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greenhouse gases

Chun Wang, Weiqi Wang, Jordi Sardans, Ankit Singla, Congsheng Zeng, Derrick Yu Fo Lai, Josep Peñuelas
Steel slag, a by-product of the steel industry, contains high amounts of active iron oxide and silica which can act as an oxidizing agent in agricultural soils. Biochar is a rich source of carbon, and the combined application of biochar and steel slag is assumed to have positive impacts on soil properties as well as plant growth, which are yet to be validated scientifically. We conducted a field experiment for two rice paddies (early and late paddy) to determine the individual and combined effects of steel slag and biochar amendments on CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O emission, and rice productivity in a subtropical paddy field of China...
December 7, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Tabbi Wilberforce, Ahmad Baroutaji, Bassel Soudan, Abdul Hai Al-Alami, Abdul Ghani Olabi
The greenhouse gases emissions produced by industry and power plants are the cause of climate change. An effective approach for limiting the impact of such emissions is adopting modern Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology that can capture more than 90% of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) generated from power plants. This paper presents an evaluation of state-of-the-art technologies used in the capturing CO2 . The main capturing strategies including post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy - combustion are reviewed and compared...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Niloy Chandra Sarker, Shafiqur Rahman, Md Saidul Borhan, Parthiban Rajasekaran, Swadeshmukul Santra, Ali Ozcan
A number of mitigation techniques exist to reduce the emissions of pollutant gases and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from anaerobic storage of livestock manure. Nanoparticle (NP) application is a promising mitigating treatment option for pollutant gases, but limited research is available on the mode of NP application and their effectiveness in gaseous emission reduction. In this study, zinc silica nanogel (ZnSNL), copper silica nanogel (CuSNL), and N-acetyl cysteine (NACL) coated zinc oxide quantum dot (Qdot) NPs were compared to a control lacking NPs...
February 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
S Venturi, F Tassi, F Magi, J Cabassi, A Ricci, F Capecchiacci, C Caponi, B Nisi, O Vaselli
Volcanic and hydrothermal areas largely contribute to the natural emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, although large uncertainties in estimating their global output still remain. Nevertheless, CO2 and CH4 discharged from hydrothermal fluid reservoirs may support active soil microbial communities. Such secondary processes can control and reduce the flux of these gases to the atmosphere. In order to evaluate the effects deriving from the presence of microbial activity, chemical and carbon (in CO2 and CH4 ) isotopic composition of interstitial soil gases, as well as diffuse CO2 fluxes, of three hydrothermal systems from Italy were investigated, i...
November 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jan T Wollenberg, Asim Biswas, Gail L Chmura
Salt marshes are highly effective carbon (C) sinks and bury more C per square meter annually than any other ecosystem. Reclamation and anthropogenic impacts, however, have resulted in extensive losses of salt marshes. Carbon credits can be generated and sold by restoring marshes, but only if C sequestration and net reductions in greenhouse gases (GHG) are reliably quantified. Restored marshes, however, may exhibit different patterns of GHG emissions than natural marshes and it is possible that they could temporarily become sources of N2 O even in the usually N-limited estuarine environment...
2018: PeerJ
Hainan Ai, Yixi Qiu, Qiang He, Yixin He, Chun Yang, Li Kang, Huarui Luo, Wei Li, Yufeng Mao, Meijuan Hu, Hong Li
Carbon sources are a critical requirement for the proliferation of algae and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs), but are often turned into methane (CH4 ) after the collapse of severe HABs. Here, we attempt to remove HABs, reduce algal-derived CH4 emissions, and repair the broken carbon biogeochemical cycle in aquatic systems using an integrated ecological approach including flocculation, capping, and submerged macrophyte induction, preliminary at a microcosm scale. This strategy sustainably reached 98% algal removal after 65 days of incubation and resulted in an aerobic microenvironment (ORP = +12 mv) at the sediment-water interface...
