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Regulatory enzymes

Rocío Barroso, Sofía M García-Mauriño, Laura Tomás-Gallardo, Eloísa Andújar, Mónica Pérez-Alegre, Eduardo Santero, Inés Canosa
CbrAB is a high ranked global regulatory system exclusive of the Pseudomonads that responds to carbon limiting conditions. It has become necessary to define the particular regulon of CbrB and discriminate it from the downstream cascades through other regulatory components. We have performed in vivo binding analysis of CbrB in P. putida and determined that it directly controls the expression of at least 61 genes; 20% involved in regulatory functions, including the previously identified CrcZ and CrcY small regulatory RNAs...
2018: PloS One
M-H Zhou, L Zhang, M-J Song, W-J Sun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the regulatory effects of microRNA-218 on lung tissue of rats with acute lung injury (ALI) and its underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group, lung injury group and microRNA-218 treatment group. The in vitro lung injury model was established by injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), PGN (peptidoglycan) and IgG IC (immune complex). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the expression of microRNA-218 in lung tissues of ALI rats...
December 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L Hu, Z-G Bai, X-M Ma, N Bai, Z-T Zhang
OBJECTIVE: MLN4924 is a second-generation small molecule inhibitor with anti-cancer activity that inhibits neddylation activation enzyme (NAE), subsequently blocking the neddylation-dependent activation of Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs). Mof4 family associated protein 1 (MRFAP1) is a highly conserved, short half-life protein and one of the most up-regulated proteins in response to MLN4924 treatment. MRFAP1 has been identified as a novel cell cycle-related protein and a regulatory component monitoring and preventing genomic instability...
December 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jean-Marc Zingg
Vitamin E modulates signal transduction pathways by several molecular mechanisms. As a hydrophobic molecule located mainly in membranes it contributes together with other lipids to the physical and structural characteristics such as membrane stability, curvature, fluidity, and the organization into microdomains (lipid rafts). By acting as the main lipid-soluble antioxidant, it protects other lipids such as mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, respectively) against chemical reactions with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) and prevents membrane destabilization and cellular dysfunction...
December 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
Akira Iizuka, Seiji Segawa, Yuya Kondo, Shunta Kaneko, Masahiro Yokosawa, Kotona Furuyama, Haruka Miki, Satoko Tahara-Hanaoka, Akira Shibuya, Hiroto Tsuboi, Daisuke Goto, Isao Matsumoto, Shiro Shibayama, Takayuki Sumida
AIM: Allergy inhibitory receptor-1 (Allergin-1) is a newly identified immune regulatory molecule thought to influence autoantibody production. Autoantibody production, like that observed in Allergin-1-deficient mice, is crucial in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. The purpose of this study is to clarify the regulatory role of Allergin-1-mediated autoantibody production using a murine model of thymocytic anaphylaxis. METHODS: C57BL/6 (WT) and Allergin-1-deficient mice were treated with apoptotic cells from naive thymocytes stimulated by dexamethasone...
December 16, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Nina Sopel, Julia Koelle, Sonja Dumendiak, Sonja Koch, Martin Reichel, Cosima Rhein, Johannes Kornhuber, Susetta Finotto
Acid sphingomyelinase is one of the enzymes that catalyzes the breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the role of ASM in allergic asthma. We used an Ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma where we compared wild type and ASM-deficient mice. In wild type mice, S-ASM activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was found increased in the acute OVA-model, but not in a tolerogenic model. Furthermore, in the absence of ASM, the serum IgE level was found reduced, as compared to wild type mice, while an accumulation of interstitial macrophages and foreign antigen induced T regulatory cells along with exhausted CD4+ PD1+ T cells was observed in the lungs of ASM-/- mice...
