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greenhouse gases

Bing Gao, Tao Huang, Xiaotang Ju, Baojing Gu, Wei Huang, Lilai Xu, Robert M Rees, David S Powlson, Pete Smith, Shenghui Cui
Soil carbon sequestration is being considered as a potential pathway to mitigate climate change. Cropland soils could provide a sink for carbon that can be modified by farming practices, however, they can also act as a source of greenhouse gases (GHG), including not only nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ), but also the upstream carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions associated with agronomic management. These latter emissions are also sometimes termed "hidden" or "embedded" CO2 . In this paper, we estimated the net GHG balance for Chinese cropping systems by considering the balance of soil carbon sequestration, N2 O and CH4 emissions, and the upstream CO2 emissions of agronomic management from a life cycle perspective during 2000-2017...
August 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
Sowbiya Muneer, Jeong Hyun Lee
CO2 boilers/direct heating systems used in greenhouses often lead to incomplete combustion, which results in the formation of hazardous gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitroxide (NOX ) and other hydrocarbons. In this study, strawberry plants that were grown on rockwool cubes were transferred to airtight bottles and treated with CO, NOX , CH4 and C3 H8 gases for 1-48 hours. Oxidative damage due to hazardous gases was observed, as indicated by H2 O2 and [Formula: see text] determination. Photosynthetic pigments were reduced, and stomatal guard cells were damaged and remained closed compared to the control...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ivan Parise
BACKGROUND: Global climate change (GCC) will have an enormous impact on public health in the 21st century. Evidence clearly implicates the use of fossil fuels and the resultant anthropogenic greenhouse gases as the major source of GCC. OBJECTIVE: This paper seeks to examine briefly the association between fossil fuels and GCC, the consequent environmental changes and the predicted public health effects. DISCUSSION: Complex and interrelated climate changes are forecast to present immense challenges, including increased morbidity and mortality, arising from heatwaves, extreme weather events, infectious and non-communicable diseases...
July 2018: Australian journal of general practice
Wagner Artifon, Charline Bonatto, Eduarda R Bordin, Suzana F Bazoti, Adriana Dervanoski, Sérgio L Alves, Helen Treichel
Bioethanol production has been presented as an alternative for supplying energy demand and minimizing greenhouse gases effects. However, due to abrasively conditions employed on the biomass during pretreatment and hydrolysis processes, inhibitors for fermentation phase such as acetic acid and others can be generated. Based on this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the adsorption of acetic acid on microporous activated carbon and investigate the stripping of the same component with dried air. For adsorption process, three concentrations of acetic acid (5, 10, and 20%) were analyzed by adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich models)...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Geeta G Persad, Yi Ming, Zhaoyi Shen, V Ramaswamy
Despite distinct geographic distributions of top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing, anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols have been found to produce similar patterns of climate response in atmosphere-and-ocean coupled climate model simulations. Understanding surface energy flux changes, a crucial pathway by which atmospheric forcing is communicated to the ocean, is a vital bridge to explaining the similar full atmosphere-and-ocean responses to these disparate forcings. Here we analyze the fast, atmosphere-driven change in surface energy flux caused by present-day greenhouse gases vs aerosols to elucidate its role in shaping the subsequent slow, coupled response...
August 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Baoyi Lv, Di Zhang, Yuxue Cui, Fang Yin
The emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) during bio-stabilization of sewage sludge under different C/N ratios with/without Eisenia fetida were evaluated in this study. Vermicomposting led to the more significant reductions of pH, TOC and C/N ratio compared to the control treatment without earthworms. C/N ratio had a significant effect on the emission of N2 O, whereas its influences on CO2 or CH4 emission were not obvious. Earthworms reduced the CH4 emission greatly, although the CO2 emission was not affected by earthworms...
August 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Luzia V Modolo, Cristiane J da-Silva, Débora S Brandão, Izabel S Chaves
World population is expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050, which makes a great challenge the achievement of food security. The use of urease inhibitors in agricultural practices has long been explored as one of the strategies to guarantee food supply in enough amounts. This is due to the fact that urea, one of the most used nitrogen (N) fertilizers worldwide, rapidly undergoes urease-driven hydrolysis on soil surface yielding up to 70% N losses to environment. This review provides with a compilation of what has been done since 2005 with respect to the search for good urease inhibitors of agricultural interests...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Christopher K Junium, Alexander J Dickson, Benjamin T Uveges
The degree to which ocean deoxygenation will alter the function of marine communities remains unclear but may be best constrained by detailed study of intervals of rapid warming in the geologic past. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of rapid warming that was the result of increasing contents of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that had wide ranging effects on ecosystems globally. Here, we present stable nitrogen isotope data from the Eastern Peri-Tethys Ocean that record a significant transition in the nitrogen cycle...