November 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Avik Sinha, Tuhin Sengupta
There are a limited number of studies on the estimation of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions, though it is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases (GHGs) present in ambient atmosphere. In the wake of industrialization, it is necessary to understand the impact of energy consumption pattern on N2 O emissions and revise the energy policies accordingly. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of renewable and fossil fuel energy consumptions on N2 O emissions for APEC countries over the period of 1990-2015, and the analysis has been carried out following the EKC hypothesis framework...
November 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chen Guo, Tao Ren, Pengfei Li, Bin Wang, Jialong Zou, Saddam Hussain, Rihuan Cong, Lishu Wu, Jianwei Lu, Xiaokun Li
Ammonia (NH3 ) volatilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields contaminate the atmospheric environment and lead to global warming. Field trials (2013-2015) were conducted to estimate the influences of different types of fertilization practices on grain yield, NH3 volatilization, and methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions in a double rice cropping system in Central China. Results showed that grain yields of rice were improved significantly by using slow/controlled-release urea (S/C-RU)...
November 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Katherine V Heifferon, Timothy E Long
In an effort to slow the progress of climate change, the current scientific community has focused on the reduction of greenhouse gases in order to limit the global average temperature inflation to less than 2 °C. The improvement of thermally controlled construction materials can potentially result in lower energy homes/reduced emissions, and lowering the thermal conductivity of insulation materials improves home energy efficiency. Nanoporous insulation foams impart a drastic decrease in thermal conductivity but many polymer properties must be assessed to produce these materials...
November 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Luciana P S Freitas, Mara L M Lopes, Leonardo B Carvalho, Alan R Panosso, Newton La Scala Júnior, Ricardo L B Freitas, Carlos R Minussi, Anna D P Lotufo
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered one of the main greenhouse effect gases and contributes significantly to global climate change. In Brazil, the agricultural areas offer an opportunity to mitigate this effect, especially with the sugarcane crop, since, depending on the management system, sugarcane stores large amounts of carbon, thereby removing it from the atmosphere. The CO2 production in soil and its transport to the atmosphere are the results of biochemical processes such as the decomposition of organic matter and roots and the respiration of soil organisms, a phenomenon called soil CO2 emissions (FCO2 )...
November 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Quinn R Ollivier, Damien T Maher, Chris Pitfield, Peter I Macreadie
Freshwater ecosystems play a major role in global carbon cycling through the breakdown of organic material and release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) emissions from lakes, wetlands, reservoirs and small natural ponds have been well studied, however, the GHG emissions of highly abundant, small-scale (<0.01 km2 ) agricultural dams (small stream and run-off impoundments) are still unknown. Here, we measured the diffusive CO2 and CH4 flux of 77 small agricultural dams within south-east Australia...
November 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
Niloy Chandra Sarker, Faithe Keomanivong, Md Borhan, Shafiqur Rahman, Kendall Swanson
Background: Enteric methane (CH4 ) accounts for about 70% of total CH4 emissions from the ruminant animals. Researchers are exploring ways to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants. Recently, nano zinc oxide (nZnO) has shown potential in reducing CH4 and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production from the liquid manure under anaerobic storage conditions. Four different levels of nZnO and two types of feed were mixed with rumen fluid to investigate the efficacy of nZnO in mitigating gaseous production...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Melinda R Nicewonger, Murat Aydin, Michael J Prather, Eric S Saltzman
Biomass burning drives changes in greenhouse gases, climate-forcing aerosols, and global atmospheric chemistry. There is controversy about the magnitude and timing of changes in biomass burning emissions on millennial time scales from preindustrial to present and about the relative importance of climate change and human activities as the underlying cause. Biomass burning is one of two notable sources of ethane in the preindustrial atmosphere. Here, we present ice core ethane measurements from Antarctica and Greenland that contain information about changes in biomass burning emissions since 1000 CE (Common Era)...
