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Regulatory enzymes

Yong-Xin Wang, Rui-Min Teng, Wen-Li Wang, Ying Wang, Wei Shen, Jing Zhuang
Lignin is a complex aromatic heteropolymer that plays essential roles in mechanical support, water transport, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The tea plant is a leaf-type beverage crop, which serves as a resource for non-alcoholic beverage tea. The content and distribution of lignin in tea plant leaves seriously affect the quality of tea. However, the biosynthetic pathways of lignin remain to be characterized in the tea plant. In the present study, lignin accumulation was investigated in tea plant leaves and stems at three developmental stages...
August 18, 2018: Protoplasma
Adrienn Pálvölgyi, James Simpson, Ibolya Bodnár, Judit Bíró, Miklós Palkovits, Tamás Radovits, Paul Skehel, Ferenc A Antoni
Trans-membrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) isoforms show markedly distinct regulatory properties that have not been fully explored. AC9 is highly expressed in vital organs such as the heart and the brain. Here, we report that the isoform-specific carboxyl-terminal domain (C2b) of AC9 inhibits the activation of the enzyme by Gs-coupled receptors (GsCR). In human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) stably overexpressing AC9, cAMP production by AC9 induced upon the activation of endogenous β-adrenergic and prostanoid GsCRs was barely discernible...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Kosuke Mori, Koh Niinuma, Masaya Fujita, Naofumi Kamimura, Eiji Masai
Microbial conversion of lignin-derived aromatics is a promising strategy for industrial utilization of this large biomass resource. However, efficient application requires elucidation of relevant transport and catabolic pathways. In Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6, most enzyme genes involved in 5,5'-dehydrodivanillate (DDVA) catabolism have been characterized but the transporter has not yet been identified. Here we identified SLG_07710 ( ddvK ) and SLG_07780 ( ddvR ), genes encoding a putative major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter and MarR-type transcriptional regulator, respectively...
August 17, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Robert Roskoski
The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade is arguably the most important oncogenic pathway in human cancers. Ras-GTP promotes the formation of active homodimers or heterodimers of A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf by an intricate process. These enzymes are protein-serine/threonine kinases that catalyze the phosphorylation and activation of MEK1 and MEK2 which, in turn, catalyze the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1 and ERK2. The latter catalyze the regulatory phosphorylation of dozens of cytosolic and nuclear proteins...
August 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Yue-Jin Peng, Jin-Li Ding, Ming-Guang Feng, Sheng-Hua Ying
Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) plays an important role in cellular metabolism and development in yeast. In PP1 enzyme complex, Glc8 protein is a global regulatory subunit and regulates many physiological processes. However, its biological roles are unexplored in filamentous fungi. In this study, we characterized a yeast ortholog of Glc8 in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous entomopathogenic fungus. Gene disruption of BbGlc8 had no significant effect on vegetative growth, but resulted in a significant reduction in conidiation (51%) and blastospore yield (55%) in the mutant...
August 16, 2018: Current Genetics
Praveen Koganti, Gal Levy-Cohen, Michael Blank
Protein ubiquitination is an evolutionary conserved highly-orchestrated enzymatic cascade essential for normal cellular functions and homeostasis maintenance. This pathway relies on a defined set of cellular enzymes, among them, substrate-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3s). These ligases are the most critical players, as they define the spatiotemporal nature of ubiquitination and confer specificity to this cascade. Smurf1 and Smurf2 (Smurfs) are the C2-WW-HECT-domain E3 ubiquitin ligases, which recently emerged as important determinants of pivotal cellular processes...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mingnuan Han, Ting Zhang, Wen Gu, Xingxin Yang, Ronghua Zhao, Jie Yu
Previous studies have suggested that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) prevents progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet. The present study aimed to evaluate whether TSG could reverse NAFLD induced by a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet and identify the possible mechanism of action. C57BL6/J mice were fed a MCD diet and were treated with TSG, fenofibrate, and resveratrol for 9 weeks. Regulatory effects of several cytokines and enzymes, including Nod-like receptor protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-18, IL-1β, and gut microbiota balance were investigated...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Elizabeth A Whitcomb, Yien Che Tsai, Johnvesly Basappa, Ke Liu, Aurélie K Le Feuvre, Allan M Weissman, Allen Taylor
Ubiquitinylation drives many cellular processes by targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitin conjugation enzymes promote ubiquitinylation and, thus, degradation of protein substrates. Ubiquitinylation is a well-known posttranslational modification controlling cell-cycle transitions and levels or/and activation levels of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes change during development and cell cycle. Progression through the cell cycle is tightly controlled by CDK inhibitors such as p27Kip1 . Here we show that, in contrast to promoting its degradation, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBCH7/UBE2L3 specifically protects p27Kip1 from degradation...
