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P. falciparum

Ana Paula de Azevedo Dos Santos, Saara Nery Fialho, Daniel Sol Sol de Medeiros, Ana Fidelina Gómez Garay, Jorge Alfonso Ruiz Diaz, Maria Celeste Vega Gómez, Carolina Bioni Garcia Teles, Leonardo de Azevedo Calderon
INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and malaria cause morbidity globally. The drugs currently used for treatment have limitations. Activity of cinnamic acid analogs against Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in the interest of identifying new antiprotozoal compounds. METHODS: In vitro effects of analogs against L. braziliensis, L. infantum chagasi, T. cruzi, and P. falciparum, and hemolytic and cytotoxic activities on NCTC 929 were determined...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Salomón Durand, Arnaldo Lachira-Alban, César Cabezas Sánchez
At the end of the 90s in Peru, after determining the resistance to antimalarial drugs, a change in antimalarial treatment schemes was decided; this change included the combined therapy for P. falciparum, mefloquine/artesunate in the Amazon region, and sulfadoxine pyrimethamine/artesunate in the North coast. After two decades, and aimed at assessing the impact of these schemes on the malaria endemic, a review was conducted of malaria reports in three departments accounting for more than 70% of cases reported in the country...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Catharine Prussing, Sara A Bickersmith, Marta Moreno, Marlon P Saavedra, Freddy Alava, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Dionicia Gamboa, Joseph M Vinetz, Jan E Conn
BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus dunhami, a member of the Nuneztovari Complex, has been collected in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru and described as zoophilic. Although to date Ny. dunhami has not been documented to be naturally infected by Plasmodium, it is frequently misidentified as other Oswaldoi subgroup species that are local or regional malaria vectors. OBJECTIVES The current study seeks to verify the morphological identification of Nuneztovari Complex species collected in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru, to determine their Plasmodium infection status, and to describe ecological characteristics of their larval habitats...
December 3, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Nonlawat Boonyalai, Christine R Collins, Fiona Hackett, Chrislaine Withers-Martinez, Michael J Blackman
The malaria parasite replicates within erythrocytes. The pathogenesis of clinical malaria is in large part due to the capacity of the parasite to remodel its host cell. To do this, intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum export more than 300 proteins that dramatically alter the morphology of the infected erythrocyte as well as its mechanical and adhesive properties. P. falciparum plasmepsin V (PfPMV) is an aspartic protease that processes proteins for export into the host erythrocyte and is thought to play a key role in parasite virulence and survival...
2018: PloS One
Lei Zhu, Jaishree Tripathi, Frances Maureen Rocamora, Olivo Miotto, Rob van der Pluijm, Till S Voss, Sachel Mok, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, François Nosten, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Zbynek Bozdech
The predisposition of parasites acquiring artemisinin resistance still remains unclear beyond the mutations in Pfk13 gene and modulation of the unfolded protein response pathway. To explore the chain of casualty underlying artemisinin resistance, we reanalyze 773 P. falciparum isolates from TRACI-study integrating TWAS, GWAS, and eQTL analyses. We find the majority of P. falciparum parasites are transcriptomically converged within each geographic site with two broader physiological profiles across the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Brittany A Riggle, Sanhita Sinharay, William Schreiber-Stainthorp, Jeeva P Munasinghe, Dragan Maric, Eva Prchalova, Barbara S Slusher, Jonathan D Powell, Louis H Miller, Susan K Pierce, Dima A Hammoud
The deadliest complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria (CM), with a case fatality rate of 15 to 25% in African children despite effective antimalarial chemotherapy. No adjunctive treatments are yet available for this devastating disease. We previously reported that the glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) rescued mice from experimental CM (ECM) when administered late in the infection, a time by which mice had already suffered blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, brain swelling, and hemorrhaging...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rosette Megnekou, Jean Claude Djontu, Benderli C Nana, Jude D Bigoga, Maurice Fotso, Balotin Fogang, Rose F G Leke
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequestering in placental tissue release Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and histidine-rich protein-II (HRP-II). These proteins can be detected in peripheral blood using monoclonal antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Nevertheless, studies to evaluate the reliability of RDTs in detecting placental malaria compared with microscopy of placental tissue impression smear (PTIS) as the gold standard are scarce. METHODS: Between August 2013 and January 2015, Giemsa-stained blood smears for peripheral blood smear (Pbs), placental intervillous space (IVS) blood smear and placental tissue impression smear (PTIS)] were prepared from HIV-negative women during delivery at the Marie Reine Medical Health Centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon...