November 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath Premakumara, S N M Menikpura, Rajeev Kumar Singh, Matthew Hengesbaugh, Albert Altarejos Magalang, Eligio T Ildefonso, Maria Delia Cristina M Valdez, Liz C Silva
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered one of the serious environmental issues in the Philippines, with corresponding linkages to the climate change and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, methane (CH4 ) linked with indiscriminate dumping of municipal solid waste has received the much attention with regard to public health and climate change. The impacts of black carbon (BC) are less documented and understood. This paper aims to review the status of MSWM in the Philippines and makes efforts to assess the scale of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), including both CH4 , and BC, associated with the country's waste sector...
October 2018: Waste Management
Md H Islam, Odne S Burheim, Bruno G Pollet
Reserves of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas on earth are finite. The continuous use and burning of these fossil fuel resources in the industrial, domestic and transport sectors has resulted in the extremely high emission of greenhouse gases, GHGs (e.g. CO2 ) and solid particulates into the atmosphere. Therefore, it is necessary to explore pollution free and more efficient energy sources in order to replace depleting fossil fuels. The use of hydrogen (H2 ) as an alternative fuel source is particularly attractive due to its very high specific energy compared to other conventional fuels and its zero GHG emission when used in a fuel cell...
September 22, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Aziz Khan, Xudong Pan, Ullah Najeeb, Daniel Kean Yuen Tan, Shah Fahad, Rizwan Zahoor, Honghai Luo
Increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and associated climatic variability is primarily responsible for inducing heat waves, flooding and drought stress. Among these, water scarcity is a major limitation to crop productivity. Water stress can severely reduce crop yield and both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Water availability is a key driver for sustainable cotton production and its limitations can adversely affect physiological and biochemical processes of plants, leading towards lint yield reduction...
November 14, 2018: Biological Research
Bin Wang, Paul E Brewer, Herman H Shugart, Manuel T Lerdau, Steven D Allison
Soil-atmosphere exchange significantly influences the global atmospheric abundances of carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O). These greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been extensively studied at the soil profile level and extrapolated to coarser scales (regional and global). However, finer scale studies of soil aggregation have not received much attention, even though elucidating the GHG activities at the full spectrum of scales rather than just coarse levels is essential for reducing the large uncertainties in the current atmospheric budgets of these gases...
November 9, 2018: Global Change Biology
Bo Yang, Yuchun Ma, Zhengqin Xiong
Composting is considered as one of the main sustainable methods for the treatment of livestock manure. In this study we investigated the effects of additives (urea and rice straw) on methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O), and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions using a traditional Chinese pig slurry composting method over an 81-day period, as well as examining total organic carbon and total nitrogen loss. Four common treatment strategies were examined in this study: a control (MC), urea nitrogen addition (MN), composting using rice straw cover (MScover ), and compost mixed with rice straw (MSmix )...
November 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guo-Jing Yang, Robert Bergquist
Based on an ensemble of global circulation models (GCMs), four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and several ongoing and planned Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects (CMIPs), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that global, average temperatures will increase by at least 1.5 °C in the near future and more by the end of the century if greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are not genuinely tempered. While the RCPs are indicative of various amounts of GHGs in the atmosphere the CMIPs are designed to improve the workings of the GCMs...
November 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Emilio F Moran, Maria Claudia Lopez, Nathan Moore, Norbert Müller, David W Hyndman
Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy across the world, accounting for up to 71% of this supply as of 2016. This capacity was built up in North America and Europe between 1920 and 1970 when thousands of dams were built. Big dams stopped being built in developed nations, because the best sites for dams were already developed and environmental and social concerns made the costs unacceptable. Nowadays, more dams are being removed in North America and Europe than are being built. The hydropower industry moved to building dams in the developing world and since the 1970s, began to build even larger hydropower dams along the Mekong River Basin, the Amazon River Basin, and the Congo River Basin...
November 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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