December 16, 2018: Immunology
Riyad A Almaimani, Hussain Almasmoum, Mazen M Ghaith, Mohamed El-Boshy, Shakir Idris, Jawwad Ahmad, Abdelghany H Abdelghany, Mohammad A BaSalamah, Amani Mahbub, Bassem Refaat
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal and nephropathy is common with chronic exposure. Although vitamin D (VD) and calcium (Ca) showed promising protections, their co-administration was not previously investigated in Pb nephrotoxicity. This study measured the potential interactions and remedial effects of VD and/or Ca on established Pb nephropathy. METHODS: Fifty adult male mice were equally distributed into: negative controls (NC), positive controls (PC), Ca, VD and VDC groups...
December 12, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Satyabrata Nanda, Pin-Jun Wan, San-Yue Yuan, Feng-Xiang Lai, Wei-Xia Wang, Qiang Fu
The conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play vital roles in plant defense responses against pathogens and insects. In the current study, the expression profiles of 17 OsMPK s were determined in the TN1 and IR56 rice varieties under the infestation of brown planthopper (BPH), one of the most destructive hemimetabolous rice pests. The virulent IR56 BPH population (IR56-BPH) and the avirulent TN1 BPH population (TN-BPH) were used to reveal the roles of OsMPK s in the compatible (IR56-BPH infested on the TN1 and IR56 rice varieties, and TN1-BPH infested on the TN1 rice variety) and the incompatible (TN1-BPH infested on the IR56 rice variety) interaction...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arash Soltani, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Farnaz Zahedi Avval, Anvar Soleimani, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed Abdorahim Rezaee, Renate Griffith, Baratali Mashkani
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is linked to adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and several other disorders. ATLL occurs in approximately 5% of the 15-20 million people infected by HTLV-1 in the world. In general, ATLL is resistant to chemotherapy, which underlines the need for new and effective therapeutic strategies. Previous studies highlighted the role of viral enzymes, responsible for viral replication, and regulatory proteins such as Tax and HBZ in the progression of HTLV-1-associated diseases...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Elham Karimi-Sales, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Mohammad Reza Alipour
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an inflammatory and progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, there are no FDA-approved drugs for this condition. Lipids accumulated in NASH have a direct role in the progression of this disease. Therefore, this study for the first time explored the preventive effect of trans-chalcone on NASH through the modulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, hepatic fatty acid synthesis (FAS) enzyme, proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ2 levels, which are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Liying Ren, Xia Zhou, Xiaoqian Huang, Chunxia Wang, Yuhao Li
AIMS: Chronic treatment with antipsychotics, especially most of atypical ones, leads to development of metabolic abnormalities. Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced metabolic adverse effects in the liver, however, remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate olanzapine-induced insulin-desensitivity in the liver. MAIN METHODS: Male rats were treated with olanzapine (5 mg/kg, by a gavage method, once daily for consecutive 8 weeks...
December 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Jiapeng Zheng, Qiang Li
Long noncoding RNAs serve as novel regulatory molecules involved in various biological processes, but their role in osteoarthritis (OA) remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the inflammatory mechanisms regulated by CILinc02 and methylene blue in human osteoarthritic cartilage and to explore the potential functions of CILinc02 and methylene blue in OA. The expression level of CILinc02 in OA cartilage tissues and primary cells was obtained using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ming Tan, Mohammad Asad, Valerie Heong, Meng Kang Wong, Tuan Zea Tan, Jieru Ye, Kuee Theng Kuay, Jean Paul Thiery, Clare Scott, Ruby Yun-Ju Huang
Frizzled family receptor 7 (FZD7), a Wnt signaling receptor, is associated with the maintenance of stem cell properties and cancer progression. FZD7 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target because it is capable of transducing both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals. In this study, we investigated the regulatory pathway downstream of FZD7 and its functional roles. We found that FZD7 expression was crucial to the maintenance of the mesenchymal phenotype, anoikis resistance, and spheroid and tumour formation in ovarian cancer...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Le Guan, Muhammad Salman Haider, Nadeem Khan, Maazullah Nasim, Songtao Jiu, Muhammad Fiaz, Xudong Zhu, Kekun Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Salinity is ubiquitous abiotic stress factor limiting viticulture productivity worldwide. However, the grapevine is vulnerable to salt stress, which severely affects growth and development of the vine. Hence, it is crucial to delve into the salt resistance mechanism and screen out salt-resistance prediction marker genes; we implicated RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) technology to compare the grapevine transcriptome profile to salt stress. Results showed 2472 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in total in salt-responsive grapevine leaves, including 1067 up-regulated and 1405 down-regulated DEGs...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Saba Haq, Soumyadip Das, Dongho Kim, Arun Pandian Chandrasekaran, Seok-Ho Hong, Kye-Seong Kim, Suresh Ramakrishna
RNA-binding protein LIN28A is often highly expressed in human malignant tumors and is involved in tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. Knowledge about post-translational regulatory mechanisms governing LIN28A protein stability and function is scarce. Here, we investigated the role of ubiquitination and deubiquitination on LIN28A protein stability and report that LIN28A protein undergoes ubiquitination. Ubiquitin-specific protease 28 (USP28), a deubiquitinating enzyme, interacts with and stabilizes LIN28A protein to extend its half-life...