December 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Pooja Bansil, Asnakew K Yeshiwondim, Caterina Guinovart, Belendia Serda, Callie Scott, Berhane H Tesfay, Adem Agmas, Belay Bezabih, Melkamu T Zeleke, Girma S Guesses, Asmamaw L Ayenew, Worku M Workie, Duncan Earle, Rick W Steketee, Asefaw Getachew
BACKGROUND: When malaria transmission is very low, investigation of passively detected malaria cases and reactive focal testing and treatment (FTAT) in the case and neighbouring households can identify and contain the source and spread of infections. METHODS: Case investigation with reactive FTAT for malaria was implemented in 10 villages in Amhara Region, Ethiopia during the 2014/2015 malaria transmission season. Intervention villages were purposively selected based on the incidence of passively detected Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections (P...
December 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Laura E Heller, Paul David Roepe
We use Plasmodium falciparum culture synchronization, optimized heme and hemozoin extraction protocols, and mass spectrometry to quantify the abundance of free ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX) heme and crystallized FPIX (hemozoin; Hz) for various growth stages of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum malarial parasites. Due to altered cell cycle kinetics for delayed clearance phenotype (DCP) parasites relative to control, we test whether FPIX and Hz abundances differ for DCP vs control parasites.
December 4, 2018: Biochemistry
Kokouvi Kassegne, Eniola Michael Abe, Yan-Bin Cui, Shen-Bo Chen, Bin Xu, Wang-Ping Deng, Hai-Mo Shen, Yue Wang, Jun-Hu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Plasmodium vivax and P. knowlesi account together for a considerable share of the global burden of malaria, along with P. falciparum. However, inaccurate diagnosis and undetectable asymptomatic/submicroscopic malaria infections remain very challenging. Blood-stage antigens involved in either invasion of red blood cells or sequestration/cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes have been immunomics-characterized, and are vital for the detection of malaria incidence. Areas covered: We review the recent advances in Plasmodium immunomics to discuss serological markers with potential for specific and sensitive diagnosis of malaria...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Laura E Heller, Eibhlin Goggins, Paul David Roepe
Previously (Heller L. and Roepe, P.D.; preceeding paper, this issue) we quantified free ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX) heme abundance for control vs delayed clearance phenotype (DCP) intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum malarial parasites. Since artemisinin drugs are activated by free FPIX, these data predict that the abundance of long - hypothesized toxic artemisinin drug - FPIX covalent adducts might differ for control vs DCP parasites. If so, this would have important repercussions for understanding the mechanism of the DCP, also known as emerging artemisinin resistance...
December 4, 2018: Biochemistry
Inam Ullah, Muhammad U Ali, Saeed Ali, Ahmad Rafiq, Zeeshan Sattar, Sana Hussain
Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease that, in severe cases, is associated with calamitous complications and far-reaching consequences within a community. It is usually manifested by abnormalities in various hematological indices with anemia and thrombocytopenia being the most frequent ones. The present study sheds light on the laboratory profile of patients suffering from malaria and provides a comprehensive analysis and correlation with the available literature worldwide. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study at OK Diagnostic Lab and Research Center in Peshawar from October 2010 to October 2013...
September 27, 2018: Curēus
António M Mendes, Isaie J Reuling, Carolina M Andrade, Thomas D Otto, Marta Machado, Filipa Teixeira, Joana Pissarra, Nataniel Gonçalves-Rosa, Dolores Bonaparte, João Sinfrónio, Mandy Sanders, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Chris I Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Cynthia K Lee, Yimin Wu, Christian F Ockenhouse, Robert W Sauerwein, Miguel Prudêncio
Whole-sporozoite vaccination/immunization induces high levels of protective immunity in both rodent models of malaria and in humans. Recently, we generated a transgenic line of the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei ( Pb ) that expresses the P. falciparum ( Pf ) circumsporozoite protein ( Pf CS), and showed that this parasite line ( Pb Vac) was capable of (1) infecting and developing in human hepatocytes but not in human erythrocytes, and (2) inducing neutralizing antibodies against the human Pf parasite. Here, we analyzed Pb Vac in detail and developed tools necessary for its use in clinical studies...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Samuel Eneọjọ Abah, Florence Burté, Sandrine Marquet, Biobele J Brown, Francis Akinkunmi, Gbeminiyi Oyinloye, Nathaniel K Afolabi, Samuel Omokhodion, Ikeoluwa Lagunju, Wuraola A Shokunbi, Mats Wahlgren, Hélia Dessein, Laurent Argiro, Alain J Dessein, Boris Noyvert, Lilian Hunt, Greg Elgar, Olugbemiro Sodeinde, Anthony A Holder, Delmiro Fernandez-Reyes
Severe Malarial Anemia (SMA), a life-threatening childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria syndrome requiring urgent blood transfusion, exhibits inflammatory and hemolytic pathology. Differentiating between hypo-haptoglobinemia due to hemolysis or that of genetic origin is key to understand SMA pathogenesis. We hypothesized that while malaria-induced hypo-haptoglobinemia should reverse at recovery, that of genetic etiology should not. We carried-out a case-control study of children living under hyper-endemic holoendemic malaria burden in the sub-Saharan metropolis of Ibadan, Nigeria...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Verner N Orish, Virtue F De-Gaulle, Adekunle O Sanyaolu
OBJECTIVE: Rapid diagnostic tests have been of tremendous help in malaria control in endemic areas, helping in diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. It is heavily relied upon in many endemic areas where microscopy cannot be obtained. However, caution should be taken in the interpretation of its result in clinical setting due to its limitations and inherent weakness. This paper seeks to present the varying malaria RDT test results, the possible interpretations and explanation of these results common in endemic regions...
