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Regulatory enzymes

Bin Xu, Guohui Yu, Hui Li, Zheni Xie, Wuwu Wen, Jing Zhang, Bingru Huang
Chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown is a hallmark of leaf senescence. Protein degradation is tightly associated with accelerated Chl catabolism during leaf senescence. Therefore, blocking or reducing Chl breakdown and thereby improving Chl and leaf protein contents is desirable for agronomic improvement in perennial forage grasses. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one principle cool-season forage grass in temperate areas throughout the world. In this study, the perennial ryegrass STAYGREEN gene (LpSGR) was cloned and characterized...
October 17, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Michael Tellier, Ronald Chalmers
Transposons impart dynamism to the genomes they inhabit and their movements frequently rewire the control of nearby genes. Occasionally, their proteins are domesticated when they evolve a new function. SETMAR is a protein methylase with a sequence-specific DNA binding domain. It began to evolve about 50 million years ago when an Hsmar1 transposon integrated downstream of a SET-domain methylase gene. Here we show that the DNA-binding domain of the transposase targets the enzyme to transposon-end remnants and that this is capable of regulating gene expression, dependent on the methylase activity...
October 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Nurbubu T Moldogazieva, Sergey V Lutsenko, Alexander A Terentiev
Cancer is a complex disorder extremely dependent on its microenvironment and highly regulated by multiple intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Studies show that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) play key roles in cancer initiation and progression. Accumulation of RONS caused by imbalance between RONS generation and activity of antioxidant system (AOS) has been observed in many cancer types. This leads to alterations in gene expression levels, signal transduction pathways, and protein quality control machinery, that is, processes that regulate cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis...
October 16, 2018: Cancer Research
Michael J Bollong, Gihoon Lee, John S Coukos, Hwayoung Yun, Claudio Zambaldo, Jae Won Chang, Emily N Chin, Insha Ahmad, Arnab K Chatterjee, Luke L Lairson, Peter G Schultz, Raymond E Moellering
Mechanisms that integrate the metabolic state of a cell with regulatory pathways are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. Endogenous, intrinsically reactive metabolites can form functional, covalent modifications on proteins without the aid of enzymes1,2 , and regulate cellular functions such as metabolism3-5 and transcription6 . An important 'sensor' protein that captures specific metabolic information and transforms it into an appropriate response is KEAP1, which contains reactive cysteine residues that collectively act as an electrophile sensor tuned to respond to reactive species resulting from endogenous and xenobiotic molecules...
October 15, 2018: Nature
K Govindasamy, R Khan, M Snyder, H J Lou, P Du, H M Kudyba, V Muralidharan, B E Turk, P Bhanot
Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite, Plasmodium , which undergoes a complex life-cycle in a human host and a mosquito vector. The parasite's cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG) is essential at multiple steps of the life-cycle. Phosphoproteomic studies in P. falciparum eyrthocytic stages and P. berghei ookinetes have identified proteolysis as a major biological pathway dependent on PKG activity. To further understand PKG's mechanism of action, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library for P. falciparum proteins that interact with P...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Can Zhao, Jing Jiang, Yong-Liang Wang, Yong-Quan Wu
Ischemic heart disease is widely considered as a major health threat, which causes a high number of deaths every year worldwide. Much evidence has shown that oxidative stress (OS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). This study aims to evaluate the effect of miR-590-3p on the OS of IRI mice through the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by targeting receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1). IRI mouse models were established for extracting myocardial tissues and isolating myocardial cells...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Octavio Galindo-Hernández, Iván Córdova-Guerrero, Laura Janeth Díaz-Rubio, Ángel Pulido-Capiz, José Fernando Díaz-Villanueva, César Yahel Castañeda-Sánchez, Nicolás Serafín-Higuera, Víctor García-González
Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a cellular phenomenon that has been associated with metabolic disorders, contributing to the development of obesity, fatty liver disease, and dyslipidemias. Under metabolic overload conditions, in cells with a high protein-secretory activity, such as hepatocytes and Langerhans β cells, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is critical in to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). UPR integrated by a tripartite signaling system, through activating transcription factor 6, protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1, regulates gene transcription and translation to resolve stress and conserve proteostasis...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ioannis Gkouveris, Nikolaos G Nikitakis, Jaya Asservatham, Kalu U E Ogbureke
The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in various malignant neoplasms is widely considered to represent the host immune response to tumor development. The role of interferon (IFN)γ in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and its association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, remains a subject of ongoing investigation. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), which is a member of the small integrin‑binding N‑linked glycoproteins family, has been implicated in malignant transformation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Emily S C Rittershaus, Seung-Hun Baek, Inna V Krieger, Samantha J Nelson, Yu-Shan Cheng, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Richard E Baker, John D Leszyk, Scott A Shaffer, James C Sacchettini, Christopher M Sassetti
Upon inhibition of respiration, which occurs in hypoxic or nitric oxide-containing host microenvironments, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adopts a non-replicating "quiescent" state and becomes relatively unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. We used comprehensive mutant fitness analysis to identify regulatory and metabolic pathways that are essential for the survival of quiescent Mtb. This genetic study identified a protein acetyltransferase (Mt-Pat/Rv0998) that promoted survival and altered the flux of carbon from oxidative to reductive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) reactions...
October 4, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
C Chen, Y Y Hu, Q Feng
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) is the key rate-limiting enzyme to catalyze the conversion of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids. The monounsaturated fatty acids in the catalytic products are important substrates for the formation of triglycerides, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. Therefore, SCD-1 plays an important regulatory role in the metabolic process of fat. Currently, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are widely prevalent worldwide. SCD-1 has gradually become a potential drug target for the treatment of such diseases due to its important regulatory role in fat metabolism...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Jian-Guo Qiu, Da-Yan Shi, Xin Liu, Xi-Xia Zheng, Lei Wang, Qian Li
Urothelial bladder carcinoma is the ninth most common cancer in the world, with an estimated 150,000 deaths per year. Two comprehensive analysis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas urothelial bladder carcinoma reported that chromatin modifier gene mutations were common in bladder cancer. We aimed to find how the mutations and transcriptional profiles of the genes involving in chromatin modification affected the prognosis of patients. The data were retrieved from the Genomic Data Commons data portal and the gene list in pathway Chromatin Modifying Enzymes were obtained from Reactome...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Majid Ahmadi, Mehdi Yousefi, Sanaz Abbaspour-Aghdam, Sanam Dolati, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Shadi Eghbal-Fard, Alireza Khabbazi, Davood Rostamzadeh, Shahriar Alipour, Mahdi Shabani, Mohammad Nouri, Zohreh Babaloo
Impaired inflammatory immune cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD). In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, cytokine secretion, the expression of transcription factors related to Th17 and Treg cells, and microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting these transcription factors in BD patients. Blood samples from 47 BD patients and 58 healthy subjects were drawn, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated and isolated...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yu-Ying Lian, Hong-Hui He, Chao-Zheng Zhang, Xin-Cang Li, Yi-Hong Chen
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to both normal and pathological tissue remodeling. They act as regulatory molecules by working in enzyme cascades as well as processing matrix proteins, cytokines, growth factors and adhesion molecules to generate fragments with biological effects. So MMPs could play distrinct roles in the process of pathogen infection. In present study, we cloned a MMP-2 (LvMMP-2) gene from Litopenaeus vannamei. LvMMP-2, highly expressed in epidermis, located to endoplasmic reticulum in S2 cells...
