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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641107/the-persistence-and-transience-of-memory
#1
REVIEW
Blake A Richards, Paul W Frankland
The predominant focus in the neurobiological study of memory has been on remembering (persistence). However, recent studies have considered the neurobiology of forgetting (transience). Here we draw parallels between neurobiological and computational mechanisms underlying transience. We propose that it is the interaction between persistence and transience that allows for intelligent decision-making in dynamic, noisy environments. Specifically, we argue that transience (1) enhances flexibility, by reducing the influence of outdated information on memory-guided decision-making, and (2) prevents overfitting to specific past events, thereby promoting generalization...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640942/polyfunctional-response-by-immtac-imcgp100-redirected-cd8-and-cd4-t-cells
#2
Caroline Boudousquie, Giovanna Bossi, Jacob M Hurst, Karolina A Rygiel, Bent K Jakobsen, Namir J Hassan
The success of immune system based cancer therapies depends on a broad immune response engaging a range of effector cells and mechanisms. Immune mobilising monoclonal TCRs against cancer (ImmTAC(™) molecules, fusion proteins consisting of a soluble, affinity enhanced TCR and an anti-CD3 scFv Ab) were previously shown to redirect CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells against tumours. Here we present evidence that IMCgp100 (ImmTAC recognising a peptide derived from the melanoma-specific protein, gp100, presented by HLA-A*0201) efficiently redirects and activates effector and memory cells from both CD8(+) and CD4(+) repertoires...
June 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640585/thermally-and-electrically-triggered-triple-shape-memory-behavior-of-poly-vinyl-acetate-poly-lactic-acid-due-to-graphene-induced-phase-separation
#3
Mohammad Sabzi, Masoud Babaahmadi, Mohammadreza Rahnama
This work aimed to develop a facile and broadly applicable method for fabricating a multi-stimuli responsive triple-shape memory polymer (SMP). Hence, herein the SMPs were prepared through the simple physical blending of two commercially available biopolymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), in the presence of robust and conductive graphene nanoplatelets. Interestingly, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations and thermal analyses revealed that the presence of nanofillers led to phase separation and appearance of two well-separated transition temperatures in the blend of these two miscible polymers...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631942/a-systematic-review-of-factors-affecting-driving-and-public-transportation-among-youth-and-young-adults-with-acquired-brain-injury
#5
Sally Lindsay, Andrei Stoica
PURPOSE: Although many people with an acquired brain injury (ABI) encounter difficulties with executive functioning and memory which could negatively affect driving, few people are assessed for fitness to drive after injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature on factors affecting driving and public transportation among youth and young adults with ABI, post injury. METHOD: Seven databases were systematically searched for articles from 1980 to 2016...
June 20, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#6
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630305/multiple-layers-of-heterogeneity-and-subset-diversity-in-human-mait-cell-responses-to-distinct-microorganisms-and-to-innate-cytokines
#7
Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a large innate-like T-cell subset in humans defined by invariant TCR Vα7.2 use and expression of CD161. MAIT cells recognize microbial riboflavin metabolites of bacterial or fungal origin presented by the monomorphic MR1 molecule. The extraordinary level of evolutionary conservation of MR1 and the limited known diversity of riboflavin metabolite antigens have suggested that MAIT cells are relatively homogeneous and uniform in responses against diverse microbes carrying the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629964/a-novel-heterocyclic-compound-improves-working-memory-in-the-radial-arm-maze-and-modulates-the-dopamine-receptor-d1r-in-frontal-cortex-of-the-sprague-dawley-rat
#8
Ahmed M Hussein, Yogesh D Aher, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragačević, Bojana Radoman, Marija Ilic, Johann Leban, Tetyana Beryozkina, Abdel Baset M A Ahmed, Ernst Urban, Thierry Langer, Gert Lubec
A series of compounds have been shown to enhance cognitive function via the dopaminergic system and indeed the search for more active and less toxic compounds is continuing. It was therefore the aim of the study to synthetise and test a novel heterocyclic compound for cognitive enhancement in a paradigm for working memory. Specific and effective dopamine re-uptake inhibition (DAT (IC50=4,1 ± 0,8μM) made us test this compound in a radial arm maze (RAM) in the rat. CE-125 (4-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)-2-cyclopropylthiazole), was tested for dopamine (DAT), serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition by a well-established system...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629026/multistate-proteinous-biomemory-device-based-on-redox-controllable-hapten-cross-linker
#9
Remziye Güzel, Arzu Ersöz, İbrahim Dolak, Rıdvan Say
