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Qinghai-TIbet Plateau

Da-Cheng Hao, Pei-Gen Xiao, Chang Liu
Around 70-80% of drugs used in traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) come from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the majority of which are plants. The biological and medicinal culture diversity on Qinghai Tibet Plateau are amazing and constitute a less tapped resource for innovative drug research and development. Meanwhile, the problem of the exhausting Tibetan medicine resources is worrying. Here, the latest awareness, as well as the gaps of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant issues in drug development and clinical usage of TTM compounds, was systematically reviewed and highlighted...
November 30, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Zhanhai Wang, Bin Lu, Xiaoye Jin, Jiangwei Yan, Haotian Meng, Bofeng Zhu
China is a multinational country composed of 56 ethnic groups of which the Han Chinese accounts for 91.60%. Qinghai Province is located in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has an area of 72.12 km2 , and is the fourth largest province in China. In the present study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a Qinghai Han population, as well as its genetic relationships with other populations. A total of 273 alleles were identified in 2 000 individuals at 20 loci, and the allelic frequency ranged from 0...
2018: Forensic sciences research
Huanfang Huang, Yang Ding, Wei Chen, Yuan Zhang, Wenwen Chen, Yingjie Chen, Yao Mao, Shihua Qi
This study revealed a two-way long-range atmospheric transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) rather than a single mode, in Western China. Soil and air samples were collected along a transect with length of ca. 1000 km between the Yellow River source in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. Concentrations of ΣOCPs in soils and air were detected to be 175-69,229 (median 567) pg/g dry weight and 33.6-271 (median 98.3) pg/m3 , respectively. HCB, HCHs, DDTs, and SULPHs (sum of Endosulfan-I, Endosulfan-II and Endosulfan sulfate) were dominant...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Ning Wang, Bo Sen Wang, Qin Zheng Hou, Xue Su, Shi Hu Zhang, Kun Sun
Reproductive isolation, the key process to prevent interspecific hybridization and keep the completeness and independence of species, is crucial to the formation and maintenance of biodiversity. The forming steps, methods and intensities of reproductive isolation between different species are not completely the same. Literatures on reproductive isolation between species provide valuable evidence for speciation and its maintenance. Flowering phenology, flowering-visiting insects, and pollen-stigma compatibility were observed for Ligularia virgaurea and L...
November 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ruiqi Yang, Gaosen Zhang, Shiweng Li, Faegheh Moazeni, Yunshi Li, Yongna Wu, Wei Zhang, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Binglin Zhang, Xiukun Wu
This study investigates the biodegradation of crude oil by a mixed culture of bacteria isolated from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and the gravimetric method. The results showed that a mixed culture has a stronger ability to degrade hydrocarbon than pure cultures. Once both Nocardia soli Y48 and Rhodococcus erythropolis YF28-1 (8) were present in a culture, the culture demonstrated the highest crude oil removal efficiency of almost 100% after 10 days of incubation at 20 °C...
November 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jian-Qiu Li, Li Li, Yan-Lei Fan, Bao-Quan Fu, Xing-Quan Zhu, Hong-Bin Yan, Wan-Zhong Jia
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a highly endemic area of alveolar echinococcosis where a series of intermediate hosts, especially voles and pikas, are infected with Echinococcus multilocularis . The metacestodes of E. multilocularis are fluid-filled, asexually proliferating cysts, and they are mainly found in the host's liver in the form of tumor-like growths. In this study, we investigated the genetic variations of E. multilocularis in four mitochondrial (mt) genes, namely, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 ( nad 5), adenosine triphosphate subunit 6 ( atp 6), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( cox 1), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 ( nad 1)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yanjun Shen, Nicolas Hubert, Yan Huang, Xuzheng Wang, Xiaoni Gan, Zuogang Peng, Shunping He
Intensification of inland fisheries and aquatic landscape conversion led to a drastic decline of fish populations in the Yangtze River (YR) during the last decades. This situation urges for the development of a large-scale molecular assessment of YR ichthyofauna to further develop standardized methods of molecular identification for conservation and fisheries management purposes. We present here the results of a large-scale campaign to DNA barcode YR freshwater fishes that succeeded in producing 1,424 new DNA barcodes for 123 species...
