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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514815/structural-mechanism-for-hiv-1-tar-loop-recognition-by-tat-and-the-super-elongation-complex
#1
Ursula Schulze-Gahmen, James H Hurley
Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a key regulatory step in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) transcription and thus in the reversal of HIV latency. By binding to the nascent transactivating response region (TAR) RNA, HIV-1 Tat recruits the human super elongation complex (SEC) to the promoter and releases paused Pol II. Structural studies of TAR interactions have been largely focused on interactions between the TAR bulge and the arginine-rich motif (ARM) of Tat. Here, the crystal structure of the TAR loop in complex with Tat and the SEC core was determined at a 3...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506847/tumor-lysate-loaded-lipid-hybrid-nanovaccine-collaborated-with-an-immune-checkpoint-antagonist-for-combination-immunotherapy
#2
Xiaomeng Hu, Tingting Wu, Xianya Qin, Yan Qi, Qi Qiao, Conglian Yang, Zhiping Zhang
Cancer vaccines have shown great potential for treating different types of cancer. However, the application of vaccination still presents two major challenges. One is efficiency of antigen delivery, and the other is dealing with immune tolerance accompanied with tumor development. Lipid zinc phosphate hybrid nanoparticles (LZnP NPs) with a unique material structure can realize efficient delivery of antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) and also serve as an adjuvant to promote immune responses. Herein, ZnP NPs are introduced to load toll-like receptor 4 agonist (monophosphoryl lipid A) and B16F10 melanoma cell-derived tumor lysate (TLS) for vaccination...
December 3, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502427/a-multielement-compound-fertilizer-used-polydopamine-and-sodium-carboxymethyl-starch-matrices-as-coatings
#3
Taomei Qi, Shaoyu Lü, Tao Li, Jiao Chen, Mengjie Huang, Yanzheng Ji, Shao-Fei Zhang, Mingzhu Liu
In this work, a multielement compound fertilizer (MCF) was fabricated using ammonium zinc phosphate (AZP) as kernel nutrient element, and polydopamine (Pdop) film as inner coating. Besides, sodium carboxymethyl starch (SCS) was proposed as a constituent in AZP@Pdop mixture due to its adhesion, gelling and swelling abilities, to prepare well dispersed suspensions and consolidate the single-coated fertilizer. What's more, iron (Fe), the vital microelement for the growth of crops and alleviating the leaf chlorosis, was chelated by the carboxylate groups of SCS, contributing to make the outer coating compact...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499957/broadband-blue-emission-from-zno-amorphous-nanodomains-in-zinc-phosphate-oxynitride-glass
#4
Muzhi Cai, Wei Mao, Laurent Calvez, Jean Rocherulle, Hongli Ma, Ronan Lebullenger, Xianghua Zhang, Shiqing Xu, Junjie Zhang
ZnO amorphous nanostructures in a glass matrix show unique optical properties. However, although a ZnO amorphous nanostructure can be formed in some settled multicomponent silicate glasses, the intensity of its emission is extremely weak. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report a novel and simple zinc phosphate oxynitride glass that can display strong broadband blue emission with a short decay time due to the ZnO amorphous nanostructure in the glass matrix. The result implies that glass topological constraints are the key to forming ZnO amorphous nanostructures...
December 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498508/purification-and-enzymatic-characterization-of-a-novel-metalloprotease-from-lachesis-muta-rhombeata-snake-venom
#5
Francielle Almeida Cordeiro, Bárbara Marques Coutinho, Gisele Adriano Wiezel, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Cristiane Bregge-Silva, Nathalia Gonsales Rosa-Garzon, Hamilton Cabral, Beatrix Ueberheide, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Background: Lachesis muta rhombeata (Lmr) is the largest venomous snake in Latin America and its venom contains mainly enzymatic components, such as serine and metalloproteases, L-amino acid oxidase and phospholipases A2 . Metalloproteases comprise a large group of zinc-dependent proteases that cleave basement membrane components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV. These enzymes are responsible for local and systemic changes, including haemorrhage, myonecrosis and inflammation...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498185/comparative-clinical-evaluation-of-composite-overcast-gold-post-and-core-buildups-in-endodontically-treated-teeth
#6
Swapna Munaga, Abhisek Das, Tamanpreet Kaur, Ashfaq Yaqoob, Rizwan Mokashi, Prabhu Ms Ismail
BACKGROUND: The management of non-vital teeth includes endodontic treatment and restoration followed by post and core restoration in selected cases. The present study was conducted to compare the indirect cast post, and core buildup with direct composite post build up in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted on 128 teeth of 82 patients. The success rate over 3 years was evaluated clinically and radiographically by observing caries, tooth mobility, probing depth, periapical pathology, and root fractures...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489057/on-the-transient-decomposition-and-reaction-kinetics-of-zinc-dialkyldithiophosphate
#7
Abdel Dorgham, Abdullah Azam, Ardian Morina, Anne Neville
Despite the ubiquitous use of the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as antiwear additive, no complete information is yet available on its exact decomposition reactions and kinetics to form triboreactive protective films on contacting surfaces. This hinders the replacement of ZDDP with more environmental friendly additives of similar antiwear capabilities. Using a multi-technique approach, this study shows that before the formation of a phosphate-rich protective film, the decomposition of ZDDP proceeds by forming intermediate zinc sulfide and sulfate species, which can be mechanically mixed with the iron oxides on the rubbing steel surfaces...
