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Qinghai-TIbet Plateau

Yuan Meng, Xiaohui Liu, Shaoyong Lu, Tingting Zhang, Baichuan Jin, Qiao Wang, Zhurui Tang, Ying Liu, Xiaochun Guo, Junli Zhou, Beidou Xi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residues have attracted attention worldwide. This study summarizes the current levels of PAH exposure in the water environments of lakes. In addition, the risk levels from individual PAHs and ΣPAHs in the water environments of lakes in China were evaluated by incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) assessment, the toxic equivalent concentration (TEQBaP ), the risk quotient (RQ), the effects range-low (ERL) and the effects range-median (ERM). The results showed that the concentrations of ∑PAHs in water and sediment ranged from 4...
October 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Licong Dai, Xiaowei Guo, Yangong Du, Fawei Zhang, Xun Ke, Yingfang Cao, Yikang Li, Qian Li, Li Lin, Guangmin Cao
The Qinghai-Tibet plateau (QTP) has the world's largest area of seasonally frozen ground. Here, shallow groundwater displays behavior that is distinct from that elsewhere in the world. In the present study, we explore the seasonal and interannual variation of the shallow groundwater levels from 2012 to 2016, and attempt to quantitatively evaluate the relative influences of individual driving factors on the shallow groundwater levels based on boosted regression trees (BRT). The results show that: (1) on a seasonal scale, the groundwater levels were characterized by a double peak and double valley relationship, while on an interannual scale the groundwater levels showed a slightly downwards trend from 2012 to 2016; and (2) during the frozen period, the seasonal variation of groundwater levels was determined by mean air temperature through its effect on the soil thaw-freeze process, accounting for 53...
October 16, 2018: Ground Water
Dong-Rui Jia, Igor V Bartish
Migrations from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) to other temperate regions represent one of the main biogeographical patterns for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the ages and routes of these migrations are largely not known. We aimed to reconstruct a well-resolved and dated phylogeny of Hippophae L. (Elaeagnaceae) and test hypothesis of a westward migration of this plant out of the QTP across Eurasian mountains in the Miocene. We produced two data matrices of five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and five nuclear DNA markers for all distinct taxa of Hippophae ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jing Yang, Jingwen Bai, Meiyu Liu, Yang Chen, Shoutong Wang, Qiyong Yang
In this study, an improved standard addition method (ISAM) was developed for the determination of phosphorus in soil by ICP-OES based on the conventional standard addition method (CSAM) and calibration curve method (CCM). Certified standard soils were analyzed by the proposed ISAM method. The values obtained by ISAM method agreed with the certified values. Additionally, the results obtained by ISAM method were compared with those determined by the other two methods (CSAM and CCM). All the values obtained by the ISAM agreed with those from the other two methods...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Wenping Sheng, Lin Zhen, Yu Xiao, Yunfeng Hu
The Three Rivers Source Region, in the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has a sensitive and fragile ecological environment. Adverse changes in climate and human activities have degraded the grassland ecosystems. To mitigate or reverse the degradation, alleviate rural poverty, and stimulate economic development, ecological restoration projects have been implemented. In the present study, our goal was to assess the ecological and socioeconomic effects of these programs based on land-use change, grassland NPP, and household surveys...
September 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Leiming Li, Jun Wu, Jian Lu, Xiuyun Min, Juan Xu, Long Yang
Environmental quality of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has attracted more attention due to increasing anthropogenic disturbance. Therefore, this study investigated the distribution, pollution, ecological risks, and bioaccumulation of 12 target heavy metals and 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in soils of this area. The average concentrations of target trace elements in soils ranged from 0.16 (Hg) to 500.46 (Cr) mg/kg. Pb caused more serious pollution than the other elements based on geo-accumulation index evaluation...
September 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shang Jingye, Zhang Guangjia, Yu Wenjie, He Wei, Wang Qian, Zhong Bo, Wang Qi, Liao Sha, Li Ruirui, Chen Fan, Huang Yan
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are highly co-endemic in Sichuan, a part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where is a typical Tibetan nomadic community living area. In order to better understand the Echinococcus spp. of human being infected origins in this area, 140 lesions were collected from echinococcosis patients who were received operations during the period of 2014-2016 in different geographic districts in this region. Partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene were analyzed...