October 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Xiaoxia Wang, Jing Yang, Shan Lu, Xin-He Lai, Dong Jin, Ji Pu, Gui Zhang, Ying Huang, Wentao Zhu, Xiaomin Wu, Hao Liang, Jianguo Xu
In the present study, we describe two novel Gram-stain-positive, irregular rod-shaped bacterial strains, 78T and 601, that had been isolated from the faeces of Tibetan antelopes at the Hoh Xil Nature Reserve, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. The cells were aerobic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. When cultured on brain-heart infusion agar supplemented with 5 % sheep blood, colonies were cream in colour, circular, smooth and convex. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length 16S rRNA sequences revealed that type strain 78T and strain 601 belong to the genus Nocardioides, sharing the highest similarity to Nocardioides solisilvae JCM 31492T (98...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Dafu Ru, Yongshuai Sun, Donglei Wang, Yang Chen, Tianjing Wang, Quanjun Hu, Richard J Abbott, Jianquan Liu
An increasing number of species are thought to have originated by homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS), but in only a handful of cases are details of the process known. A previous study indicated that Picea purpurea, a conifer in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), originated through HHS from P. likiangensis and P. wilsonii. To investigate this origin in more detail, we analysed transcriptome data for 114 individuals collected from 34 populations of the three Picea species from their core distributions in the QTP...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Xiangli Meng, Xin-He Lai, Shan Lu, Sha Liu, Cuixia Chen, Donggen Zhou, Jing Yang, Dong Jin, Jianguo Xu
A novel, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped strain (VUL4_3T ) was isolated from rectal swabs of Old World vultures (Aegypius monachus) from the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, China. Based on the results of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, strain VUL4_3T was determined to be a member of the genus Actinomyces that is closely related to the type strains of Actinomyces liubingyangii (97.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Actinomyces marimammalium (96...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yuan Meng, Xiaohui Liu, Shaoyong Lu, Tingting Zhang, Baichuan Jin, Qiao Wang, Zhurui Tang, Ying Liu, Xiaochun Guo, Junli Zhou, Beidou Xi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residues have attracted attention worldwide. This study summarizes the current levels of PAH exposure in the water environments of lakes. In addition, the risk levels from individual PAHs and ΣPAHs in the water environments of lakes in China were evaluated by incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) assessment, the toxic equivalent concentration (TEQBaP ), the risk quotient (RQ), the effects range-low (ERL) and the effects range-median (ERM). The results showed that the concentrations of ∑PAHs in water and sediment ranged from 4...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Licong Dai, Xiaowei Guo, Yangong Du, Fawei Zhang, Xun Ke, Yingfang Cao, Yikang Li, Qian Li, Li Lin, Guangmin Cao
The Qinghai-Tibet plateau has the world's largest area of seasonally frozen ground. Here, shallow groundwater displays behavior that is distinct from that elsewhere in the world. In the present study, we explore the seasonal and interannual variation of the shallow groundwater levels from 2012 to 2016, and attempt to quantitatively evaluate the relative influences of individual driving factors on the shallow groundwater levels based on boosted regression trees. The results show that: (1) on a seasonal scale, the groundwater levels were characterized by a double peak and double valley relationship, while on an interannual scale the groundwater levels showed a slightly downwards trend from 2012 to 2016; and (2) during the frozen period, the seasonal variation of groundwater levels was determined by mean air temperature through its effect on the soil thaw-freeze process, accounting for 53...
