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Memory enhancement

Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cong Lu, Zhe Shi, Xiuping Sun, Ruile Pan, Shanguang Chen, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu, Lihua Sun, Haixia Dang, Lanlan Bu, Lingling Chen, Xinmin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kai Xin San (KXS), a traditional formula of Chinese medicine, has been used to treat dementia. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate its ameliorating effects on Aβ1-40-induced cognitive impairment in rats using a series of novel reward-directed instrumental learning tasks, and to determine its possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were pretreated with KXS aqueous extract (0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Natalia A Stefanova, Natalia A Muraleva, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Elena Kiseleva, Darya V Telegina, Nataliya G Kolosova
Mitochondrial aberrations are observed in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in medical conditions that increase the risk of this disorder, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to pathophysiology of AD. Here, using OXYS rats that simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we set out to determine the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of this disorder. OXYS rats were treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 from age 12 to 18 months, that is, during active progression of AD-like pathology in these animals...
October 6, 2016: Aging
Nadia Justel, Mariana Psyrdellis, Ricardo M Pautassi
During extinction, the organism learns that a conditioned stimulus or a conditioned response is no longer associated with an unconditioned stimulus, and as a consequence, a decrement in the response is presented. The exposure to novel situations (e.g. exploration of a novel open field) has been used widely to modulate (i.e. either enhance or deteriorate) learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to test whether open-field exposure could modulate consummatory extinction. The results indicated that open-field exposure accelerated the extinction response (i...
October 4, 2016: Neuroreport
Jongha Lee, Byeongjun Yoo, Hakyong Lee, Gi Doo Cha, Hee-Su Lee, Youngho Cho, Sang Yeon Kim, Hyunseon Seo, Woongchan Lee, Donghee Son, Myungjoo Kang, Hyung Min Kim, Yong Il Park, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Multi-dye-sensitized upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs), which harvest photons of wide wavelength range (450-975 nm) are designed and synthesized. The UCNPs embedded in photo-acid generating layer are integrated on destructible nonvolatile resistive memory device. Upon illumination of the light, the system permanently erases stored data, achieving enhanced information security.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Nicolas Fraize, Julien Carponcy, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Jean-Christophe Comte, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Paul-Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret, Régis Parmentier
STUDY OBJECTIVES: It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Michael J Armson, Hervé Abdi, Brian Levine
Autobiographical memory tests provide a naturalistic counterpoint to the artificiality of laboratory research methods, yet autobiographical events are uncontrolled and, in most cases, unverifiable. In this study, we capitalised on a scripted, complex naturalistic event - the mask fit test (MFT), a standardised procedure required of hospital employees - to bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory memory assessment. We created a test of recognition memory for the MFT and administered it to 135 hospital employees who had undertaken the MFT at various points over the past five years...
October 17, 2016: Memory
Katharina Zinke, Ines Wilhelm, Müge Bayramoglu, Susanne Klein, Jan Born
Sleep is considered to support the formation of skill memory. In juvenile but not adult song birds learning a tutor's song, a stronger initial deterioration of song performance over night-sleep predicts better song performance in the long run. This and similar observations have stimulated the view of sleep supporting skill formation during development in an unsupervised off-line learning process that, in the absence of external feedback, can initially also enhance inaccuracies in skill performance. Here we explored whether in children learning a motor sequence task, as in song-learning juvenile birds, changes across sleep after initial practice predict performance levels achieved in the long run...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Shikha Jain Goodwin, Derek Dziobek
Ever since video games were available to the general public, they have intrigued brain researchers for many reasons. There is an enormous amount of diversity in the video game research, ranging from types of video games used, the amount of time spent playing video games, the definition of video gamer versus non-gamer to the results obtained after playing video games. In this paper, our goal is to provide a critical discussion of these issues, along with some steps towards generalization using the discussion of an article published by Clemenson and Stark (2005) as the starting point...
September 2016: Postdoc Journal: a Journal of Postdoctoral Research and Postdoctoral Affairs
Jaclyn H Ford, David C Rubin, Kelly S Giovanello
Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to examine the effects of familiarity on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during retrieval of autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues. Further, we were interested in understanding how these effects differ as a function of age. In an event-related functional neuroimaging study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories associated with age-specific popular musical clips...
September 2016: Psychomusicology
Roger Geiger, Jan C Rieckmann, Tobias Wolf, Camilla Basso, Yuehan Feng, Tobias Fuhrer, Maria Kogadeeva, Paola Picotti, Felix Meissner, Matthias Mann, Nicola Zamboni, Federica Sallusto, Antonio Lanzavecchia
Metabolic activity is intimately linked to T cell fate and function. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated dynamic metabolome and proteome profiles of human primary naive T cells following activation. We discovered critical changes in the arginine metabolism that led to a drop in intracellular L-arginine concentration. Elevating L-arginine levels induced global metabolic changes including a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in activated T cells and promoted the generation of central memory-like cells endowed with higher survival capacity and, in a mouse model, anti-tumor activity...