December 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Zhenfeng Liu, Yi Lang, Li Li, Zhiquan Liang, Yingjie Deng, Rui Fang, Qingcai Meng
Emodin is an anthraquinone isolated from the Chinese herb Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and has been used to treat various diseases for centuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of emodin on the inflammatory mediators in rat chondrocytes. In the present study, chondrocytes were isolated from rats, cultured and harvested when they reached generation P3. Cells were treated with different doses of emodin (10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) followed by interleukin 1β (IL-1β, 10 ng/ml). Control cells were either untreated or treated with IL-1β alone...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Oluwapelumi O Adeyemi, Lee Sherry, Joseph C Ward, Danielle M Pierce, Morgan R Herod, David J Rowlands, Nicola J Stonehouse
Virus capsid proteins must perform a number of roles. These include the ability to self-assemble and to maintain stability under challenging environmental conditions, while retaining the conformational flexibility necessary to uncoat and deliver the viral genome into a host cell. Fulfilling these roles could place conflicting constraints on the innate abilities encoded within the protein sequences. In a previous study, we identified a number of mutations within the capsid coding sequence of poliovirus (PV) that were established in the population during selection for greater thermostability by sequential treatment at progressively higher temperatures...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ying Chen, Lu Zhu, Lei Ji, Ying Yang, Lu Lu, Xiaodong Wang, Guomim Zhou
BACKGROUND Acyl-coenzymeA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) 1, a key enzyme converting excess free cholesterol to cholesterol esters, has been demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the protective role of ACAT1 blockage in AD progression remains elusive. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of aggregated Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ (5, 15, 25, and 45 μmol) with or without the ACAT1 siRNA pretreatment...
December 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
María Elisa Pavan, Esmeralda Solar Venero, Diego E Egoburo, Esteban E Pavan, Nancy I López, M Julia Pettinari
The environmental strain Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT produces abundant melanin through the homogentisate pathway in several culture media, but unexpectedly not when grown in a medium containing glycerol. Using this observation as a starting point, this study investigated the underlying causes of the inhibition of melanin synthesis by glycerol, to shed light on factors that affect melanin production in this microorganism. The effect of different carbon sources on melanin formation was related to the degree of oxidation of their C atoms, as the more reduced substrates delayed melanization more than the more oxidized ones, although only glycerol completely abolished melanin production...
December 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fanwei Meng, Yahui Zhao, Tom Titus, Chunguang Zhang, John H Postlethwait
The genus Sinocyclocheilus (golden-line barbel) includes 25 species of cave-dwelling blind fish (cavefish) and more than 30 surface-dwelling species with normal vision. Cave environments are dark and generally nutrient-poor with few predators. Cavefish of several genera evolved convergent morphological adaptations in visual, pigmentation, brain, olfactory, and digestive systems. We compared brain morphology and gene expression patterns in a cavefish Sinocyclocheilus anophthalmus with those of a closely related surface-dwelling species S...
December 2018: Current Zoology
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