November 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487636/the-unexpected-role-of-carbonate-impurities-in-polyphosphate-corrosion-inhibition
#8
Suzanne Morsch, Seyedgholamreza Emad, Lee A Farren, Matthew D Goodall, Stuart B Lyon, Simon R Gibbon
Polyphosphate corrosion inhibitors are increasingly marketed as chromate replacements for coil coated steel. The mechanisms underpinning corrosion prevention by these species is, however, not fully understood; corrosion inhibition is ordinarily assessed using electrochemical techniques, followed by ex-situ surface analysis. As a result, the formation of a clear film over cathodic sites is known to contribute to corrosion prevention, but little is known about its formation. Here, we apply advanced microscopy techniques (in-situ fluid cell AFM, SEM-EDX, and AFM-IR nano-chemical analysis) to examine early cathodic film formation by strontium aluminium polyphosphate (SAPP) in detail...
November 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483831/the-correlation-of-crystalline-and-elemental-composition-of-urinary-stones-with-a-history-of-bacterial-infections-txrf-xrpd-and-pcr-dgge-studies
#9
Michał Arabski, Ilona Stabrawa, Aldona Kubala-Kukuś, Katarzyna Gałczyńska, Dariusz Banaś, Łukasz Piskorz, Ewa Forma, Magdalena Bryś, Waldemar Różański, Marek Lipiński
The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between past bacterial infections and the type and chemical composition of urinary stones experienced by human patients. Bacteria have been recognized to contribute to urinary stones; however, the role of uropathogens in the development of specific stones has not been extensively investigated. The detection of past bacterial infection (eleven different bacterial species) in urinary stones from 83 patients was made on a DNA level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and correlated with the chemical composition of urinary stones measured using X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD) technique and their elemental composition by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)...
November 27, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476684/heavy-metal-leaching-and-distribution-in-glass-products-from-the-co-melting-treatment-of-electroplating-sludge-and-mswi-fly-ash
#10
Yang Yue, Jia Zhang, Fucheng Sun, Simiao Wu, Yun Pan, Jizhi Zhou, Guangren Qian
Melting is a common solidification treatment that concentrates and encapsulates heavy metals into a glass matrix for waste containing heavy metals (Chae et al., 2016). To control the risk of heavy metal leaching into the glass product, a reduction in the amount of heavy metal was achieved in a pilot-scale furnace by co-melting electroplating sludge (EPS) and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA). Through the melting process, the chloride from MSWI FA led to heavy metals volatilization in the form of chlorine salts...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473843/removal-of-toxic-metals-from-aqueous-solution-by-biochars-derived-from-long-root-eichhornia-crassipes
#11
Qiang Li, Lizhou Tang, Jiang Hu, Ming Jiang, Xiaodong Shi, Tianxi Zhang, Yuan Li, Xuejun Pan
Biochars were produced from long-root Eichhornia crassipes at four temperatures: 200, 300, 400 and 500°C, referred to as LEC200, LEC300, LEC400 and LEC500, respectively. The sorption ability of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium from aqueous solutions by four kinds of biochars was investigated. All the biochars had lower values of CEC and higher values of pH. LEC500 was the best one to bind toxic metals which can be reflected in the results of SEM, BET and elemental analyser. It was also found that alkyl, carboxyl, phosphate and cyano groups in the biochars can play a role in binding metals...
October 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30467628/the-impact-of-trace-minerals-on-bone-metabolism
#12
Erin Gaffney-Stomberg
Bone is a metabolically active tissue that responds to alterations in dietary intake and nutritional status. It is ~ 35% protein, mostly collagen which provides an organic scaffolding for bone mineral. The mineral is the remaining ~ 65% of bone tissue and composed mostly of calcium and phosphate in a form that is structurally similar to mineral within the apatite group. The skeletal tissue is constantly undergoing turnover through resorption by osteoclasts coupled with formation by osteoblasts. In this regard, the overall bone balance is determined by the relative contribution of each of these processes...
November 23, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30445554/molecular-regulatory-mechanism-of-isoprene-emission-under-short-term-drought-stress-in-the-tropical-tree-ficus-septica
#13
Shahanaz Parveen, Md Harun-Ur- Rashid, Masashi Inafuku, Hironori Iwasaki, Hirosuke Oku
Isoprene is emitted by many plants and is thought to function as an antioxidant under stressful conditions. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism of isoprene emission in relation to the antioxidant system remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we explored the molecular regulatory mechanism of isoprene emission under short-term drought stress in the tropical tree Ficus septica Burm.f. We found that the soil moisture content gradually decreased from 55% on Day 1 (D1) to 23% (wilting point) on D5 after withholding water for 4 days and then returning to the initial level following re-watering on D6...