October 13, 2016: Cell
Deeba Noreen Baig, Toru Yanagawa, Katsuhiko Tabuchi
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SCAMs) are a functional category of cell adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynapses by the protein-protein interaction via their extracellular cell adhesion domains. Countless numbers of common genetic variants and rare mutations in SCAMs have been identified in the patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these, NRXN and NLGN family proteins cooperatively function at synaptic terminals both of which genes are strongly implicated as risk genes for ASDs...
October 12, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Wei Cheng, Edmund T Rolls, Jiang Qiu, Wei Liu, Yanqing Tang, Chu-Chung Huang, XinFa Wang, Jie Zhang, Wei Lin, Lirong Zheng, JunCai Pu, Shih-Jen Tsai, Albert C Yang, Ching-Po Lin, Fei Wang, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
The first brain-wide voxel-level resting state functional connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression is reported, with 421 patients with major depressive disorder and 488 control subjects. Resting state functional connectivity between different voxels reflects correlations of activity between those voxels and is a fundamental tool in helping to understand the brain regions with altered connectivity and function in depression. One major circuit with altered functional connectivity involved the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13, which is implicated in reward, and which had reduced functional connectivity in depression with memory systems in the parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal lobe, especially involving the perirhinal cortex Brodmann area 36 and entorhinal cortex Brodmann area 28...
October 14, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lena Nadarevic
People typically remember emotionally negative words better than neutral words. Two experiments are reported that investigate whether emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for negatively arousing words is based on a storage or retrieval advantage. Participants studied non-word-word pairs that either involved negatively arousing or neutral target words. Memory for these target words was tested by means of a recognition test and a cued-recall test. Data were analysed with a multinomial model that allows the disentanglement of storage and retrieval processes in the present recognition-then-cued-recall paradigm...
October 14, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Zebasil Tassew Mengesha, Jyisy Yang
In this study, an active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with a thermally inducible hot spot effect for sensitive measurement of Raman-active molecules was successfully fabricated from silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated shape-memory polystyrene (SMP) sheets. To prepare the SERS substrate, SMP sheets were first pretreated with n-octylamine for effective decoration with AgNPs. By varying the formulation and condition of the reduction reaction, AgNP-decorated SMP (Ag@SMP) substrates were successfully prepared with optimized particle gaps to produce inducible hot spot effects on thermal shrink...
October 14, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Simin Soleimanifar, Zahra Jafari, Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy, Houman Asadi, Hamid Haghani
INTRODUCTION: Children with cochlear implants (CIs) may experience few opportunities for positive musical experiences, and musical perception is therefore often not sufficiently developed. This paper investigates and discusses the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and musical ability in children with CIs compared with children with normal hearing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a comparative analytical study conducted in 48 children with unilateral CI and 48 normal-hearing children, 6-8 years of age, with 'normal' IQ and no formal music training...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Yang Liu, Srilakshmi Pandeswara, Vinh Dao, Álvaro Padrón, Justin M Drerup, Shunhua Lao, Aijie Liu, Vincent Hurez, Tyler J Curiel
mTOR drives tumor growth but also supports T cell function, rendering the applications of mTOR inhibitors complex especially in T cell malignancies. Here we studied the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse EL4 T cell lymphoma. Typical pharmacologic rapamycin (1-8 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor burden via direct suppression of tumor cell proliferation and improved survival in EL4 challenge independent of anti-tumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DD)-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells significantly slowed EL4 growth in vivo in a T cell-dependent fashion...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Research
Namita A Padgaonkar, Theodore P Zanto, Jacob Bollinger, Adam Gazzaley
Older adults, compared to younger adults, do not benefit from predictive information regarding either what type of stimuli they will see or when to expect them, yet it is unclear whether older adults benefit when given both types of predictive information. Here, electroencephalogram recordings of older (aged 62-87 years) and younger (aged 20-32 years) adults were recorded during a working memory task. Each trial contained 2 faces and 2 scenes presented sequentially, followed by a 5-second delay and a probe stimulus...
September 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
K G Sorwell, L Renner, A R Weiss, M Neuringer, S G Kohama, H F Urbanski
Estradiol supplementation has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in old ovariectomized rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To determine if similar benefits could be achieved in perimenopausal animals using alternative hormonal supplements we administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to old ovary-intact female rhesus macaques for ~2.5 months. Using computerized touchscreen memory tasks, including delayed response (DR) and delayed matching-to-sample (DMS), we observed improved performance with time in all of the animals but failed to detect a significant effect of DHEA...
October 13, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Carien S Lansink, Guido T Meijer, Jan V Lankelma, Martin A Vinck, Jadin C Jackson, Cyriel M A Pennartz
: The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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