September 29, 2018: Acta Tropica
Penghai Qiao, Wen Qin, Huiqin Ma, Tongzuo Zhang, Jianping Su, Gonghua Lin
Lithobius (Ezembius) longibasitarsus sp. n. and Lithobius (Ezembius) datongensis sp. n. (Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae), recently discovered from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, are described. A key to the species of the subgenus Ezembius in China is presented. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for eight individuals of the two new species and the dataset was used for molecular phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance determination. Both morphology and molecular data show that the specimens examined should be referred to Lithobius (Ezembius)...
2018: ZooKeys
Yan Zhou, Shengwu Jiao, Nana Li, John Grace, Meng Yang, Cai Lu, Xuemeng Geng, Xinwei Zhu, Li Zhang, Guangchun Lei
This paper demonstrates the impact of an endemic fossorial animal, plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), on soil properties and N2O flux at the Zoige Wetland. Pika burrow and control sites without disturbance by pika were selected to measure the soil water content, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), NH4-N content and NO3-N content in August 2012. N2O fluxes were measured with static opaque chambers at these sites in June and August 2012. Pika burrowing altered soil aeration by transferring deeper soil to the surface and by constructing underground burrows, which significantly increased bulk density, and reduced soil water content, SOM and NH4-N content at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil depth...
2018: PloS One
Ruixia Dai, Meiying Qi, Haoming Xiong, Xiaoyan Yang, Jian He, Zhikai Zhang, Hanqing Yang, Juan Jin, Xiang Li, Youquan Xin, Yonghai Yang, Cunxiang Li, Zhenjun Li, Jianguo Xu, Zuyun Wang, Wei Li, Baiqing Wei
The plague, which is caused by the Gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been classified as a reemerging infectious disease by the World Health Organization. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau natural plague focus is the largest plague focus in China, and Marmota himalayana is the primary host of the plague. Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) were first identified as naturally infected hosts of Y. pestis based on etiological evidence in 1975, and activities such as slaughtering or skinning Tibetan sheep that have been infected by Y...
September 25, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Chuan Xie, Deng-Feng Xie, Yan Zhong, Xian-Lin Guo, Qing Liu, Song-Dong Zhou, Xing-Jin He
Exploring the effects of orographic events and climatic shifts on geographic distribution of organism in the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) and its eastern adjacent area is crucial to the understanding of the environmental changes to organismal evolution. To gain further insight into these processes, we reconstruct evolutionary history of ten species in Allium section Sikkimensia, distributed across regions abovementioned. Using chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation of 79 populations of these ten Allium species with known morphological preferences, we elucidate the phylogenetic relationship, divergence time, ancestral area and genetic structures...
September 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Wenhao Wei, Rui Ma, Ziyong Sun, Aiguo Zhou, Jianwei Bu, Xiang Long, Yunde Liu
Understanding the heavy metal (HM) contamination in alpine mountain headwaters regions is important to maintaining the ecosystem stability of the basin. A total of 119 water samples and 104 sediment samples were collected along tributaries and the main course of Heihe River. The concentrations of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water and sediment were measured to describe their spatial variability and to assess water quality. To identify the origins and pathways of HMs, anions, cations, and trace elements, as well as δ D/ δ 18 O stable isotopes in water samples were also measured...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tianye Wang, Tonghua Wu, Ping Wang, Ren Li, Changwei Xie, Defu Zou
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), where is underlain by the highest and most extensive mid-altitude permafrost, is undergoing more dramatic climatic warming than its surrounding regions. Mapping the distribution of permafrost is of great importance to assess the impacts of permafrost changes on the regional climate system. In this study, we applied logistic regression model (LRM) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA) methods to map the decadal permafrost distribution on the QTP and to assess permafrost dynamics from the 1980s to 2000s...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zhiliang Ma, Wenqiang Zhao, Mei Liu, Qing Liu
The responses of soil respiration (Rs ) to warming are driven by its components, that is, heterotrophic respiration (Rh ) and rhizosphere respiration (Rr , including fine root respiration [Rfr ] and rhizomicrobial respiration [Rz ]). However, the effects of warming on Rs and its components are rarely studied in alpine scrub ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Here, we conducted a warming experiment to examine how Rs and its components respond to experimental warming. We found that one-year experimental warming (increased by 1...
