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greenhouse gases

Xin Zhao, Chao Pu, Shou-Tian Ma, Sheng-Li Liu, Jian-Fu Xue, Xing Wang, Yu-Qiao Wang, Shuai-Shuai Li, Rattan Lal, Fu Chen, Hai-Lin Zhang
Mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from rice paddy (Oryza sativa L.) and balancing the trade-offs between reducing emission and sustaining food security have raised global concerns. A global meta-analysis of rice experimental data was conducted to assess changes in emissions of GHGs (CH4 and N2 O) and global warming potential (GWP) in response to improvements through 12 field management practices. The results indicated that changes in GWP were mainly attributed to CH4 emission even though N2 O emission was significantly affected by conversion of field management practices...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Késia Silva Lourenço, Raffaella Rossetto, André Cesar Vitti, Zaqueu Fernando Montezano, Johnny Rodrigues Soares, Rafael de Melo Sousa, Janaina Braga do Carmo, Eiko Eurya Kuramae, Heitor Cantarella
Vinasse is a major byproduct of the sugarcane biofuel industry, recycled in the fields. However, there is evidence that the application of vinasse with mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers in sugarcane enhances the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, strategies are needed to decrease the environmental impacts caused by both inputs. We carried out three sugarcane field experiments by applying N fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) with types of vinasses (concentrated-CV and standard-V) in different combinations (vinasses with N fertilizer and vinasses one month before or after mineral N fertilization)...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Adrien Jacotot, Cyril Marchand, Michel Allenbach
Seasonal variations of CO2 and CH4 fluxes were investigated in a Rhizophora mangrove forest that develops under a semi-arid climate, in New Caledonia. Fluxes were measured using closed incubation chambers connected to a CRDS analyzer. They were performed during low tide at light, in the dark, and in the dark after having removed the top 1-2 mm of soil, which may contain biofilm. CO2 and CH4 fluxes ranged from 31.34 to 187.48 mmol m-2  day- 1 and from 39.36 to 428.09 μmol m-2  day- 1 , respectively...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Peng-Sheng Wei, Yin-Chih Hsieh, Hsuan-Han Chiu, Da-Lun Yen, Chieh Lee, Yi-Cheng Tsai, Te-Chuan Ting
Absorption coefficient affected by carbon dioxide concentration and optical path length responsible for temperature or global warming across the troposphere layer, which is less than the altitude of 10 km in the atmosphere, is systematically presented in this work. Solar irradiation within a short wavelength range can be absorbed, scattered and transmitted by the atmosphere, and absorbed and reflected by the Earth's surface. Radiative emission in high wavelength ranges from the Earth's surface at low temperature can be absorbed by atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases...
October 2018: Heliyon
Siyue Li, Richard T Bush, Isaac R Santos, Quanfa Zhang, Kaishan Song, Rong Mao, Zhidan Wen, Xi Xi Lu
Freshwaters are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere that may partially offset the terrestrial carbon sink. However, current emission estimates from inland waters remain uncertain due to data paucity in key regions with a large freshwater surface area, such as China. Here, we show that the areal fluxes of GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) from lakes and reservoirs in China are much larger than previous estimates. Our work summarized data from 310 lakes and 153 reservoirs, and revealed diffusive emissions of 1...
September 29, 2018: Water Research
Joseph C Blankinship, Emma P McCorkle, Matthew W Meadows, Stephen C Hart
The release of water during snowmelt orchestrates a variety of important belowground biogeochemical processes in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, including the production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by soil microorganisms. Snowmelt timing is advancing rapidly in these ecosystems, but there is still a need to isolate the effects of earlier snowmelt on soil GHG fluxes. For an improved mechanistic understanding of the biogeochemical effects of snowmelt timing during the snow-free period, we manipulated a high-elevation forest that typically receives over two meters of snowfall but little summer precipitation to influence legacy effects of snowmelt timing...
October 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kuok Ho Daniel Tang
PURPOSE: This paper reviews the past and future trends of climate change in Malaysia, the major contributors of greenhouse gases and the impacts of climate change to Malaysia. It also reviews the mitigation and adaptations undertaken, and future strategies to manage the impacts of regional climate change. METHODOLOGY: The review encompasses historical climate data comprising mean daily temperature, precipitation, mean sea level and occurrences of extreme weather events...
