the head. Comorbidities include psychological and behavioral abnormalities, malnutrition, cognitive decline, school dropout and other seizure types. We aimed to describe the presentations and rehabilitation outcomes of NS children at Hope for HumaNs (HfH) centre in Gulu from September 2012 to October 2013...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Darin D Dougherty
Deep brain stimulation has been used for decades in neurology to treat movement disorders. More recent work has focused on developing applications for deep brain stimulation in psychiatric illness. Initial studies have demonstrated positive results for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Initial open-label studies of deep brain stimulation at targets for treatment-resistant depression have been encouraging. However, the only 2 published controlled trials that were conducted for potential FDA approval for treatment-resistant depression were both negative...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mensur Osman Yassin
Nanomaterials (NMs) are receiving remarkable attention due to their unique properties and structure. They vary from atoms and molecules along with those of bulk materials. They can be engineered to act as drug delivery vehicles to cross blood-brain barriers (BBBs) and utilized with better efficacy and safety to deliver specific molecules into targeted cells as compared to conventional system for neurological disorders. Depending on their properties, various metal chelators, gold nanoparticles (NPs), micelles, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, microparticles, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes have been utilized for various purposes including the improvement of drug delivery system, treatment response assessment, diagnosis at early stage, and management of neurological disorder by using neuro-engineering...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Jasmine C Dowell, Kaushik Parvathaneni, Neal J Thomas, Robinder G Khemani, Nadir Yehya
OBJECTIVES: Investigations of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults suggest hypoxemia is an uncommon cause of death. However, the epidemiology of death in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is not well characterized. We aimed to describe the cause, mode, and timing of death in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome nonsurvivors. We hypothesized that most deaths would be due to nonpulmonary factors, rather than hypoxemia. DESIGN: Retrospective, decedent-only analysis...
August 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Owen D Gustafson, Matthew J Rowland, Peter J Watkinson, Stuart McKechnie, Simon Igo
OBJECTIVES: Identify the prevalence of shoulder impairment in ICU survivors within 6 months of discharge from ICU. Evaluate the impact of shoulder impairment on upper limb functional status in patients treated on an ICU. Identify risk factors for the development of shoulder impairment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary care medical-surgical-trauma ICU at a U.K. hospital over 18 months, with a further 6-month follow-up after hospital discharge...
August 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Andrea Wagner, Karl-Michael Schebesch, Florian Zeman, Stefan Isenmann, Andreas Steinbrecher, Thomas Kapapa, Dobri Baldaranov, Roland Backhaus, Felix Schlachetzki
Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) requires rapid decision making to decrease morbidity and mortality although time frame and optimal therapy are still ill defined. Ideally, specialized neurologists, neurosurgeons, and (neuro-) radiologists who know the patient's clinical status and their cerebral computed tomography imaging (cCT) make a joint decision on the clinical management. However, in telestroke networks, a shift toward cCT imaging criteria used for decision making can be observed for practical reasons...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Dmitri A Young, Linda Chao, Thomas C Neylan, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas J Metzler, Sabra S Inslicht
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with fear response system dysregulation. Research has shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may modulate the fear response and that individuals with PTSD have abnormalities in ACC structure and functioning. Our objective was to assess whether ACC volume moderates the relationship between PTSD and fear-potentiated psychophysiological response in a sample of Gulf War Veterans. 142 Veteran participants who were associated with a larger study associated with Gulf War Illness were exposed to no threat, ambiguous threat, and high threat conditions in a fear conditioned startle response paradigm and also provided MRI imaging data...
August 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Stephani Joy Y Macalino, Shaherin Basith, Nina Abigail B Clavio, Hyerim Chang, Soosung Kang, Sun Choi
The advent of advanced molecular modeling software, big data analytics, and high-speed processing units has led to the exponential evolution of modern drug discovery and better insights into complex biological processes and disease networks. This has progressively steered current research interests to understanding protein-protein interaction (PPI) systems that are related to a number of relevant diseases, such as cancer, neurological illnesses, metabolic disorders, etc. However, targeting PPIs are challenging due to their "undruggable" binding interfaces...
August 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thomas A Nakagawa, Sam D Shemie, Karen Dryden-Palmer, Christopher S Parshuram, Joe Brierley
OBJECTIVES: To describe important considerations during the process of caring for critically ill children who may be potential organ donors and supporting the family during the death of their child. DESIGN: Literature review and expert commentary. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Medical literature focusing on pediatric donation, best pediatric donation practices, donor management, and factors influencing donation were reviewed. Additional pediatric data were obtained and reviewed from the U...