October 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sarmistha Guha, Shubha Udupa, Wareed Ahmed, Valakunja Nagaraja
DNA gyrase, essential for DNA replication and transcription, has traditionally been studied in vivo by treatments that inhibit the enzyme activity. Due to its indispensable function, gyrA and gyrB deletions cannot be generated. The coumarin inhibitors of gyrase induce the supercoiling-sensitive gyrase promoter by a mechanism termed relaxation-stimulated transcription (RST). Hence, to study the effect of sustained reduction in gyrase levels, a conditional-knockdown strain was generated in Mycobacterium smegmatis such that gyrase expression was controlled by a supercoiling non-responsive regulatory circuit...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Max A Thorwald, Jose A Godoy-Lugo, Gema J Rodriguez, Marco Antonio Rodriguez, Mostofa Jamal, Hiroshi Kinoshita, Daisuke Nakano, Akira Nishiyama, Henry Jay Forman, Rudy M Ortiz
Diabetic hearts are susceptible to damage from inappropriate activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and hyperglycemic events both of which contribute to increased oxidant production. Inappropriately elevated oxidants impair mitochondrial enzyme function, further contributing to metabolic derangement. Nuclear factor erythriod-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) induces antioxidant genes including those for glutathione (GSH) synthesis following translocation to the nucleus. We hypothesized that an acute elevation in plasma glucose facilitates Nrf2 nuclear translocation and subsequent expression of Nrf2-associated genes...
October 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Panagiotis L Kastritis, Anne-Claude Gavin
An unprecedented opportunity to integrate ~100 years of meticulous in vitro biomolecular research is currently provided in the light of recent advances in methods to visualize closer-to-native architectures of biomolecular machines, and metabolic enzymes in particular. Traditional views of enzymes, namely biomolecular machines, only partially explain their role, organization and kinetics in the cellular milieu. Enzymes self- or hetero-associate, form fibers, may bind to membranes or cytoskeletal elements, have regulatory roles, associate into higher order assemblies (metabolons) or even actively participate in phase-separated membraneless organelles, and all the above in a transient, temporal and spatial manner in response to environmental changes or structural/functional changes of their assemblies...
October 12, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Li Zhu, Huaidong Tu, Yanmei Liang, Dihong Tang
BACKGROUND: As indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is critical in tumor immune escape, we determined to study the regulatory mechanism of miR-218 on IDO1 in cervical cancer. METHODS: Real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was carried out to measure the expression of miR-218. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to detect the expression of IDO1 in cervical cancer. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the binding of miR-218 on the IDO1 3'UTR. Cell viability, apoptosis, and related factors were determined using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Annexin-V/PI (propidium) assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA), RT-qPCR, and Western blot assays after miR-218 mimics has been transfected to HeLa cervical cancer cells...
October 12, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Donna M Morrison, David R Ledoux, Lambert F B Chester, Coretta A N Samuels
A survey was conducted on Guyana's main staple foods, rice, cassava meal and cassava bread to determine the presence and concentration of aflatoxins (AFs) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for concurrence. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungus Aspergillus and can be a health risk to humans and animals. Results were compared with European Union Commission (EUC) maximum levels of total aflatoxins of 10 μg/kg...
October 11, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Yanxia Yin, Yadan Gao, Shanze Li, Guohua Jiang, Qun Wei
Isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (AceK) is a bifunctional enzyme with both kinase and phosphatase activities that are activated by Mg2+ . We have studied the interactions of Mn2+ and Mg2+ with AceK using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) combined with molecular docking simulations and show for the first time that Mn2+ also activates the enzyme activities. However, Mn2+ and Mg2+ exert their effects by different mechanisms. Although they have similar binding constants (of 1.11 × 105 and 0...
October 12, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Muyan Chen, Shanshan Wang, Xingke Li, Kenneth B Storey, Xiumei Zhang
The sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) has become a good model organism for studying environmentally-induced aestivation by a marine invertebrate more recently. In the present study, we hypothesized that miRNA-200-3p may contribute to establish rapid biological control to regulate fatty acid metabolism during a estivation. The peroxisomal bi-functional enzyme (EHHADH) is a crucial participant of the classical peroxisomal fatty acid β -oxidation pathway, the relative mRNA transcripts and protein expressions of EHHADH were analyzed in intestine from sea cucumbers experienced long-term aestivation...
2018: PeerJ
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