September 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ling-Ling Chen, Chao-Heng Tseng, Wei-Jen Tseng
A dynamic multimedia transport (DMT) model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was constructed using the system dynamics software STELLA to simulate the transmission and flow of PAHs in different media. Humans are primarily exposed to PAHs via ingestion. Thus, this study used the DMT model to simulate the concentrations of PAHs in food media and the human body and assess the risk of harm to humans. On the basis of the hypothesis of PAH reduction in the Taiwanese steel industry, two scenarios were used (cases I and II), and integration indicators such as the Air Resource Co-Benefit Model of air pollutants, greenhouse gases, and PAHs reduction was established for the cost-benefit analysis of the reduction scenarios...
September 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chun Wang, Weiqi Wang, Jordi Sardans, Wanli An, Congsheng Zeng, Abbas Ali Abid, Josep Peñuelas
The need of more food production, an increase in acidic deposition and the large capacity of paddy to emit greenhouse gases all coincide in several areas of China. Studying the effects of acid rain on the emission of greenhouse gases and the productivity of rice paddies are thus important, because these effects are currently unknown. We conducted a field experiment for two rice croppings (early and late paddies independent experiment) to determine the effects of simulated acid rain (control, normal rain, and treatments with rain at pH of 4...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Fabio Albuquerque, Blas Benito, Miguel Ángel Macias Rodriguez, Caitlin Gray
Over the last decades several studies have identified that the directional changes in climate induced by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the ecology of desert ecosystems. In the Southwest United States, the impacts of climate change to plant abundance and distribution have already been reported, including in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem, home of the iconic Saguaro ( Carnegiea gigantea ). Hence, there is an urgent need to assess the potential impacts of climate change on the saguaro...
2018: PeerJ
Daniel D B Koll, Timothy W Cronin
Satellite measurements and radiative calculations show that Earth's outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is an essentially linear function of surface temperature over a wide range of temperatures (≳60 K). Linearity implies that radiative forcing has the same impact in warmer as in colder climates and is thus of fundamental importance for understanding past and future climate change. Although the evidence for a nearly linear relation was first pointed out more than 50 y ago, it is still unclear why this relation is valid and when it breaks down...
September 25, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Timothy Besley, Avinash Dixit
In this paper we present a simple model for assessing the willingness to pay for reductions in the risk associated with catastrophic climate change. The model is extremely tractable and applies to a multiregion world but with global externalities and has five key features: ( i ) Neither the occurrence nor the costs of a catastrophic event in any one year are precisely predictable; ( ii ) the probability of a catastrophe occurring in any one year increases as the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increase; ( iii ) greenhouse gases are a worldwide public bad with emissions from any one country or region increasing the risks for all; ( iv ) there is two-sided irreversibility; if nothing is done and the problem proves serious, the climate, economic activity, and human life will suffer permanent damage, but if we spend large sums on countermeasures and the problem turns out to be minor or even nonexistent, we will have wasted resources unnecessarily; and ( v ) technological progress may yield partial or even complete solutions...
September 25, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chiara Bertora, Matteo Peyron, Simone Pelissetti, Carlo Grignani, Dario Sacco
This protocol describes the measurement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy soils using the static closed chamber technique. This method is based on the diffusion theory. A known volume of air overlaying a defined soil area is enclosed within a parallelepiped cover (named "chamber"), for a defined period of time. During this enclosure period, gases (methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) move from soil pore air near their microbial source (i.e., methanogens, nitrifiers, denitrifiers) to the chamber headspace, following a natural concentration gradient...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zhangliang Han, Dezhi Sun, Hui Wang, Ruoyu Li, Zhiyuan Bao, Fei Qi
This study analyzed emissions characteristics of NH3 and greenhouse gases (i.e. N2 O, CH4 , and CO2 ) from a municipal sewage sludge aerobic composting plant. Samples were collected during different seasons in which ambient temperatures and aeration frequencies varied. Results revealed (1) the maximum gas emissions occurred during the mesophilic phase for N2 O (22%-56%) and CH4 (65%-95%), and in the thermophilic phase for NH3 (84%-86%) and CO2 (65%-74%); (2) raising ambient temperatures promoted emissions of NH3 and greenhouse gases, while improved aeration frequency increased NH3 but decreased greenhouse gas emissions; (3) CO2 and N2 O were found to be the key greenhouse gases emitted during aerobic composting according to assessment of the CO2 equivalent...