November 16, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411553/aminoglycosides-rapidly-inhibit-nad-p-h-metabolism-increasing-reactive-oxygen-species-and-cochlear-cell-demise
#14
Danielle E Desa, Michael G Nichols, Heather Jensen Smith
Despite causing permanent hearing loss by damaging inner ear sensory cells, aminoglycosides (AGs) remain one of the most widely used classes of antibiotics in the world. Although the mechanisms of cochlear sensory cell damage are not fully known, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are clearly implicated. Mitochondrial-specific ROS formation was evaluated in acutely cultured murine cochlear explants exposed to gentamicin (GM), a representative ototoxic AG antibiotic. Superoxide (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were measured using MitoSOX Red and Dihydrorhodamine 123, respectively, in sensory and supporting cells...
November 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403846/heterostructure-promoted-oxygen-electrocatalysis-enables-rechargeable-zinc-air-battery-with-neutral-aqueous-electrolyte
#15
Li An, Zhiyong Zhang, Jianrui Feng, Fan Lv, Yuxuan Li, Rui Wang, Min Lu, Ram B Gupta, Pinxian Xi, Sen Zhang
Neutral aqueous zinc-air batteries (ZABs) are an emerging type of energy devices with substantially elongated lifetime and improved recyclability compared to conventional alkaline ZABs. However, their development is impeded by the lack of robust bifunctional catalyst at the air-electrode for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we report the controlled synthesis of NiFe2 O4 /FeNi2 S4 heterostructured nanosheets (HNSs) that are highly efficient in catalyzing OER and ORR, therefore enabling neutral rechargeable ZABs...
November 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397731/assessing-the-performance-of-sand-filter-basins-in-treating-urban-stormwater-runoff
#16
Vahid Zarezadeh, Travis Lung, Troy Dorman, Heather J Shipley, Marcio Giacomoni
This study has assessed the efficiency of sand filter basins in treating urban stormwater runoff by analyzing available data in the literature, the International Stormwater BMP Database, and data collected in a sand filter basin located in the main campus of the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). Ten storm events were monitored starting in March 2016 until February 2017. Total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, nitrate, ortho-phosphate, copper, zinc, lead, pH, and conductivity were measured in the inlet and the outlet of the basin...
November 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339368/drastic-change-in-zinc-speciation-during-anaerobic-digestion-and-composting-instability-of-nanosized-zinc-sulfide
#17
Maureen Le Bars, Samuel Legros, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Marie Tella, Mauro Rovezzi, Patrick Browne, Jérôme Rose, Emmanuel Doelsch
Zinc (Zn) is a potentially toxic trace element that is present in large amounts in organic wastes (OWs) spread on agricultural lands as fertilizer. Zn speciation in OW is a crucial parameter to understand its fate in soil after spreading and to assess the risk associated with agricultural recycling of OW. Here, we investigated changes in Zn speciation from raw OWs up to digestates and/or composts for a large series of organic wastes sampled in full-scale plants. Using extended X-ray absorption fine structure, we show that nanosized Zn sulfide (nano-ZnS) is a major Zn species in raw liquid OWs and a minor species in raw solid OWs...
October 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321391/structural-basis-for-dna-break-recognition-by-artd2-parp2
#18
Ezeogo Obaji, Teemu Haikarainen, Lari Lehtiö
Human ARTD2 (or PARP2) is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which is catalytically activated by binding to damaged DNA. ARTD2 subsequently ADP-ribosylates itself and other proteins, initiating a cascade of events leading to DNA repair. In contrast to ARTD1, the founding member of the enzyme family, ARTD2 does not have specialized zinc-fingers for detecting DNA damage. The domain organization of ARTD2 includes disordered N-terminus, WGR and catalytic domains. However, the N-terminus of ARTD2 is not strictly required for the DNA dependent activity...
October 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320422/evaluation-of-radiopacity-of-luting-cements-submitted-to-different-aging-procedures
#19
Rafael B Junqueira, Rodrigo F Carvalho, Felipe A G F Yamamoto, Solange M Almeida, Francielle S Verner
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radiopacity of luting cements submitted to different aging procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty discs (1 × 4 mm) of each of the following cements were prepared: zinc phosphate, RelyX Luting 2, Variolink 2, AllCem, RelyX U200, Multilink, Panavia F2.0, and RelyX ARC. Then, they were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10/group), according to the aging procedure: thermal cycling group and water storage group. Before and after aging procedures, specimens were x-rayed with an aluminum step-wedge (11 steps, 1 mm thick each) and three dental slices (1 mm thick)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310898/influence-of-the-metals-and-ligands-in-dinuclear-complexes-on-phosphopeptide-sequencing-by-electron-transfer-dissociation-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Daiki Asakawa, Akio Miyazato, Frédéric Rosu, Valérie Gabelica
Phosphorylation is one of the most important protein modifications, and electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ETD-MS/MS) is a potentially useful method for the sequencing of phosphopeptides, including determination of the phosphorylation site. Notably, ETD-MS/MS typically provides useful information when the precursor contains more than three positive charges. It is not yet used as an analysis method for large-scale phosphopeptide production due to difficulties occurring in the production of acidic phosphopeptides having more than three positive charges...
November 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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