December 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ya Fang Xue, Ning Zong, Nian Peng He, Jing Tian, Yong Qing Zhang
Soil microbial community structure and functional diversity have great implications for the maintenance of the function and stability of grassland ecosystem. We studied the variation of soil microbial community structure, community diversity of carbon metabolism and their driving factors between the long-term enclosure and the free grazing grasslands in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by using phospholipid fatty acid and Biolog techniques. The results showed that: 1) there were significant differences in soil microbial community structure and the utilization of carbon source between the long-term enclosed and free grazed grasslands...
August 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yanping Ding, Na Zhang, Jialong Li, Yiran Jin, Baoping Shao
Ghrelin is a very important brain-gut peptide that modulates appetite and energy metabolism in mammals. The yak is the only large mammal that can adapt to the cold temperatures and hypoxia conditions present in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, there are no reports on ghrelin molecular characterization and expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary-digestive tract axis of the yak to date. In this study, the coding region sequence of the yak ghrelin, containing a complete ORF (351) encoding for 117 amino acids, was cloned...
September 3, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Jicheng Hu, Jing Wu, Chenyang Xu, Xiaoshuo Zha, Ying Hua, Liwen Yang, Jun Jin
Ambient air samples collected in an industrial park at the northeastern edge of the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau (China) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and dioxin-like (dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The PCDD/F, PCN, and dl-PCB concentrations were 1.18-2.18, 21.9-75.1, and 0.49-0.90 pg/m3 , respectively. The concentrations of these compounds were clearly higher than that observed at a remote site and were comparable with those found in ambient air in industrial areas in other locations...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ruixia Dai, Baiqing Wei, Haoming Xiong, Xiaoyan Yang, Yao Peng, Jian He, Juan Jin, Yumeng Wang, Xi Zha, Zhikai Zhang, Ying Liang, Qingwen Zhang, Jianguo Xu, Zuyun Wang, Wei Li
The Qinghai-Tibet plateau is a natural plague focus and is the largest such focus in China. In this area, while Marmota himalayana is the primary host, a total of 18 human plague outbreaks associated with Tibetan sheep (78 cases with 47 deaths) have been reported on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau since 1956. All of the index infectious cases had an exposure history of slaughtering or skinning diseased or dead Tibetan sheep. In this study, we sequenced and compared 38 strains of Yersinia pestis isolated from different hosts, including humans, Tibetan sheep, and M...
August 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jiao Huang, Li-Qin Yang, Yan Yu, Yan-Mei Liu, Deng-Feng Xie, Juan Li, Xing-Jin He, Song-Dong Zhou
Background and Aims: The role played by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in the organismal diversification and biogeography of plants in the Northern Hemisphere has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Here we use tribe Lilieae (Liliaceae), including primarily temperate and alpine lineages with disjunct distributions in the North Temperate Zone, as a case study to shed light upon these processes. Methods: Using 191 taxa (five outgroup taxa) comprising more than 60 % of extant Lilieae species across the entire geographical range, we analyse phylogenetic relationships based on three plastid markers (matK, rbcL, rpl16) and nuclear ITS...
August 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kai Cui, Wujiao Li, Jake George James, Changjun Peng, Jiazheng Jin, Chaochao Yan, Zhenxin Fan, Lianming Du, Megan Price, Yongjie Wu, Bisong Yue
The monal genus (Lophophorus) is a branch of Phasianidae and its species inhabit the high-altitude mountains of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Chinese monal, L. lhuysii, is a threatened endemic bird of China that possesses high-altitude adaptability, diversity of plumage color and potentially low reproductive life history. This is the first study to describe the monal genome using next generation sequencing technology. The Chinese monal genome size is 1.01 Gb, with 16,940 protein-coding genes. Gene annotation yielded 100...
July 29, 2018: Genomics
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