August 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Eun Young Lee, Sena Lee, Semi Rho, Jae-Ouk Kim, Seuk Keun Choi, Young Jin Lee, Joo Young Park, Manki Song, Jae Seung Yang
Purpose: An oral cholera vaccine (OCV), Euvichol, with thimerosal (TM) as preservative, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. In recent years, public health services and regulatory bodies recommended to eliminate TM in vaccines due to theoretical safety concerns. In this study, we examined whether TM-free Euvichol induces comparable immunogenicity to its TM-containing formulation in animal model. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the immunogenicity of the two variations of OCV, mice were immunized with TM-free or TM-containing Euvichol twice at 2-week interval by intranasal or oral route...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Yoon Mi Cho, Dong Hee Kim, Kyung Hye Lee, Seong-Whan Jeong, Oh-Joo Kwon
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) improves whole-body insulin sensitivity by regulating the adipogenic and metabolic functions of mature adipocytes. We have previously demonstrated that an active splice variant of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) enhances PPARγ expression during adipogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of XBP1s, particularly with respect to PPARγ, in the mechanisms underlying insulin sensitivity in mature adipocytes. Insulin was able to stimulate XBP1s generation by activating inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) α and was also able to increase its transcriptional activity by inducing nuclear translocation...
August 15, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Tao Su, Mei Han, Jie Min, Peixian Chen, Yuxin Mao, Qiao Huang, Qian Tong, Qiuchen Liu, Yanming Fang
Invertases are essential enzymes that irreversibly catalyze the cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose. Cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) are glycosylated proteins and exert fundamental roles in plant growth as well as in response to environmental cues. As yet, comprehensive insight into invertase encoding genes are lacking in Glycine max . In the present study, the systematic survey of gene structures, coding regions, regulatory elements, conserved motifs, and phylogenies resulted in the identification of thirty⁻two putative invertase genes in soybean genome...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Patrícia Schonhofen, Ivi Juliana Bristot, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, Antônio Waldo Zuardi, Richard B Parsons, Fábio Klamt
The endocannabinoid retrograde signaling pathway is widely expressed in the central nervous system, where it plays major roles in regulating synaptic plasticity (excitatory and inhibitory) through long-term potentiation and long-term depression. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) components-cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and synthesis/degradation enzymes-are expressed and are functional from early developmental stages and throughout adolescent cortical development, regulating progenitor cell fate, neural differentiation, migration and survival...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Hongbo Liu, Hao Liang, Hu Meng, Xiaobing Deng, Xiaoling Zhang, Luhua Lai
I kappa B kinase β (IKKβ) is one of the primary targets to regulate canonical NF-κB activity. The misregulation of NF-κB is associated with various diseases, including chronic inflammation and cancers. Most of the known IKKβ inhibitors target its active form and suffer from poor selectivity. In the present study, we aim to design inhibitors that can bind to the IKKβ inactive form and block its activation. We identified a potential allosteric site between the kinase domain (KD) and ubiquitin-like domain (ULD) of human IKKβ and used it to virtually screen a chemical library for allosteric inhibitors...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Liming Ouyang, Petter Holland, Hongzhong Lu, David Bergenholm, Jens Nielsen
The S. cerevisiae transcription factor (TF) Stb5 is known to be involved in regulating NADPH generation. We explored its role by combining DNA binding studies with transcriptome analysis at four environmental conditions that were selected to cover a range of different metabolic states. Using ChIP-exo, DNA binding targets of Stb5 were found to confirm many previously proposed binding targets, in particular genes encoding enzymes involved in NADPH generation and the pentose-phosphate (PP) pathway. Transcriptome analysis of an STB5 deletion strain revealed transcriptional changes in direct regulation targets of Stb5, including several PP pathway genes as well as additional novel regulatory targets, but interestingly not including the proposed PP pathway flux controlling enzyme Zwf1...