December 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Sharmistha Ghoshal, Pragya Gajendra, Sumana Datta Kanjilal, Mitashree Mitra, Sanghamitra Sengupta
BACKGROUND: Despite its immunogenicity, the polymorphic nature of merozoite surface protein 1, an important vaccine candidate for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, remains a concern. This study analyses the impact of genetic variability and parasite population structure on epitope organization of different MSP1 segments. METHODS: Altogether 98 blood samples collected from P. falciparum infected mild and severe malaria patients of Chhattisgarh and West Bengal were used to sequence regions encoding block 2 and MSP1-19 of msp1...
December 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Annie Cowell, Elizabeth Winzeler
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agent of malaria infections, rapidly evolve drug resistance and escape detection by the human immune response via the incredible mutability of its genome. Understanding the genetic mechanisms by which Plasmodium parasites develop antimalarial resistance is essential to understanding why most drugs fail in the clinic and designing the next generation of therapies. A systematic genomic analysis of 262 Plasmodium falciparum clones with stable in vitro resistance to 37 diverse compounds with potent antimalarial activity was undertaken with the main goal of identifying new drug targets...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Aysun Çapcı Karagöz, Maria Leidenberger, Friedrich Hahn, Frank Hampel, Oliver Friedrich, Manfred Marschall, Barbara Kappes, Svetlana B Tsogoeva
Severe malaria and viral infections cause life-threatening diseases in millions of people worldwide every year. In search for effective bioactive hybrid molecules, which may possess improved properties compared to their parent compounds, a series of betulinic acid/betulin based dimer and hybrid compounds carrying ferrocene and/or artesunic acid moieties, was designed and, synthesized de novo. Furthermore, they were analyzed in vitro against malaria parasites (growth inhibition of 3D7-strain P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)...
November 14, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Victor Chaumeau, Ladda Kajeechiwa, Bénédicte Fustec, Jordi Landier, Saw Naw Nyo, Saw Nay Hsel, Phabele Phatharakokordbun, Prapan Kittiphanakun, Suphak Nosten, May Myo Thwin, Saw Win Tun, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Gilles Cottrell, Daniel M Parker, Myo Chit Minh, Nittpha Kwansomboon, Selma Metaane, Céline Montazeau, Kitti Kunjanwong, Sunisa Sawasdichai, Chiara Andolina, Clare Ling, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Peter Christiensen, Sunaree Wanyatip, Kamonchanok Konghahong, Dominique Cerqueira, Mallika Imwong, Arjen M Dondorp, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Nicholas J White, François H Nosten, Vincent Corbel
Background: The objective of mass antimalarial drug administration (MDA) is to eliminate malaria rapidly by eliminating the asymptomatic malaria parasite reservoirs and interrupting transmission. In the Greater Mekong Subregion, where artemisinin resistant P. falciparum is now widespread, MDA has been proposed as an elimination accelerator, but the contribution of asymptomatic infections to malaria transmission has been questioned. The impact of MDA on entomological indices has not been characterised previously...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Farah N Coutrier, Yusrifar K Tirta, Chris Cotter, Iska Zarlinda, Iveth J González, Alanna Schwartz, Cut Maneh, Jutta Marfurt, Maxwell Murphy, Herdiana Herdiana, Nicholas M Anstey, Bryan Greenhouse, Michelle S Hsiang, Rintis Noviyanti
The discovery of the life-threatening zoonotic infection Plasmodium knowlesi has added to the challenges of prompt and accurate malaria diagnosis and surveillance. In this study from Aceh Province, Indonesia, a malaria elimination setting where P. knowlesi endemicity was not previously known, we report the laboratory investigation and difficulties encountered when using molecular detection methods for quality assurance of microscopically identified clinical cases. From 2014 to 2015, 20 (49%) P. falciparum, 16 (39%) P...
November 30, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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