August 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Santosh Kumar, K Prasad, João M Gil, Abilio J F N Sobral, Joonseok Koh
Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases whose increasing concentration in the atmosphere can cause severe problems to both human health and wildlife. A simple ecofriendly procedure was developed to prepare zeolite-chitosan (ZY-CS) composite using solvent exchange followed by calcination for adsorption and chemical fixation of CO2 . The as synthesized ZY-CS composite along with zeolite and chitosan were characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms studies...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kasparas Spokas, Catherine A Peters, Laura Pyrak-Nolte
Fractures present environmental risks for subsurface engineering activities, such as geologic storage of greenhouse gases, because of the possibility of unwanted upward fluid migration. The risks of fluid leakage may be exacerbated if fractures are subjected to physical and chemical perturbations that alter their geometry. This study investigated this by constructing a 2D fracture model to numerically simulate fluid flow, acid-driven reactions, and mechanical deformation. Three rock mineralogies were simulated: a limestone with 100% calcite, a limestone with 68% calcite, and a banded shale with 34% calcite...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ziwen Zhao, Xiaojing Yang, Wei Cai, Zhongfang Lei, Kazuya Shimizu, Zhenya Zhang, Motoo Utsumi, Duu-Jong Lee
The effect of influent chemical oxygen demand to nitrogen (COD/N) ratio on the granular stability, nutrients removal and accumulation of the algal-bacterial AGS was investigated. Two sequencing batch reactors were operated under different influent COD/N ratio, i.e., R1 (control, COD/N = 8) and R2 : (COD/N = 8, 4, 2, and 1 through stepwise decrease of COD). Results showed that the integrity coefficient of the granules in R2 stabilized at 0.7-5.4% during the whole operation. Significantly enhanced dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake and the faster growth of algae indicated the great potential for reduction in greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission by using the algal-bacterial AGS system...
July 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jie-Liang Liang, Wen-Hua Zhou, Shao-Ming Gao, Wan-Peng Yu, Wen-Sheng Shu, Jin-Tian Li
Agriculture-based climate change mitigation may occur through enhancing the carbon sink or through reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from agricultural residue treatment, as open burning of agricultural residues produces millions of tons of GHGs and air pollutants annually worldwide. Charring slashed biomass, termed as slash-and-char, has been considered as a promising alternative to open burning in dealing with agricultural residues such as rice straw. Previous studies, however, focused on relatively sophisticated slash-and-char systems, which could not be practiced easily by smallholder farmers in developing countries...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lijian Leng, Huajun Huang, Hui Li, Jun Li, Wenguang Zhou
Biochar is being developed as a candidate with great potential for climate change mitigation. Sequestering biochar carbon in soil contributes greatly to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, and biochar stability is the most decisive factor that determines its carbon sequestration potential. However, methods that can be used universally for direct or indirect assessment of biochar stability are still under investigation. This present review aims to give comprehensive and detailed up-to-date information on the development of biochar stability assessment methods...
July 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sara González-García, Jacopo Bacenetti
The concerns related to the environmental impact related to energy production from fossil fuel are increasing. In this context, the substitution of fossil fuel based energy by bio-energy can be an effective solution. In this study, the production of electricity and heat in Italy in a combined heat and power plant (CHP) based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turbine from wood based biomass both from forest and agricultural activities has been analysed considering four potential alternative scenarios to the current energy status: biomass from very short rotation forestry (VSRF) poplar and willow stands as well as residues from natural forests and from traditional poplar plantations...
July 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Giorgio Mannina, Alida Cosenza, George Ekama
This paper compares two mathematical models (Model I and Model II) to predict greenhouse gases emission from a University Cape Town (UCT) - membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant. Model I considers N2 O production only during denitrification. Model II takes into account the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) formation pathways for N2 O. Both models were calibrated adopting real data. Model comparison was performed in terms of (i) sensitivity analysis (ii) best fit and (iii) model prediction uncertainty. On average 6% of factors of Model I and 9% of Model II resulted to be important...
July 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sarah-Jeanne Royer, Sara Ferrón, Samuel T Wilson, David M Karl
Mass production of plastics started nearly 70 years ago and the production rate is expected to double over the next two decades. While serving many applications because of their durability, stability and low cost, plastics have deleterious effects on the environment. Plastic is known to release a variety of chemicals during degradation, which has a negative impact on biota. Here, we show that the most commonly used plastics produce two greenhouse gases, methane and ethylene, when exposed to ambient solar radiation...
2018: PloS One
Jian Hua, Chih-Wen Cheng, Daw-Shang Hwang
This study proposes an easy-to-apply method, Total Life Cycle Emission Model (TLCEM),to calculate the total emissions form shipping and help ship managements assess the impact on emissions caused by their capital investment or operation decisions. Using TLCEM, we present the total emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases(GHGs) during the 25-yr life cycle of ten post-Panamaxcontainerships under slow steaming conditions. The life cycle consists of steel production, shipbuilding, crude oil extraction and transportation,fuel refining, bunkering, andshipoperation...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Suchul Kang, Elfatih A B Eltahir
North China Plain is the heartland of modern China. This fertile plain has experienced vast expansion of irrigated agriculture which cools surface temperature and moistens surface air, but boosts integrated measures of temperature and humidity, and hence enhances intensity of heatwaves. Here, we project based on an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate model simulations that climate change would add significantly to the anthropogenic effects of irrigation, increasing the risk from heatwaves in this region...
July 31, 2018: Nature Communications
Matthew J Eckelman, Jodi D Sherman, Andrea J MacNeill
BACKGROUND: Human health is dependent upon environmental health. Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and climate change has been identified as the single greatest public health threat of the 21st century. As a large, resource-intensive sector of the Canadian economy, healthcare itself contributes to pollutant emissions, both directly from facility and vehicle emissions and indirectly through the purchase of emissions-intensive goods and services. Together these are termed life cycle emissions...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Yoanna Eissler, María-Jesús Gálvez, Cristina Dorador, Martha Hengst, Verónica Molina
Salar de Huasco is a high-altitude wetland characterized by a highly diverse microbial life adapted to extreme climatic and environmental conditions. Our study aims to determine active microbial community structure changes within different aquatic sites and its relationship with environmental factors and viruses as potential drivers of diversification in different aquatic areas of this ecosystem. In this study, bacteria and archaea composition (16S rRNA subunit pyrolibraries) and picoplankton and viral abundance were determined at ponds, springs and lagoon sites of the wetland during wet and dry seasons (February and July 2012, respectively)...
July 30, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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