August 9, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Carlos A Reyes-Ramos, Alma B Peregrino-Uriarte, Keni Cota-Ruiz, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto, Lilia Leyva-Carrillo, Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia
Hypoxic zones in marine environments are spreading around the world affecting the survival of many organisms. Marine animals have several strategies to respond to hypoxia, including the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis. The objective of this work was to study two isoforms of PEPCK, one mitochondrial (PEPKC-M) and one cytosolic (PEPCK-C), from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the response to hypoxia. Both PEPCK isoforms are 72 kDa proteins and have 92% identity at the amino acid level...
August 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Koustav Roy, Garima Chauhan, Punita Kumari, Meetu Wadhwa, Shahnawaz Alam, Koushik Ray, Usha Panjwani, Krishna Kishore
AIMS: Sleep loss at high altitude (HA) play major role in worsening of neuropsychological functions, such as attention, memory and decision making. This study investigates the role of phosphorylated delta sleep inducing peptide (p-DSIP) in improving sleep architecture during chronic hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure and restoration of spatial navigational memory. METHODS: Morris water maze (MWM) trained rats were exposed to HH at 7620 m. p-DSIP was injected intra-peritoneally (10 μg/Kg bw) during HH exposure as an intervention against sleep alteration...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Chao Wang, Minghan Bai, Xin Wang, Chunlei Tan, Dongzhi Zhang, Liang Chang, Guofu Li, Lingyu Xie, Jun Su, Yuan Wen
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an estrogen receptor antagonist, fulvestrant, on proliferation and apoptosis of prolactinoma cells, and to reveal potential regulatory mechanisms. Prolactinoma GH3 cells were treated with 10‑6 mol/l fulvestrant for 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. GH3 cell growth was observed under a microscope and cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Morphological changes of the nuclei in GH3 cells were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining and apoptotic rates were detected by flow cytometry...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wenlong Ma, Yanfeng Liu, Yue Wang, Xueqin Lv, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Long Liu
Glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (GNA1) that catalyzes acetyl transfer from acetyl-coenzyme A to glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P), and glutamine-fructose-6- phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS) that catalyzes the formation of GlcN-6P from fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6P), are two key enzymes in Bacillus subtilis for the bioproduction of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a nutraceutical that has various applications in the healthcare. In this study, we fine-tuned the expression of GNA1 and GlmS by 5'-terminus fusion engineering to improve GlcNAc production...
August 14, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
E Egerer, S Siemonsen, F Erbguth
The reciprocal culprit-victim relationship between the brain and the heart leads to dysfunction and damage to the other organ, especially in acute and severe diseases of one of both organs. In addition, both organ systems can be affected by identical systemic processes, e. g., arteriosclerotic changes. Cardiac embolic formation and pumping failure lead to focal cerebral ischemia or global hypoxia. Cerebral diseases leading to cardiac changes are acute cerebrovascular attacks such as cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as epileptic seizures...
August 13, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Min Chen, Jer-Young Lin, Jungim Hur, Julie M Pelletier, Russell Baden, Matteo Pellegrini, John J Harada, Robert B Goldberg
The precise mechanisms that control gene activity during seed development remain largely unknown. Previously, we showed that several genes essential for seed development, including those encoding storage proteins, fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes, and transcriptional regulators (e.g., ABI3 , FUS3 ) are located within hypomethylated regions of the soybean genome. These hypomethylated regions are similar to the DNA methylation valleys (DMVs), or canyons, found in mammalian cells. Here, we address the question of the extent to which DMVs are present within seed genomes and what role they might play in seed development...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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