August 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Chi-Cheng Huang, Jung-Cheng Hsu, Yen-Wen Wu, Shin-Rong Ke, Jih-Hsin Huang, Kuan-Ming Chiu, Pen-Chih Liao
BACKGROUND: The mortality of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and refractory cardiogenic shock (RCS) is high. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has shown some favorable results, but this may delay door-to-balloon (D2B) time. Whether the benefit surpasses the risk of longer D2B time remains controversial. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2014, there were 46 patients with STEMI RCS who received ECMO and PCI...
July 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Mateus Santana do Rosário, Marta Giovanetti, Pedro Antonio Pereira de Jesus, Daniel Santana Farias, Nuno R Faria, Clayton Pereira S de Lima, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Marcio Roberto Nunes, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara, Isadora Cristina de Siqueira
Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (OMAS) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by irregular multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus, cerebellar ataxia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction. While most commonly related to paraneoplastic syndrome, this condition has occasionally been described following infectious illnesses. Here we reported the first case of OMAS in association with Chikungunya and Dengue virus coinfection. The genetic analysis identified Chikungunya virus of East-Central-South-African genotype and DENV-4 virus genotype II...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Eirini D Tseligka, Komla Sobo, Luc Stoppini, Valeria Cagno, Fabien Abdul, Isabelle Piuz, Pascal Meylan, Song Huang, Samuel Constant, Caroline Tapparel
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease, a mild and self-limited illness that is sometimes associated with severe neurological complications. EV71 neurotropic determinants remain ill-defined to date. We previously identified a mutation in the VP1 capsid protein (L97R) that was acquired over the course of a disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. The mutation was absent in the respiratory tract but was present in the gut (as a mixed population) and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (as a dominant species)...
August 3, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
C Macit, P M Clark, N Taner, C Bingol, G Mercanoglu, G Yuksel
Background and Aim: Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders with a high prevalence. Epileptic people and their family members suffer more from social stigma than the disorder itself. Among various complex reasons knowledge and awareness about epilepsy are the two important factors underlying discriminatory attitudes towards epileptic people. Community pharmacists play a major role in the care of these patients. In this study we mainly aimed to gain insights into the knowledge and awareness of and attitudes (AKA) towards epilepsy both in epileptic and healthy individuals in an urban community...
August 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Michelle Hill, Jessica DeWitt
OBJECTIVE: To enhance nursing staff retention and ensure a consistently high standard of care, a study was conducted to determine an appropriate nurse staffing model for a neurocritical care unit. In addition to being critically ill, these patients often require extensive diagnostic testing to determine treatment. Nurses traveling with patients leave higher nurse-patient ratios remaining on the unit. METHODS: Prospective observation was used to assess relationships between neurologic assessment, documentation, and the amount of time spent traveling with patients...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Brin Freund, John C Probasco, Eva K Ritzl
OBJECTIVE Delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment of nonconvulsive seizures can lead to worsened outcomes. The gold standard in detecting nonconvulsive seizures is continuous video-electroencephalography (cEEG). Compared to routine, 30-minute EEG, the use of cEEG increases the likelihood of capturing intermittent nonconvulsive seizures. Studies of critically ill patients in intensive care units demonstrate a particularly high rate of nonconvulsive seizures. Some of these studies included postneurosurgical patients, but often subanalyses of specific populations were not done...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Aaron D Fobian, Lindsey Elliott
Functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD) is characterized by neurological symptoms that are unexplained by other traditional neurological or medical conditions. Both physicians and patients have limited understanding of FNSD, which is often explained as a physical manifestation of psychological distress. Recently, diagnostic criteria have shifted from requiring a preceding stressor to relying on positive symptoms. Given this shift, we have provided a review of the etiology of FNSD. Predisposing factors include trauma or psychiatric symptoms, somatic symptoms, illness exposure, symptom monitoring and neurobiological factors...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Xin Dang, Danielle Gilbert, Sylvie Lauzier, Igor J Koralnik, Louiselle LeBlanc
JC virus is the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a white matter demyelinating disease that mostly affects immunocompromised patients. JC virus can also infect neurons and meningeal cells and cause encephalitis, meningitis and granule cell neuronopathy. We report a patient with JC virus granule cell neuronopathy, without concomitant progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, presenting as inaugural acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related illness. This patient's human immunodeficiency virus infection remained undiagnosed for several months after neurological symptoms onset...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Johnathan Pierson, Rajashekar Reddy Yeruva, Rif S El-Mallakh
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that has been purported to be causally related to in utero infection of neurotropic organisms. For obvious ethical reasons, this hypothesis has never been tested prospectively in humans. However, with the recent introduction of Zika virus into the New World offers the opportunity to test the hypothesis infection hypothesis of schizophrenia. METHODS: This is a directed review examining the hypothesis. The literature relevant to Zika virus transmission in the New World, its biology, and neurotropy is reviewed...
July 27, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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