September 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Egle Köster, Kajar Köster, Frank Berninger, Anatoly Prokushkin, Heidi Aaltonen, Xuan Zhou, Jukka Pumpanen
Rising air temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns in boreal ecosystems are changing the fire occurrence regimes (intervals, severity, intensity, etc.). The main impacts of fires are reported to be changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, vegetation stress, degradation of permafrost, and increased depth of the active layer. Changes in these characteristics influence the dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes. We have studied the changes in CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the soil in boreal forest areas in central Siberia underlain by continuous permafrost and the possible impacts of the aforementioned environmental factors on the emissions of these greenhouse gases...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Lisa Y Stein
Nitrification is the aerobic process of the nitrogen cycle that converts ammonia to nitrate and is facilitated by ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms. Ammonia-oxidizers are unique chemolithotrophs that evolved specialized networks of electron carriers to generate proton motive force using ammonia as a sole energy source as well as mechanisms to tolerate cytotoxic intermediates of their metabolism. Cultivation and genome sequencing of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), archaea (AOA), and comammox bacteria (i...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Nan Shan, Sheng-Hui Han, Ji-Pei Liu, Qing Chen, Yu-Ling Yuan, Li-Gang Wang, Hu Li
Agricultural management techniques such as fertilizer or manure application have substantial influence on NH3 and N2 O emissions and, by understanding this influence, management strategies can be developed to reduce them. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Hunan Agricultural University during 2012 to 2013, to investigate effects of different fertilizers on NH3 and N2 O emissions. The treatments included control without fertilizer (CK), swine composting fertilizer (SC), stored swine manure fertilizer (SS), and chemical fertilizer (FC)...
October 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Rong Huang, Ming Gao, Jia-Cheng Li, Guo-Xin Xu, Sheng Lü, Mei Luo
Greenhouse gases mainly come from farmland soils. Re-spreading chaff (straw returning) is an effective ecological management in China. Quantitative analysis of straw residues together with reduced fertilization rates can provide a scientific basis for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A field experiment with six different fertilizer amounts combined with straw residues was carried out in a vegetable field (lettuce-cabbage-chili rotation), including the control (CK), conventional fertilizing (F), straw returning with 100% conventional fertilizing (100FS), straw returning with 70% conventional fertilizing (70FS), straw returning with 60% conventional fertilizing (60FS),and straw returning with 50% conventional fertilizing (50FS)...
October 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Keith Arora-Williams, Scott W Olesen, Benjamin P Scandella, Kyle Delwiche, Sarah J Spencer, Elise M Myers, Sonali Abraham, Alyssa Sooklal, Sarah P Preheim
BACKGROUND: Microbial processes are intricately linked to the depletion of oxygen in in-land and coastal water bodies, with devastating economic and ecological consequences. Microorganisms deplete oxygen during biomass decomposition, degrading the habitat of many economically important aquatic animals. Microbes then turn to alternative electron acceptors, which alter nutrient cycling and generate potent greenhouse gases. As oxygen depletion is expected to worsen with altered land use and climate change, understanding how chemical and microbial dynamics impact dead zones will aid modeling efforts to guide remediation strategies...
September 18, 2018: Microbiome
Siqiang Liu, Mei Yuan, Dingxing Jin, Zhisheng Wang, Huawei Zou, Lizhi Wang, Bai Xue, De Wu, Gang Tian, Jingyi Cai, Tianhai Yan, Quanhui Peng
The world's annual output of rabbits is over 1.2 billion, therefore this sector is also one of the sources of greenhouse gases in livestock production. One hundred-twenty New Zealand rabbits were allocated into four treatments, five replicates in each treatment and six rabbits in each replicate to examine the effect of grinding alfalfa hay to different sizes on growth performance, methane production and cecal archaeal populations. The particle sizes of the alfalfa meal in the four treatment diets were 2500, 1000, 100 and 10 μm, while the other ingredients were ground through a 2...
2018: PloS One
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