October 16, 2018: Ground Water
Dong-Rui Jia, Igor V Bartish
Migrations from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) to other temperate regions represent one of the main biogeographical patterns for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the ages and routes of these migrations are largely not known. We aimed to reconstruct a well-resolved and dated phylogeny of Hippophae L. (Elaeagnaceae) and test hypothesis of a westward migration of this plant out of the QTP across Eurasian mountains in the Miocene. We produced two data matrices of five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and five nuclear DNA markers for all distinct taxa of Hippophae ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jing Yang, Jingwen Bai, Meiyu Liu, Yang Chen, Shoutong Wang, Qiyong Yang
In this study, an improved standard addition method (ISAM) was developed for the determination of phosphorus in soil by ICP-OES based on the conventional standard addition method (CSAM) and calibration curve method (CCM). Certified standard soils were analyzed by the proposed ISAM method. The values obtained by ISAM method agreed with the certified values. Additionally, the results obtained by ISAM method were compared with those determined by the other two methods (CSAM and CCM). All the values obtained by the ISAM agreed with those from the other two methods...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Wenping Sheng, Lin Zhen, Yu Xiao, Yunfeng Hu
The Three Rivers Source Region, in the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has a sensitive and fragile ecological environment. Adverse changes in climate and human activities have degraded the grassland ecosystems. To mitigate or reverse the degradation, alleviate rural poverty, and stimulate economic development, ecological restoration projects have been implemented. In the present study, our goal was to assess the ecological and socioeconomic effects of these programs based on land-use change, grassland NPP, and household surveys...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Leiming Li, Jun Wu, Jian Lu, Xiuyun Min, Juan Xu, Long Yang
Environmental quality of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has attracted more attention due to increasing anthropogenic disturbance. Therefore, this study investigated the distribution, pollution, ecological risks, and bioaccumulation of 12 target heavy metals and 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in soils of this area. The average concentrations of target trace elements in soils ranged from 0.16 (Hg) to 500.46 (Cr) mg/kg. Pb caused more serious pollution than the other elements based on geo-accumulation index evaluation...
September 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jingye Shang, Guangjia Zhang, Wenjie Yu, Wei He, Qian Wang, Bo Zhong, Qi Wang, Sha Liao, Ruirui Li, Fan Chen, Yan Huang
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are highly co-endemic in Sichuan, a part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where is a typical Tibetan nomadic community living area. In order to better understand the Echinococcus spp. of human being infected origins in this area, 140 lesions were collected from echinococcosis patients who were received operations during the period of 2014-2016 in different geographic districts in this region. Partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene were analyzed...
September 29, 2018: Acta Tropica
Penghai Qiao, Wen Qin, Huiqin Ma, Tongzuo Zhang, Jianping Su, Gonghua Lin
Lithobius (Ezembius) longibasitarsus sp. n. and Lithobius (Ezembius) datongensis sp. n. (Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae), recently discovered from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, are described. A key to the species of the subgenus Ezembius in China is presented. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for eight individuals of the two new species and the dataset was used for molecular phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance determination. Both morphology and molecular data show that the specimens examined should be referred to Lithobius (Ezembius)...
2018: ZooKeys
Yan Zhou, Shengwu Jiao, Nana Li, John Grace, Meng Yang, Cai Lu, Xuemeng Geng, Xinwei Zhu, Li Zhang, Guangchun Lei
This paper demonstrates the impact of an endemic fossorial animal, plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), on soil properties and N2O flux at the Zoige Wetland. Pika burrow and control sites without disturbance by pika were selected to measure the soil water content, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), NH4-N content and NO3-N content in August 2012. N2O fluxes were measured with static opaque chambers at these sites in June and August 2012. Pika burrowing altered soil aeration by transferring deeper soil to the surface and by constructing underground burrows, which significantly increased bulk density, and reduced soil water content, SOM and NH4-N content at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil depth...
2018: PloS One
Ruixia Dai, Meiying Qi, Haoming Xiong, Xiaoyan Yang, Jian He, Zhikai Zhang, Hanqing Yang, Juan Jin, Xiang Li, Youquan Xin, Yonghai Yang, Cunxiang Li, Zhenjun Li, Jianguo Xu, Zuyun Wang, Wei Li, Baiqing Wei
The plague, which is caused by the Gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been classified as a reemerging infectious disease by the World Health Organization. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau natural plague focus is the largest plague focus in China, and Marmota himalayana is the primary host of the plague. Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) were first identified as naturally infected hosts of Y. pestis based on etiological evidence in 1975, and activities such as slaughtering or skinning Tibetan sheep that have been infected by Y...
September 25, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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