A multistate biomemory device consisting of cytochrome c (Cyt-c) photosensitively cross-linked by MACys-Ru(bipyr)2-MACys hapten molecules, which have memory effect through a charge transfer mechanism, has been developed. In this study, it has suggested a highly resolute surface-confined switch composed a signal-enhanced electro-active protein (Cyt-c) co-polymerized on the gold substrates that can be controlled by redox property through Ruthenium based cysteine monomer hapten, MACys-Ru(bipyr)2-MACys as an ANADOLUCA photosensitive cross-linker...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628092/tissue-resident-memory-features-are-linked-to-the-magnitude-of-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses-in-human-lung-cancer
#10
Anusha-Preethi Ganesan, James Clarke, Oliver Wood, Eva M Garrido-Martin, Serena J Chee, Toby Mellows, Daniela Samaniego-Castruita, Divya Singh, Grégory Seumois, Aiman Alzetani, Edwin Woo, Peter S Friedmann, Emma V King, Gareth J Thomas, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Christian H Ottensmeier
Therapies that boost the anti-tumor responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have shown promise; however, clinical responses to the immunotherapeutic agents currently available vary considerably, and the molecular basis of this is unclear. We performed transcriptomic profiling of tumor-infiltrating CTLs from treatment-naive patients with lung cancer to define the molecular features associated with the robustness of anti-tumor immune responses. We observed considerable heterogeneity in the expression of molecules associated with activation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and of immunological-checkpoint molecules such as 4-1BB, PD-1 and TIM-3...
June 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626932/dentate-gyrus-neurogenesis-ablation-via-cranial-irradiation-enhances-morphine-self-administration-and-locomotor-sensitization
#11
Sarah E Bulin, Matthew L Mendoza, Devon R Richardson, Kwang H Song, Timothy D Solberg, Sanghee Yun, Amelia J Eisch
Adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis is important for hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, but the role of new neurons in addiction-relevant learning and memory is unclear. To test the hypothesis that neurogenesis is involved in the vulnerability to morphine addiction, we ablated adult DG neurogenesis and examined morphine self-administration (MSA) and locomotor sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hippocampal-focused, image-guided X-ray irradiation (IRR) to eliminate new DG neurons or sham treatment (Sham)...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626484/cognitive-enhancing-of-pineapple-extract-and-juice-in-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-in-mice
#12
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Mohammed Rabbani, Alireza Ghannadi, Elham Abdollahi
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing of pineapple juice and ethanolic extract in scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mice. The ethanolic extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) was prepared by maceration method and its juice was obtained by a homogenizer. Object recognition task was used to evaluate the mice memory. Exploration time in the first and second trial was recorded. The differences in exploration time between a familiar and a novel object in the second trial were taken as a memory index...
June 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626065/metabolic-reprogramming-commits-differentiation-of-human-cd27-igd-b-cells-to-plasmablasts-or-cd27-igd-cells
#13
Masataka Torigoe, Shigeru Iwata, Shingo Nakayamada, Kei Sakata, Mingzeng Zhang, Maiko Hajime, Yusuke Miyazaki, Manabu Narisawa, Koji Ishii, Hirotaka Shibata, Yoshiya Tanaka
B cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the relevance of the metabolic pathway in the differentiation of human B cell subsets remains unknown. In this article, we show that the combination of CpG/TLR9 and IFN-α markedly induced the differentiation of CD27(+)IgD(+) unswitched memory B cells into CD27(hi)CD38(hi) plasmablasts. The response was accompanied by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation and increased lactate production, indicating a shift to glycolysis...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626017/amyloid-beta-peptide-is-needed-for-cgmp-induced-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#14
Agostino Palmeri, Roberta Ricciarelli, Walter Gulisano, Daniela Rivera, Claudia Rebosio, Elisa Calcagno, Maria Rosaria Tropea, Silvia Conti, Utpal Das, Subhojit Roy, Maria A Pronzato, Ottavio Arancio, Ernesto Fedele, Daniela Puzzo
High levels of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) have been related to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, in the healthy brain, low physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ are necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because cGMP plays a key role in these processes, here we investigated whether the cyclic nucleotide cGMP influences Aβ levels and function during LTP and memory. We demonstrate that the increase of cGMP levels by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) sildenafil and vardenafil induces a parallel release of Aβ due to a change in the approximation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625971/peripheral-leptochoroid-clinical-and-anatomical-findings
#15
Jasmine H Francis, Larissa A Habib, David H Abramson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the clinical findings and anatomical characteristics of patients with a thinned peripheral choroid (leptochoroid) presenting with bilateral macular geographical hyperpigmented fundus and compare with matched controls. METHODS: A retrospective, observational case series of 44 eyes (24 patients): 22 study eyes (12 study patients) with clinical findings of leptochoroid (geographical hyperpigmented fundus centred in the macula) matched with 22 control eyes (12 control patients)...
June 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625942/cognitive-stimulation-in-healthy-older-adults-a-cognitive-stimulation-program-using-leisure-activities-compared-to-a-conventional-cognitive-stimulation-program
#16
Élisabeth Grimaud, Laurence Taconnat, David Clarys
The aim of this study was to compare two methods of cognitive stimulation for the cognitive functions. The first method used an usual approach, the second used leisure activities in order to assess their benefits on cognitive functions (speed of processing; working memory capacity and executive functions) and psychoaffective measures (memory span and self esteem). 67 participants over 60 years old took part in the experiment. They were divided into three groups: 1 group followed a program of conventional cognitive stimulation, 1 group a program of cognitive stimulation using leisure activities and 1 control group...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625941/meditation-and-successful-aging-can-meditative-practices-counteract-age-related-cognitive-decline
#17
Marco Sperduti, Dominique Makowski, Philippe Blondé, Pascale Piolino
Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the developed countries due to medical, hygiene and socio-economic advances. Unfortunately, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, aging is associated with growing risk factors for illness associated with societal conditions (isolation, maltreatment), and neurodegenerative diseases. Even normal aging is associated with a cognitive decline that can hinder independence and quality of life of elderly. Thus, one major societal challenge is to build policies that support people of all ages to maintain a maximum health and functional capacity throughout their lives...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625907/long-standing-isolated-autoimmune-hypothalamitis-diagnosed-with-endoscopic-transventricular-biopsy-a-case-report
#18
Lorenzo Bertulli, Giulio Andrea Bertani, Umberto Gianelli, Giovanna Mantovani, Paolo Maria Rampini, Marco Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hypothalamitis, which is among the causes of acquired central diabetes insipidus, has been described very rarely in the literature. This condition is probably provoked by the production of anti-vasopressin secreting cells antibodies and anti-hypothalamus antibodies, and is often associated with pituitary or polyendocrine autoimmunity. Correct diagnosis and immediate treatment are essential in order to avoid the progression of the pathological process. CASE DESCRIPTION: A woman diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus 12 year ago, suffering from panhypopituitarism and mild memory deficit came to our attention...
June 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625893/investigation-of-the-influence-of-emotions-on-working-memory-capacity-using-erp-and-ersp
#19
Yuanyuan Zhang, Gaoyan Zhang, Baolin Liu
Recent studies have reported that there are individual differences in working memory (WM), and that WM may be affected by emotions. To date, it remains controversial whether emotions impair or facilitate WM and whether there are individual differences in their effect on WM. In this study, three emotions (negative, neutral, and positive) were induced by a video database that was established according to the emotional stimuli habit of Chinese people. A change detection paradigm was used to examine the effect of emotions on the visual WM...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625547/contextual-fear-conditioning-is-enhanced-in-mice-lacking-functional-sphingosine-kinase-2
#20
Mona Lei, Adeena Shafique, Kani Shang, Timothy A Couttas, Hua Zhao, Anthony S Don, Tim Karl
The lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent neuroprotective signalling molecule that signals through its own family of five G-protein coupled receptors. S1P signalling enhances presynaptic glutamate release and is essential for neural development. S1P is synthesized by the enzymes sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and SphK2), of which SphK2 mRNA and activity is more abundant in the brain. In this study we investigated the consequences of global SphK2 knockout (SphK2(-/-)) on basic motor capabilities, anxiety, learning, and memory in mice, using a range of tests including the elevated plus maze, the cheeseboard, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and fear extinction...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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